Leaders of the Australian Labor Party

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There are Leaders of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) at the federal level as well as in each Australian state and territory. Australian Labor Party leaders are chosen from among the members of the respective parliamentary parties either by the members only or with an input from the ALP rank-and-file members.

Anthony AlbaneseBill ShortenKevin RuddJulia GillardKevin RuddKim BeazleyMark LathamSimon CreanKim BeazleyPaul KeatingBob HawkeBill HaydenGough WhitlamArthur CalwellH.V. EvattBen ChifleyJohn CurtinJames ScullinMatthew CharltonFrank TudorBilly HughesAndrew FisherChris Watson

Background[edit]

The federal Labor Caucus comprising the elected members of the Labor party in both Houses of the national Parliament is involved in the election of the federal parliamentary leaders from among its members. The leader has historically been a member of the House of Representatives. Caucus also has the power to dismiss a party leader in a process called a leadership spill. Until 2013, a spill vote could be called at any time and a simple majority of votes in Caucus was sufficient to remove a leader. Following the return of Kevin Rudd to the leadership of the ALP in 2013, he sought changes to the party's rules so that leadership spills would be more difficult to launch in future, including a requirement for 75% majority in Caucus for a leadership spill against a sitting Labor prime minister, or 60% against an opposition leader.[1] The changes also provided for equally weighted voting rights between Caucus and party rank and file members. These changes were adopted by Caucus in July 2013, which was not a change to the party's constitution[2] (and theoretically can be reverted by a simple majority in Caucus). At the October 2013 leadership spill Bill Shorten was the first leader elected under the new rules. Shorten received 55-43 votes in Caucus, which was sufficient to overcome his 40% support among party members.[3]

When the Labor Party is in government, the party leader becomes the Prime Minister and the deputy leader becomes the Deputy Prime Minister. If a Labor prime minister resigns or dies in office, the deputy leader becomes party leader and is sworn in as prime minister on an interim basis until a party successor is elected. This was the case upon the death in office of John Curtin on 5 July 1945. Frank Forde, the deputy party leader, was sworn in as interim prime minister until Ben Chifley was elected by Caucus as party leader on 13 July. If the leader is out of the country or is on leave, the deputy leader acts as party leader and prime minister, without being sworn into the office.

According to recent convention, the leader and deputy leader must be from different factions and from different states.[4] With one exception since 2001 (Rudd/Albanese in 2013), the leadership and deputy leadership have also been gender-balanced.

ALP federal parliamentary leaders[edit]

The federal Leaders of the Australian Labor Party have been as follows (acting leaders indicated in italics):

# Leader Term start Term end Time in office Prime Minister
1 ChrisWatsonBW crop.jpg Chris Watson 20 May 1901 30 October 1907 6 years, 163 days Yes (1904)
2 Andrew Fisher 1908.jpg Andrew Fisher 30 October 1907 27 October 1915 7 years, 362 days Yes (1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15)
3 Billy Hughes 1915.jpg Billy Hughes 27 October 1915 14 November 1916 1 year, 18 days Yes (1915–23)
4 Frank Tudor - Humphrey & Co.jpg Frank Tudor 14 November 1916 10 January 1922 5 years, 57 days No
5 Matthew Charlton 1925.jpg Matthew Charlton 16 January 1922 16 May 1922 111 days No
16 May 1922 29 March 1928 5 years, 318 days
6 Portrait of the Right Hon. J. H. Scullin.png James Scullin 26 April 1928 1 October 1935 7 years, 128 days Yes (1929–32)
7 JohnCurtin.jpg John Curtin 1 October 1935 5 July 1945 9 years, 277 days Yes (1941–45)
[5] Frank Forde 1945.jpg Frank Forde 6 July 1945 13 July 1945 7 days Yes (1945)
8 Benchifley.jpg Ben Chifley 13 July 1945 13 June 1951 5 years, 335 days Yes (1945–49)
9 Herbert V. Evatt.jpg H. V. Evatt 20 June 1951 9 February 1960 8 years, 241 days No
10 Arthur Calwell 1966.jpg Arthur Calwell 7 March 1960 8 February 1967 6 years, 338 days No
11 Gough Whitlam - ACF - crop.jpg Gough Whitlam 9 February 1967 22 December 1977 10 years, 316 days Yes (1972–75)
12 Bill Hayden on 29.5.1990.jpg Bill Hayden 22 December 1977 3 February 1983 5 years, 43 days No
13 Bob Hawke 1987 portrait crop.jpg Bob Hawke 3 February 1983 20 December 1991 8 years, 320 days Yes (1983–91)
14 Paul Keating 1985.jpg Paul Keating 20 December 1991 2 March 1996 4 years, 73 days Yes (1991–96)
15 Kim Beazley crop.jpg Kim Beazley 19 March 1996 22 November 2001 5 years, 248 days No
16 Simon Crean (1).jpg Simon Crean 22 November 2001 2 December 2003 2 years, 10 days No
17 Ac.marklatham.jpg Mark Latham 2 December 2003 18 January 2005 1 year, 47 days No
(15) Kim Beazley crop.jpg Kim Beazley 18 January 2005 4 December 2006 1 year, 320 days No
18 Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg Kevin Rudd 4 December 2006 24 June 2010 3 years, 202 days Yes (2007–10)
19 Julia Gillard 2010 crop.jpg Julia Gillard 24 June 2010 26 June 2013 3 years, 2 days Yes (2010–13)
(18) The Hon. Kevin Rudd.jpg Kevin Rudd 26 June 2013 13 September 2013 79 days Yes (2013)
Chris Bowen 2016.jpg Chris Bowen 18 September 2013 13 October 2013 25 days No
20 Bill Shorten-crop.jpg Bill Shorten 13 October 2013 30 May 2019 5 years, 229 days No
21 Anthony Albanese.jpg Anthony Albanese 30 May 2019 Incumbent 148 days No

