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List of cryptocurrencies

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Market capitalizations of cryptocurrencies as of January 27, 2018

After the creation of bitcoin, the number of cryptocurrencies available over the internet is growing.[1] This is a list of notable cryptocurrencies.

Active currencies

Release Currency Symbol Founder(s) Hash algorithm Programming language of implementation Consensus mechanism Notes
2009 Bitcoin BTC,[2] XBT, Satoshi Nakamoto[nt 1] SHA-256d[3][4] C++[5] PoW[4][6] The first and most widely used decentralized ledger currency,[7] with the highest market capitalization.[8]
2011 Litecoin LTC, Ł Charlie Lee Scrypt C++[9] PoW One of the first cryptocurrencies to use scrypt as a hashing algorithm.
Namecoin NMC Vincent Durham[10][11] SHA-256d C++[12] PoW Also acts as an alternative, decentralized DNS.
2012 Peercoin PPC Sunny King
(pseudonym)[citation needed]
SHA-256d[citation needed] C++[13] PoW & PoS The first cryptocurrency to use POW and POS functions.
2013 Dogecoin DOGE, XDG, Ð Jackson Palmer
& Billy Markus[14]
Scrypt[15] C++[16] PoW Based on the Doge internet meme.
Gridcoin GRC Rob Hälford[17] Scrypt C++[18] Decentralized PoS Linked to citizen science through the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing[19]
Primecoin XPM Sunny King
(pseudonym)[citation needed]
1CC/2CC/TWN[20] TypeScript, C++[21] PoW[20] Uses the finding of prime chains composed of Cunningham chains and bi-twin chains for proof-of-work.
Ripple[22][23] XRP Chris Larsen &
Jed McCaleb[24]
ECDSA[25] C++[26] "Consensus" Designed for peer to peer debt transfer. Not based on bitcoin.
Nxt NXT BCNext
SHA-256d[27] Java[28] PoS Specifically designed as a flexible platform to build applications and financial services around its protocol.
2014 Auroracoin AUR Baldur Odinsson
Scrypt C++[30] PoW Created as an alternative currency for Iceland, intended to replace the Icelandic króna.
Dash DASH Evan Duffield &
Kyle Hagan[citation needed]
X11 C++[31] PoW & Proof of Service[nt 2] A bitcoin-based currency featuring instant transactions, decentralized governance and budgeting, and private transactions.
NEO NEO Da Hongfei & Erik Zhang SHA-256 & RIPEMD160 C#[32] dBFT China based cryptocurrency, formerly ANT Shares and ANT Coins. The names were changed in 2017 to NEO and GAS.
MazaCoin MZC BTC Oyate Initiative SHA-256d C++[33] PoW The underlying software is derived from that of another cryptocurrency, ZetaCoin.
Monero XMR Monero Core Team RandomX C++[34] PoW Privacy-centric coin based on the CryptoNote protocol with improvements for scalability and decentralization.
Titcoin TIT Edward Mansfield & Richard Allen[35] SHA-256d TypeScript, C++[36] PoW The first cryptocurrency to be nominated for a major adult industry award.[37]
Verge XVG Sunerok Scrypt, x17, groestl, blake2s, and lyra2rev2 C, C++[38] PoW Features anonymous transactions using Tor.
Stellar XLM Jed McCaleb Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) [39] C, C++[40] Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) [39] Open-source, decentralized global financial network.
Vertcoin VTC David Muller[41] Lyra2RE[42] C++[43] PoW Aims to be ASIC resistant.
2015 Ethereum ETH, Ξ Vitalik Buterin[44] Ethash[45] C++, Go[46] PoW Supports Turing-complete smart contracts.
Ethereum Classic ETC EtcHash/Thanos[47] PoW An alternative version of Ethereum[48] whose blockchain does not include the DAO hard fork.[49] Supports Turing-complete smart contracts.
Nano Nano Colin LeMahieu Blake2 C++[citation needed] Open Representative Voting[50] Decentralized, feeless, open-source, peer-to-peer cryptocurrency. First to use a Block Lattice structure.
Tether USDT Jan Ludovicus van der Velde[51] Omnicore[52] PoW Tether claims to be backed by USD at a 1 to 1 ratio. The company has been unable to produce promised audits.[53]
2016 Firo FIRO Poramin Insom[54] Merkle tree Proof[55] C++[56] PoW The first financial system employing Zero-knowledge proof to protect users' privacy.[54] It conducted the world's first large-scale blockchain election for Thailand Democrat Party in 2018.[57]
Zcash ZEC Zooko Wilcox Equihash C++[58] PoW The first open, permissionless financial system employing zero-knowledge security.
2017 Bitcoin Cash BCH[59] SHA-256d PoW Hard fork from bitcoin, increased maximum block size from 1MB to 8MB (as of 2018, 32MB)
EOS.IO EOS Dan Larimer WebAssembly, Rust, C, C++[60] delegated PoS Feeless Smart contract platform for decentralized applications and decentralized autonomous corporations with a block time of 500 ms.[60]
Cardano ADA, ₳ Charles Hoskinson Ouroboros, PoS Algorithm[61] Haskell[62] PoS A proof-of-stake blockchain platform: developed through evidence-based methods and peer-reviewed research.[63][64][65]
TRON TRX Justin Sun
2021 BitClout CLOUT[66][better source needed] Go[67] PoW[66][68][better source needed] Also a social media platform, resembling Twitter.[69][70]

