GColTE GCIH GColL
|18th President of Portugal|
9 March 1996 – 9 March 2006
|Prime Minister||António Guterres
José Manuel Barroso
Pedro Santana Lopes
|Preceded by||Mário Soares|
|Succeeded by||Aníbal Cavaco Silva|
|High-Representative for the Alliance of Civilizations|
1 April 2007 – 1 March 2013
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser|
|Mayor of Lisbon|
22 January 1990 – 15 November 1995
|Preceded by||Nuno Krus Abecassis|
|Succeeded by||João Soares|
|Secretary-General of the Socialist Party|
15 January 1989 – 23 February 1992
|President||João Ferraz de Abreu|
|Preceded by||Vítor Constâncio|
|Succeeded by||António Guterres|
|Born||Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio
18 September 1939
|Political party||Socialist Party|
|Spouse(s)||Maria José Rodrigues Ritta|
|Children||Vera Ritta de Sampaio
André Ritta de Sampaio
|Alma mater||University of Lisbon|
Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GColTE, GCIH, GColL (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʒɔɾʒ(ɨ) sɐ̃ˈpaju] ( listen)) (born 18 September 1939) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician who was the 18th President of Portugal from 1996 to 2006.
Early life and political career
Sampaio was born in Lisbon on 18 September 1939. The Sampaio family lived abroad in the United States and the United Kingdom for some years, due to the professional activity of his father Arnaldo de Sampaio (1908–1984), a medical doctor. His mother was Fernanda Bensaúde Branco (1908 – 15 February 2000). His maternal grandmother Sara Bensliman Bensaúde, who died in 1976, was a Sephardi Jew from Morocco of Portuguese origin, and his maternal grandfather Fernando Branco (1880–1940) was a naval officer of the Portuguese Navy and later the Foreign Minister of Portugal; Sampaio himself is agnostic, and does not consider himself a Jew. He started his political career as college student of the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon. Jorge Sampaio was involved in the student contestation against the fascist regime and was leader of the Lisbon students union between 1960 and 1961. Following his graduation in 1961, Jorge Sampaio started a notable career as a lawyer, often involved in the defence of many political prisoners.
He married firstly a medical doctor named Karin Schmidt Dias, daughter of António Jorge Dias (Porto, 31 July 1907 – Lisbon, 5 February 1973) and his German wife, Margot Schmidt. The couple had no issue and later divorced. He married secondly Maria José Rodrigues Ritta (b. Lisbon, 19 December 1941), daughter of José António Ritta and wife Maria José Rodrigues Xavier and sister of Maria Ermelinda and José António, by whom he had two children: Vera Ritta de Sampaio (b. 1977) and André Ritta de Sampaio (b. 1981).
After the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, Sampaio funded Movimento de Esquerda Socialista (MES) (Portuguese acronym for Socialist Left Movement) but abandoned the political project soon after. In 1978 he joined the Socialist Party, where he has been associated with the party's left wing. He was first elected to Parliament as a deputy for Lisbon in 1979. Between 1979 and 1984, he was a member of the European Commission for Human Rights, where he developed important work on these topics. Between 1986 and 1987 he was president of the parliamentary bench of the Socialist Party. In 1989, he was elected president of this political group, an office he held until 1991. Also in 1989, Jorge Sampaio was elected the 62nd Mayor of Lisbon, a charge he took in 1990, and was re-elected in 1993, remaining in office until 1995.
In 1995, Jorge Sampaio announced his wish to run for the presidency of the Republic. He won the election of 14 January 1996 in the first round against former Prime Minister Aníbal Cavaco Silva and became President on 9 March. After a non-controversial first mandate, he was re-elected as President on 14 January 2001.
As President, Sampaio's actions were focused on social and cultural affairs. In the international political scene, he oversaw the transfer of Macao's sovereignty to China in December 1999 and he also gave important publicity to the cause of East Timor's independence. In October 2003, he invited the presidents of Finland, Germany, as well as of soon-to-be EU members Hungary, Latvia and Poland to Arraiolos in order to discuss the consequences of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and plans for a Constitution for Europe. Such conventions of non-executive presidents of EU member states have become a regular event, and have been dubbed Arraiolos meetings.
It is generally considered that Sampaio's presidency were marked by a firm sense of prudence and moderation, an approach which earned him a remarkably uneventful first term in office. In 2004, however, his refusal to hold early elections following Social Democratic Prime Minister José Manuel Durão Barroso's resignation met with vigorous protest from all left-wing parties and even led to the stepping down of Socialist leader Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues. Sampaio made this decision to ensure political stability at a time when the country was facing economic recession, and he appointed Pedro Santana Lopes as Prime Minister. However, only four months afterwards, on 30 November, Sampaio concluded that the new cabinet was not achieving the desired stability, but quite the opposite, and he therefore dissolved the Parliament, calling new elections for February 2005.