ALP federal deputy parliamentary leaders[edit]

Shown in chronological order of leadership
# Deputy Leader Term start Term end Time in office Leader
1 Gregor McGregor1.jpg Gregor McGregor 20 May 1901 30 July 1914 13 years, 71 days Chris Watson
Andrew Fisher
2 BillyHughes.png Billy Hughes 18 September 1914 27 October 1915 1 year, 39 days
3 Sir George Pearce.jpg George Pearce 27 October 1915 14 November 1916 1 year, 18 days Billy Hughes
4 Albert Gardiner.jpg Albert Gardiner 14 November 1916 30 June 1926 9 years, 228 days Frank Tudor
Matthew Charlton
5 James Scullin October 1928-02.jpg James Scullin 17 March 1927 29 March 1928 1 year, 12 days
6 Arthur Blakeley.jpg Arthur Blakeley 26 April 1928 5 February 1929 285 days James Scullin
7 Ted Theodore 1931.jpg Ted Theodore 5 February 1929 19 December 1931 2 years, 317 days
8 Frank Forde.jpg Frank Forde 16 February 1932 28 September 1946 14 years, 224 days
John Curtin
Ben Chifley
9 Herbert V. Evatt.jpg H. V. Evatt 31 October 1946 20 June 1951 4 years, 232 days
10 ArthurCalwell.jpg Arthur Calwell 20 June 1951 7 March 1960 8 years, 261 days H. V. Evatt
11 Gough Whitlam 1962.jpg Gough Whitlam 7 March 1960 9 February 1967 6 years, 339 days Arthur Calwell
12 LanceBarnard1967.jpg Lance Barnard 9 February 1967 12 June 1974 7 years, 123 days Gough Whitlam
13 JimCairns1962.jpg Jim Cairns 12 June 1974 2 July 1975 1 year, 20 days
14 FrankCrean1967.jpg Frank Crean 2 July 1975 22 December 1975 173 days
15 TomUren1966.jpg Tom Uren 22 December 1975 22 December 1977 2 years, 0 days
16 Lionel Bowen.jpg Lionel Bowen 22 December 1977 4 April 1990 12 years, 103 days
Bill Hayden
Bob Hawke
17 Paul Keating 1985.jpg Paul Keating 4 April 1990 3 Jun 1991 1 year, 60 days
18 Second Keating Cabinet 1994 (cropped Howe).jpg Brian Howe 3 June 1991 20 June 1995 4 years, 17 days
Paul Keating
19 Kim Beazley crop.jpg Kim Beazley 20 June 1995 19 March 1996 273 days
20 GarethEvans-crop.JPG Gareth Evans 19 March 1996 19 October 1998 2 years, 214 days Kim Beazley
21 Simon Crean (1).jpg Simon Crean 19 October 1998 22 November 2001 3 years, 34 days
22 Jenny Macklin (cropped).jpg Jenny Macklin 22 November 2001 4 December 2006 5 years, 12 days Simon Crean
Mark Latham
Kim Beazley
23 Julia Gillard 2010 crop.jpg Julia Gillard 4 December 2006 24 June 2010 3 years, 202 days Kevin Rudd
24 Treasurer Wayne Swan, 2009, crop.jpg Wayne Swan 24 June 2010 27 June 2013 3 years, 3 days Julia Gillard
25 Anthony Albanese.jpg Anthony Albanese 27 June 2013 14 October 2013 109 days Kevin Rudd
26 Tanya-plibersek2015.jpg Tanya Plibersek 14 October 2013 30 May 2019 5 years, 228 days Bill Shorten
27 Richard Marles crop.jpg Richard Marles 30 May 2019 Incumbent 148 days Anthony Albanese

ALP Senate leaders[edit]

# Senate Leader Term start Term end Time in office Leader(s)
1 Gregor McGregor1.jpg Gregor McGregor 20 May 1901 30 July 1914 13 years, 71 days Watson
Fisher
2 Sir George Pearce.jpg George Pearce 17 September 1914 14 November 1916 2 years, 58 days Fisher
Hughes
3 Albert Gardiner.jpg Albert Gardiner 14 November 1916 30 June 1926 9 years, 228 days Tudor
Charlton
4 Edward Needham.jpg Ted Needham 9 July 1926 25 June 1929 2 years, 351 days Charlton
Scullin
5 John Joseph Daly.jpg John Daly 25 June 1929 3 March 1931 1 year, 251 days Scullin
6 John Barnes.jpg John Barnes 25 June 1929 30 June 1935 6 years, 5 days Scullin
7 Joseph Collings.jpg Joe Collings 30 June 1935 20 September 1943 8 years, 82 days Scullin
Curtin
8 Senator Richard Keane.jpg Richard Keane 20 September 1943 26 April 1946 2 years, 218 days Curtin
Chifley
9 William Patrick Ashley.jpg Bill Ashley 17 June 1946 11 June 1951 4 years, 359 days Chifley
10 SJCM Nick McKenna.jpg Nick McKenna 11 June 1951 17 Aug 1966 15 years, 67 days Chifley
Evatt
Calwell
11 Don Willesee (cropped).jpg Don Willesee 17 August 1966 8 February 1967 175 days Calwell
12 Lionel Murphy 1973 (cropped).jpg Lionel Murphy 8 February 1967 9 February 1975 8 years, 1 day Whitlam
13 Ken Wriedt 10 February 1975 25 September 1980 5 years, 228 days Whitlam
Hayden
14 John Button 7 November 1980 24 March 1993 12 years, 137 days Hayden
Hawke
Keating
15 GarethEvans-crop.JPG Gareth Evans 24 March 1993 6 February 1996 2 years, 319 days Keating
16 John Faulkner Jan 2010.jpg John Faulkner 19 March 1996 22 October 2004 8 years, 217 days Beazley
Crean
Latham
17 Chris Evans 22 October 2004 4 February 2013 8 years, 103 days Latham
Beazley
Rudd
Gillard
18 StephenConroy.jpg Stephen Conroy 4 February 2013 26 June 2013 142 days Gillard
19 Penny Wong May 2012.jpg Penny Wong 26 June 2013 Incumbent 6 years, 121 days Rudd
Shorten
Albanese

Past Labor premiers and chief ministers[edit]

Australian Capital Territory[edit]

New South Wales[edit]

Northern Territory[edit]

  • Clare Martin (2001–07, first Labor Chief Minister of the Northern Territory, first female Chief Minister of the Northern Territory)
  • Paul Henderson (2007–12)

Queensland[edit]

South Australia[edit]

Tasmania[edit]

Victoria[edit]

Western Australia[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-07-08/kevin-rudd-reveals-plan-for-labor-party-leadership-voting-reform/4806820
  2. ^ Kevin Rudd wins over party-p leadership-p rules
  3. ^ Harrison, Bill (13 October 2013). "Bill Shorten elected Labor leader". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  4. ^ "traditionally, the party balances its leader and deputy between factions and states." https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-05-20/tanya-plibersek-rules-out-running-for-labor-leadership/11130940
  5. ^ Prime Ministers of Australia: Frank Forde. National Museum of Australia. Retrieved 22 August 2018.