|Native to||United States|
|Extinct||Last spoken in the 1940s by Marcelino Rivera, Isabella Gonzales, and Refugia Duran|
|ISO 639-3||None (
Kitanemuk was a Northern Uto-Aztecan language of the Serran branch. It was very closely related to Serrano, and may have been a dialect. It was spoken in the San Gabriel Mountains and foothill environs of Southern California. The last speakers lived some time in the 1940s, though the last fieldwork was carried out in 1937. J. P. Harrington took copious notes in the 1916 and 1917, however, which has allowed for a fairly detailed knowledge of the language.
The consonant phonemes of Kitanemuk, as reconstructed by Anderton (1988) based on Harrington's field notes, were (with some standard Americanist phonetic notation in 〈angle brackets〉:
|Affricate||/ts/ 〈c〉||/tʃ/ 〈č〉|
- Population of Native California
- Native American history of California
- Classification of Native Americans in California
- Anderton, Alice J. (1988). The Language of the Kitanemuks of California. PhD. diss., University of California, Los Angeles.
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Four Directions Institute: Kitanemuk
- Native Languages: Kitanemuk
- Kitanemuk language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
- Papers of John P. Harrington, Part 3, Southern California/Basin, OLAC Open Language Archive