Inactive currencies

Release Currency Symbol Founder(s) Hash algorithm Programming language of implementation Cryptocurrency blockchain
(PoS, PoW, or other)
2014 Coinye KOI, COYE Scrypt PoW Used American hip hop artist Kanye West as its mascot, abandoned after he filed a trademark lawsuit.
2015 or before OneCoin Ruja Ignatova and Stephen Greenwood A Ponzi scheme promoted as a cryptocurrency.
2017 BitConnect BCC BitConnect was described as an open source, all-in-one bitcoin and crypto community platform but was later discovered to be a Ponzi scheme.
2018 KodakCoin Kodak and WENN Digital Ethash[71] KodakCoin is a "photographer-centric" blockchain cryptocurrency used for payments for licensing photographs.
Petro Venezuelan Government onixCoin[72] C++[73] Stated by Nicolás Maduro to be backed by Venezuela's reserves of oil. As of August 2018 it does not appear to function as a currency.[74]


  1. ^ It is not known whether the name "Satoshi Nakamoto" is real or a pseudonym, nor whether it represents one person or a group.
  2. ^ Via Masternodes containing 1000 DASH held as collateral for "Proof of Service". Through an automated voting mechanism, one Masternode is selected per block and receives 45% of mining rewards.

See also


  1. ^ Cryptocurrencies: A Brief Thematic Review. Economics of Networks Journal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Date accessed August 28, 2017.
  2. ^ Dixon, Lance (December 24, 2013). "Building Bitcoin use in South Florida and beyond". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  3. ^ Taylor, Michael Bedford (2013). "Bitcoin and the age of bespoke silicon" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Compilers, Architectures and Synthesis for Embedded Systems. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press. ISBN 978-1-4799-1400-5. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Steadman, Ian (May 7, 2013). "Wary of Bitcoin? A guide to some other crypto currencies". Wired UK. Condé Nast UK.
  5. ^ "Bitcoin on GitHub".
  6. ^ Hobson, Dominic (2013). "What is Bitcoin?". XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students. 20 (1). Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 40–44. doi:10.1145/2510124. ISSN 1528-4972.
  7. ^ Reynard, Cherry (May 25, 2018). "What are the top 10 cryptocurrencies?". The Telegraph. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  8. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (February 6, 2018). "Over $550 billion of value wiped off cryptocurrencies since their record high just under a month ago". CNBC. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  9. ^ "Litecoin on GitHub".
  10. ^ "vinced/namecoin: Vince's tree – see namecoin/namecoin for main integration tree". GitHub. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  11. ^ Keller, Levin (March 19, 2011). "Namecoin – a distributed name system based on Bitcoin". Prezi.
  12. ^ "Namecoin on GitHub". Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  13. ^ "Peercoin on GitHub".
  14. ^ A History of Dogecoin. Dogecoin Analysis Report. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed December 28, 2017.
  15. ^ "Intro – Dogecoin # Technical specifications". Dogeco.in. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  16. ^ "Dog E Coin on GitHub".
  17. ^ S. S. Tyagi, Shaveta Bhatia (2021) Blockchain for Business, John Wiley, p352.
  18. ^ "GridCoin on GitHub".
  19. ^ Halford, Rob. "Gridcoin: Crypto-Currency using Berkeley Open Infrastructure Network Computing Grid as a Proof Of Work" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  20. ^ a b "FAQ · primecoin/primecoin Wiki · GitHub". Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  21. ^ "Primecoin on GitHub".
  22. ^ Chayka, Kyle (July 2, 2013). "What Comes After Bitcoin?". Pacific Standard. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  23. ^ Vega, Danny (December 4, 2013). "Ripple's Big Move: Mining Crypto currency with a Purpose". Seattlepi.com. Hearst Seattle Media, LLC, a division of The Hearst Corporation.
  24. ^ Simonite, Tom (April 11, 2013). "Big-name investors back effort to build a better Bitcoin". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  25. ^ "How it works – Ripple Wiki". Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  26. ^ "Rippled on GitHub".
  27. ^ "NXT Whitepaper". NxtWiki – Whitepaper. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  28. ^ "NXT on Bitbucket".
  29. ^ Casey, Michael J. (March 5, 2014). "Auroracoin already third-biggest cryptocoin–and it's not even out yet". The Wall Street Journal.
  30. ^ "Auroracoin on GitHub".
  31. ^ "Dash on GitHub".
  32. ^ "NEO on GitHub".
  33. ^ "MazaCoin on GitHub".
  34. ^ "Monero on GitHub".
  35. ^ Mercier Voyer, Stephanie. "Titcoin Is a Brand New Cryptocurrency for Porn Purchases". Vice Magazine. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  36. ^ "Titcoin on GitHub".
  37. ^ "Titcoin Receives Two Web & Tech XBIZ Nominations". Payout Magazine. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  38. ^ "Verge on GitHub".
  39. ^ a b "Stellar.org White Papers" (PDF). Stellar.org.
  40. ^ "Stellar on GitHub".
  41. ^ Charlton, Alistair (February 5, 2014). "Vertcoin: The Soaring Cryptocurrency Set to Surpass Bitcoin". International Business Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  42. ^ "Lyra2RE – A new PoW algorithm for an ASIC-free future" (PDF). November 29, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 25, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ "Vertcoin on GitHub".
  44. ^ "Out in the Open: Teenage Hacker Transforms Web Into One Giant Bitcoin Network". Wired.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  45. ^ "Ethash". Github.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  46. ^ "Ethereum on GitHub".
  47. ^ "Ethereum Classic Labs Announces Network Upgrade, Thanos Hard Fork". prweb.com. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
  48. ^ "README/README.md at master". Github.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  49. ^ Adinolfi, Joseph. "Exclusive: Grayscale launches digital-currency fund backed by Silver Lake's co-founder Hutchins". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  50. ^ Md Sadek Ferdous; Mohammad Jabed Morshed Chowdhury; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Colman, Alan (January 20, 2020), Blockchain Consensuses Algorithms: A Survey, arXiv:2001.07091, Bibcode:2020arXiv200107091S
  51. ^ "Mystery Shrouds Tether". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  52. ^ "Tether White Paper" (PDF). Tether. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  53. ^ Leising, Matthew (June 20, 2018). "Tether Hired Former FBI Director's Law Firm to Vet Finances". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  54. ^ a b Ezra Kryill, Erker (April 4, 2019). "Cyberwarfare to cryptocurrency". Elite Plus Magazine. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  55. ^ "Zcoin Moves Against ASIC Monopoly With Merkle Tree Proof". Finance Magnates. December 6, 2018. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  56. ^ "Firo". Github. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  57. ^ Jintana, Panyaarvudh; Kas, Chanwanpen. "Reliable voting TECHNOLOGY". The Nation (Thailand). Archived from the original on December 3, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  58. ^ "Zcash on GitHub".
  59. ^ "Bitcoin Cash Markets and Dillema". CryptoCoinCharts. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  60. ^ a b "Documentation: EOS.IO Documents". February 10, 2018 – via GitHub.
  61. ^ Aggelos Kiayias; Alexander Russell; Bernardo David; Roman Oliynykov (2019). Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol (PDF) (Technical report). Springer. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  62. ^ "Cardano-Node on GitHub".
  63. ^ Aggelos Kiayias; Saad Quader; Alexander Russell (2020). Consistency of Proof-of-Stake Blockchains with Concurrent Honest Slot Leaders (PDF) (Technical report). IACR. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  64. ^ Aggelos Kiayias; Alexander Russell (2018). Ouroboros-BFT:A Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerant Consensus Protocol (PDF) (Technical report). IACR. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  65. ^ Erica Blum; Aggelos Kiayias; Cristopher Moore; Saad Quader; Alexander Russel (2019). The combinatorics of the longest-chain rule: Linear consistency for proof-of-stake blockchains (PDF) (Technical report). IACR. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  66. ^ a b "FAQ - The BitClout Guide". docs.bitclout.com. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  67. ^ bitclout/core, bitclout, July 2, 2021, retrieved July 2, 2021
  68. ^ Dale, Brady. "What Is BitClout? The Social Media Experiment Sparking Controversy on Twitter". www.nasdaq.com. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  69. ^ "Crypto social network BitClout arrives with a bevy of high-profile investors — and skeptics". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  70. ^ Lester, Caroline (June 9, 2021). "The Dark, Democratizing Power of the Social-Media Stock Market". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  71. ^ Ray, Tiernan (January 9, 2018). "Kodak CEO: Blockchain Significant, Though Not a Doubling in Stock Price". Barrons. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  72. ^ "Onix's white paper" (PDF). www.onixcoin.com. January 13, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  73. ^ "OnixCoin on GitHub".
  74. ^ Ellsworth, Brian (August 30, 2018). "Special Report: In Venezuela, new cryptocurrency is nowhere to be found". Reuters. Retrieved August 30, 2018. The coin is not sold on any major cryptocurrency exchange. No shops are known to accept it.