On 24 February 2005, Sampaio called on José Sócrates, as the nation's next prime minister, to form a government.
As a former President, Sampaio is a Member of the Portuguese Council of State. He is also a member of the Club of Madrid, an independent non-profit organization composed of 81 democratic former presidents and Prime Ministers from 57 different countries.
Jorge Sampaio is also known for supporting bullfights. Although the Portuguese law does not allow bullfights ending with the death of the bull in the arena, Jorge Sampaio was able to promote an exception to this law for Barrancos in the Alentejo province.
1996 Portuguese presidential election
|Candidates||Supporting parties||First round|
|Jorge Sampaio||Socialist Party||3,035,056||53.91|
|Aníbal Cavaco Silva||Social Democratic Party, People's Party||2,595,131||46.09|
|Jerónimo de Sousa[A]||Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens"||left the race|
|Alberto Matos[B]||People's Democratic Union||left the race|
|Total (turnout 66.29%)||5,762,978|
|A B Both candidates left the race in favour of Jorge Sampaio.|
|Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições|
2001 Portuguese presidential election
|Candidates||Supporting parties||First round|
|Jorge Sampaio||Socialist Party||2,401,015||55.55|
|Ferreira do Amaral||Social Democratic Party, People's Party||1,498,948||34.68|
|António Simões de Abreu||Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens"||223,196||5.16|
|Fernando Rosas||Left Bloc||129,840||3.00|
|António Garcia Pereira||Workers' Communist Party||68,900||1.59|
|Total (turnout 49.71%)||4,449,800|
|Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições|
Sampaio is a member of the Club de Madrid, an organization of more than 80 former democratic statesmen. The group works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership worldwide by drawing on the experience of its members.
In May 2006, Sampaio was appointed by the United Nations Secretary-General as his first Special Envoy for the Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis. In April 2007, current UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon designated him as High Representative for the Alliance of Civilizations, a position he held till September 2012.
Honours and awards
In 2008, he was awarded the North-South Prize of the Council of Europe. In 2015, he was a recipient of the Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Prize, along with Dr. Helena Ndume, in recognition for his role in the struggle for the restoration of democracy in Portugal, the pro bono defence of political prisoners, and for raising awareness of tuberculosis as UN Secretary-General’s first Special Envoy to Stop Tuberculosis.
- Grand Master of the Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal)
- Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Estonia)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav ( Norway)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (United Kingdom)
- Order of the Three Stars (Latvia)
- Order of the White Eagle (Poland, 1997)
- Order of the White Double Cross, First Class (Slovakia, 2003)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great (Lithuania)
- Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (Belgium) (October 2005)
- Member of Honor of TUIST – Tuna Universitária do Instituto Superior Técnico
- See Portugal´s President: ´I am proud of my Jewish ancestry´, Michael Freund, retrieved from the Jerusalem Post of the 7th of November, 2003:
Jerusalem Post: I understand that you have Jewish ancestry in your family. What is your personal connection to the Jewish people? Do you consider yourself to be a Jew?.
Jorge Sampaio: My grandmother belonged to a Jewish family that came from Morocco in the beginning of the 19th century. She married a non-Jewish naval officer who later was Foreign Affairs minister. I am naturally very proud of this ancestry and of all those that I call my "favorite Jewish cousins," one of whom is the president of the Lisbon Jewish Community, as I am proud of the ancestry on my non-Jewish father's side. Personally, I am agnostic, and I do not consider myself a Jew; but I am proud, as I said, of my ancestors.
- Costa Lobo, Marina; Magalhães, Pedro C. (2001). "The Portuguese Socialists and the Third Way" (PDF). European Consortium for Political Research. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "Foreign Policy Events, 13–20 October 2003". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- The Club of Madrid is an independent non-profit organization composed of 81 democratic former presidents and Prime Ministers from 57 different countries. It constitutes the world's largest forum of former Heads of State and Government, who have come together to respond to a growing demand for support among leaders in democratic leadership, governance, crisis and post-crisis situations. All lines of work share the common goal of building functional and inclusive societies, where the leadership experience of our Members is most valuable.
- Club de Madrid. "Jorge Sampaio – Club de Madrid". Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "The Jury". Fondation Chirac. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Kutesa announces the winners of the United Nations Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Prize
- "United Nations News Centre". UN News Service Section. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Slovak republic website, State honours : 1st Class in 2003 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
- Lithuanian Presidency, Lithuanian Orders searching form
- Royal website photo
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jorge Sampaio.|
|Title jointly held||Member of the Assembly of the Republic
|Title jointly held|
|Member of the Assembly of the Republic
|Party political offices|
|Secretary-General of the Socialist Party
Nuno Krus Abecassis
|Mayor of Lisbon
|President of Portugal
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
|New title||High-Representative for the Alliance of Civilizations
Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser