List of artifacts in biblical archaeology

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The following is a list of artifacts—objects created or modified by human culture—that are significant to biblical archaeology.

Selected artifacts significant to biblical chronology[edit]

The table lists artifacts which are of particular significance to the study of biblical chronology. The table lists the following information about each artifact:

In English
Current location
Museum or site
Date and location of discovery
Proposed date of creation of artifact
Script used in inscription (if any)
Reason for significance to biblical archeology
ANET[1] and COS[2] references, and link to editio princeps (EP), if known
Name Image Current location Discovered Date Writing Significance Refs
Autobiography of Weni Autobiography of Weni, from Abydos, now at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.png Cairo Museum 1880, Abydos c.2280 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaigns in Sinai and the Levant. ANET 227–228
Sebek-khu Stele Sebek-khu Stele.png Manchester Museum 1901, Abydos c.1860 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaign in Retjenu, including Sekmem (s-k-m-m, thought to be Shechem). ANET 230
Statue of Idrimi Idrimi of Alalakh.jpg British Museum 1939, Alalakh c.1500 BC Akkadian cuneiform Records the earliest certain cuneiform reference to Canaan ANET 557
Merneptah Stele Merenptah Israel Stele Cairo.jpg Cairo Museum 1896, Thebes c. 1209 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs While alternative translations have been put forward, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs on Line 27 as "Israel", such that it represents the first documented instance of the name Israel in the historical record, and the only record in Ancient Egypt. COS 2.6 / ANET 376–378 / EP[3]
Bubastite Portal Bubastis portal at Karnak.jpg Original location 1828, Karnak c. 925 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the conquests and military campaigns in c.925 BC of Shoshenq I, of the Twenty-second Dynasty, identified with the biblical Shishaq. Towns identified include Rafah (rph), Megiddo (mkdi) and Ajalon (iywrn) ANET 242–243
Mesha Stele Mesha stele.jpg Louvre 1868, Dhiban, Jordan c.850 BC Moabite language Describes the victories of Moabite king Mesha over the House of Omri (kingdom of Israel). It bears the earliest certain extra-biblical reference to the Israelite god Yahweh, and—if French scholar André Lemaire's reconstruction of a portion of line 31 is correct—the earliest mention of the "House of David" (i.e., the kingdom of Judah). One of the only two known artifacts containing the "Moabite" dialect of Canaanite languages (the second is the El-Kerak Inscription) COS 2.23 / ANET 320–321
Kurkh Monoliths Karkar.jpg British Museum 1861, Üçtepe, Bismil c.850 BC Assyrian cuneiform The Shalmaneser III monolith contains a description of the Battle of Qarqar at the end. This description contains the name "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" which is generally accepted to be a reference to Ahab king of Israel,[4][5] although it is the only known reference to the term "Israel" in Assyrian and Babylonian records, a fact brought up by some scholars who dispute the proposed translation.
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III Black-obelisk.jpg British Museum 1846, Nimrud c.825 BC Assyrian cuneiform Contains what is thought to be the earliest known picture of a biblical figure: possibly Jehu son Omri (mIa-ú-a mar mHu-um-ri-i), or Jehu's ambassador, kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III. COS 2.113F / ANET 278–281
Saba'a Stele Sabaa Stele.jpg Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1905, Saba'a c.800 BC Assyrian cuneiform Records Adad-nirari III's Assyrian campaign to Pa-la-áš-tu (Philistia) COS 2.114E / ANET 282 / EP[6]
Tel Dan Stele Samuel and Saidye Bronfman Archaeology WingDSCN5105.JPG Israel Museum 1993, Tel Dan c.800 BC Old Aramaic Significant as an extra-biblical corroboration of Israel's past, particularly in lines 8 and 9, which mention a "king of Israel" and a "house of David". The latter is generally understood by scholars to refer to the ruling dynasty of Judah. Although the meaning of this phrase has been disputed by a small minority of scholars,[7] today it is generally accepted as a reference to the Davidic dynasty.[8][9][10][11]
Nimrud Slab Nimrud Slab (Calah Slab) Inscription.png Unknown 1854, Nimrud c.800 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Adad-nirari III's early Assyrian conquests in Palastu (Phillistia), Tyre, Sidon, Edom and Humri (the latter understood as the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)). COS 2.114G[12]
Nimrud Tablet K.3751 Nimrud Tablet K 3751.png British Museum c.1850, Nimrud c.733 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Tiglath-Pileser III's (745 to 727 BC) campaigns to the region, including the first known archeological reference to Judah (Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a). COS 2.117 / ANET 282–284
Sargon II's Prism A N.A. British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.710 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Sargon II's (722 to 705 BC) campaigns to Palastu, Judah, Edom and Moab. COS 2.118i / ANET 287
Siloam inscription Hashiloach.jpg Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1880, Siloam tunnel c.701 BC Paleo-Hebrew) Records the construction of Siloam tunnel COS 2.28 / ANET 321
Lachish relief Lachish inscription.jpeg British Museum 1845, Nineveh c.700 BC Assyrian cuneiform Portion of the Sennacherib relief, which depicts captives from Judah being led into captivity after the Siege of Lachish in 701 BC COS 2.119C / EP[13]
LMLK seals Lmlk-seal impression-h2d-gg22 2003-02-21.jpg Various 1870 onwards c.700 BC Phoenician alphabet (also known as Paleo-Hebrew) c.2,000 stamp impressions, translated as "belonging to the King" COS 2.77 / EP[14]
Azekah Inscription K6205 Rawlinson and Smith Azekah Inscription.jpg British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.700 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes an Assyrian campaign by Sennacherib against Hezekiah, King of Judah, including the conquest of Azekah. COS 2.119D
Sennacherib's Annals Taylor Prism-1.jpg British Museum, Oriental Institute of Chicago, and the Israel Museum 1830, likely Nineveh, unprovenanced c.690 BC Assyrian cuneiform Describes the Assyrian king Sennacherib's siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC during the reign of king Hezekiah. COS 2.119B / ANET 287–288
Esarhaddon's Treaty with Ba'al of Tyre Treaty of Esarhaddon with Baal of Tyre (K 3500 + K 4444 + K 10235).png British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.675 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes a treaty between Esarhaddon (reigned 681 to 669 BC) and Ba'al of Tyre with respect to pi-lis-te COS 2.120 / ANET 533
Ekron inscription Ekron inscription.jpg Israel Museum 1996, Ekron c.650 BC Phoenician alphabet The first known inscription from the area ascribed to Philistines COS 2.42
Cylinders of Nabonidus Nabonidus cylinder sippar bm1.jpg British Museum and Pergamon Museum 1854, Ur c.550 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Belshazzar (Balthazar) as Nabonidus' eldest son COS 2.123A
Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle (Photo Gallery)[15] British Museum 1896 (acquired), unprovenanced c.550 – 400 BC [16] Akkadian cuneiform Describes Nebuchadnezzar's first siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC, the Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC) COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307
Cylinder of Cyrus Cyrus Cylinder.jpg British Museum 1879, Babylon c.530 BC Akkadian cuneiform King Cyrus's treatment of religion, which is significant to the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah. COS 2.124 / ANET 315–316
Nabonidus Chronicle Nabonidus chronicle.jpg British Museum 1879 (acquired), Sippar, unprovenanced 4th –1st century BC[17] Akkadian cuneiform Describes the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307 / EP[18]
Temple Warning inscription Jerusalem Temple Warning Inscription.jpg Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1871, Jerusalem c.23 BC – 70 AD Greek Believed to be an inscription from Herod's Temple, warning foreigners ("allogenē") to refrain from entering the Temple enclosure
Trumpeting Place inscription To the trumpeting place.jpg Israel Museum 1968, Jerusalem c.1st century AD Hebrew[19] Believed to be a directional sign for the priests who blew a trumpet, consistent with an account in Josephus
Arch of Titus Arch of Titus Menorah.png Original location n.a., Rome c.82 AD Latin Relief showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 AD. Depicted are the menorah and trumpets, as well as what might be the Table of Showbread.

Other significant artifacts[edit]

2000 BC[edit]

1500 BC[edit]

  • Ipuwer Papyrus – poem describing Egypt as afflicted by natural disasters and in a state of chaos. The document is dated to around 1250 BC[24] but the content is thought to be earlier, dated back to the Middle Kingdom, though no earlier than the late Twelfth Dynasty.[25] Once thought to describe the biblical Exodus, it is now considered the world's earliest known treatise on political ethics, suggesting that a good king is one who controls unjust officials, thus carrying out the will of the gods.[26]

14th century BC[edit]

Berlin pedestal (relief 21687)
  • Berlin pedestal relief – considered by many modern scholars to contain the earliest historic reference to ancient Israel.[27][28] Experts remain divided on this hypothesis.[29]

10th century BC[edit]

  • Early Paleo-Hebrew writing – contenders for the earliest Hebrew inscriptions include the Gezer calendar, Biblical period ostraca at Elah and Izbet Sartah,[30] and the Zayit Stone
  • Pim weight – evidence of the use of an ancient source for the Book of Samuel due to the use of an archaic term.
  • Khirbet Qeiyafa pottery sherd – 10th century BC inscription – both the language it is written in and the translation are disputed. Was discovered in excavations near Israel's Elah valley.[31]
  • Tell es-Safi Potsherd (10th to mid 9th centuries BC) – Potsherd inscribed with the two names "alwt" and "wlt", etymologically related to the name Goliath and demonstrate that the name fits with the context of late-tenth/early-ninth-century BC Philistine culture. Found at Tell es-Safi, the traditional identification of Gath.
  • Khirbet Qeiyafa shrines – cultic objects seen as evidence of a "cult in Judah at time of King David" and with features (triglyphs and recessed doors) which may resemble features in descriptions of the Temple of Solomon.[32]
  • Ophel inscription is a 3,000-year-old inscribed fragment of a ceramic jar found near Jerusalem's Temple Mount by archeologist Eilat Mazar. It is the earliest alphabetical inscription found in Jerusalem written in what was probably Proto-Canaanite script.[33] Some scholars believe it to be an inscription of the type of wine that was held in a jar.[34]

9th century BC[edit]

8th century BC[edit]

  • Kuntillet Ajrud inscriptions – (9th–8th century BC) inscriptions in Phoenician script including references to Yahweh
  • Sefire stele (8th century BC) – described as "the best extrabiblical source for West Semitic traditions of covenantal blessings and curses".[37]
  • Stele of Zakkur (8th century BC) – Mentions Hazael king of Aram.
  • Tell al-Rimah stela (c. 780 BC) – tells of the exploits of Adad-nirari III, mentioning "Joash King of Samaria"[38]
  • Shebna's lintel inscription (8th–7th century BC?) – found over the lintel or doorway of a tomb, has been ascribed to Hezekiah's comptroller Shebna.
  • King Ahaz's Seal (732 to 716 BC) – Ahaz was a king of Judah but "did not do what was right in the sight of the Lord his God, as his ancestor David had done" (2 Kings 16:2; 2 Chronicles 28:1). He worshiped idols and followed pagan practices. "He even made his son pass through fire, according to the abominable practices of the nations" (2 Kings 16:3). Ahaz was the son and successor of Jotham.
  • Bullae (c. 715–687 BC or 716–687 BC)[39] (clay roundels impressed with a personal seal identifying the owner of an object, the author of a document, etc.) are, like ostraka, relatively common, both in digs and on the antiquities market. The identification of individuals named in bullae with equivalent names from the Bible is difficult, but identifications have been made with king Hezekiah[40] and his servants (????? avadim in Hebrew).
  • Annals of Tiglath-Pileser III (740–730 BC):
    • Layard 45b+ III R 9,1 possibly refers to [KUR sa-me-ri-i-na-a-a] as ["land of Samaria"][41]
    • The Iran Stela refers to KUR sa-m[e]-ri-i-na-a-[a] "land of Samaria"[41]
    • Layard 50a + 50b + 67a refers to URU sa-me-ri-na-a-a "city of Samaria"[41]
    • Layard 66 refers to URU Sa-me-ri-na "city of Samaria"[41]
    • III R 9.3 50, refers to "Menahem the Samarian"[38][42]
    • Nimrud Tablet III R 10.2 28–29, refers to the overthrown of Pekah by Hoshea.[38][42]
    • one fragment refers to "Azriau" and another it has been joined to refers to "Yaudi". Some scholars have interpreted this as Ahaziah / Uzziah, although this is disputed and has not gained scholarly consensus.[43][44][45][46]
    • III R 10,2 refers to KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"[41]
    • ND 4301 + 4305 refers to KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"[41]
  • Babylonian Chronicle ABC1 (725 BC) – Shalmaneser V refers to URU Sa-ma/ba-ra-'-in "city of Samar(i)a"[41]
  • Annals of Sargon II (720 BC):
    • Nimrud Prism, Great Summary Inscription refers to URU Sa-me-ri-na "city of Samerina"[41]
    • Palace Door, Small Summary Inscription, Cylinder Inscription, Bull Inscription refers to KUR Bit-Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"[41]

7th century BC[edit]

6th century BC[edit]

Ketef Hinnom Priestly Blessing

5th century BC[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

1st century BC[edit]

  • Western Wall (c. 19 BC) – an important Jewish religious site located in the Old City of Jerusalem. Just over half the wall, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, being constructed around 19 BC by Herod the Great. The remaining layers were added from the 7th century onwards.

1st century AD[edit]


Forgery or claimed forgery[edit]

  • Shapira collection – other biblical artifacts in the possession and allegedly forged by Moses Shapira.[64][65] The discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls in 1947, in approximately the same area he claimed his material was discovered, has cast some doubt on the original forgery charges.[64][65]
  • Stone Seal of Manasseh – Stone seal of Manasseh, King of Judah c.687–642 BC. Reportedly offered to a private collector for one million dollars.[66]

Significant museums[edit]

External lists[edit]

  • ANET: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969
  • COS: The Context of Scripture. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger. Leiden: Brill, 1997-2002
  • RANE: Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Baker Academic. September 2002. ISBN 978-0801022920.
  • Indices to ANET and COS: [1] and [2]
  • Dr. Ralph W. Klein's tables of artifacts - 10 pages of tables sorted by era
  • Extra-biblical sources for Hebrew and Jewish history (1913)
  • Bible History Daily The Biblical Archaeology Society website, publishers of Biblical Archaeology Review

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ANET: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969
  2. ^ COS: The Context of Scripture. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger. Leiden: Brill, 1997–2002
  3. ^ Petrie, WM Flinders; Spiegelberg, Wilhelm (1897), Six temples at Thebes, 1896, London: Quaritch, archived from the original on 3 April 2016, retrieved 29 May 2016
  4. ^ The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship edited by Frederick E. Greenspahn, NYU Press, 2008 p. 11
  5. ^ Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives By Jonathan Michael Golden, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 275
  6. ^ Unger, Eckhard; Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri (1 January 1916). "Reliefstele Adadniraris 3 aus Saba'a und Semiramis". Konstantinopel Druck von Ahmed Ihsan. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ Rainey 1994, p. 47.
  8. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (28 April 2007). Ahab Agonistes: The Rise and Fall of the Omri Dynasty. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9780567251718. "The Tel Dan inscription generated a good deal of debate and a flurry of articles when it first appeared, but it is now widely regarded (a) as genuine and (b) as referring to the Davidic dynasty and the Aramaic kingdom of Damascus."
  9. ^ Cline, Eric H. (28 September 2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199711628. Today, after much further discussion in academic journals, it is accepted by most archaeologists that the inscription is not only genuine but that the reference is indeed to the House of David, thus representing the first allusion found anywhere outside the Bible to the biblical David.
  10. ^ Mykytiuk, Lawrence J. (1 January 2004). Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit. ISBN 9781589830622. Some unfounded accusations of forgery have had little or no effect on the scholarly acceptance of this inscription as genuine.
  11. ^ Biran, Avraham; Naveh, Joseph (1993). "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan". Israel Exploration Journal. Israel Exploration Society. 43 (2–3): 81–98. JSTOR 27926300.
  12. ^ The Philistines in Transition: A History from Ca. 1000–730 B.C.E. By Carl S. Ehrlich P:171
  13. ^ "Discoveries among the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon;". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  14. ^ Warren, Charles (1870). "Phoenician inscription on jar handles". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 2 (30 September): 372.
  15. ^ "Photos of the Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle. Clay tablet; New Babylonian. Chronicle for years 605-594 BC. © Trustees of the British Museum". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  16. ^ "Babylonian Chronicle Tablet (The British Museum, #21946)". Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  17. ^ Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible: Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums Archived 26 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, p. 228. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0-8028-2881-7
  18. ^ Sidney Smith, 1924
  19. ^ Aderet, Ofer (9 March 2017). "The Writing on the Wall, Tablet and Floor". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  20. ^ Charles F. Horne (1915). "The Code of Hammurabi: Introduction". Yale University. Archived from the original on 8 September 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
  21. ^ "Code of Nesilim". Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  22. ^ van Heel, Koenraad Donker (2014). Mrs. Tsenhor. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-977-416-634-1.
  23. ^ "Brooklyn Museum". Brooklyn Museum.
  24. ^ Quirke 2014, p. 167.
  25. ^ Willems 2010, p. 83.
  26. ^ Gabriel 2002, p. 23.
  27. ^ Veen, Pieter van der; Zwickel, Wolfgang (23 January 2017). "The Earliest Reference to Israel and Its Possible Archaeological and Historical Background". Vetus Testamentum. 67 (1): 129–140. doi:10.1163/15685330-12341266.
  28. ^ Theis, Christoffer (2003). "Israel in Canaan. (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A fresh look at Berlin statue pedestal relief 21687". Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 2 (2010), pp. 15–25. doi:10.2458/azu_jaei_v02i4_van_der_veen.
  29. ^ Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, Second By K. L. Noll, P:138
  30. ^ "What's the Oldest Hebrew Inscription? A Reply to Christopher Rollston". Biblical Archaeology Society. 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  31. ^ "Archaeology: What an Ancient Hebrew Note Might Mean". Christianity Today. 18 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  32. ^ "Archaeologist finds first evidence of cult in Judah at time of King David". Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  33. ^ Nir Hasson, "Israeli archaeologists dig up artifact from time of Kings David and Solomon", Archived 8 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Haaretz, 15 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Decoded: Jerusalem's oldest Hebrew engraving refers to lousy wine". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  35. ^ Hoftijzer, J. & van der Kooij, G. (1976) "Aramaic Texts from Deir 'Alla", in: Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui 19. Leiden: Brill
  36. ^ Stern, Philip. Balaam in scripture and in inscription. Midstream (2002), (accessed 27 February 2009).
  37. ^ Kaufman, S. A. Anchor Bible Dictionary. pp. 173–178.
  38. ^ a b c Text and History: Historiography and the Study of the Biblical Text Archived 28 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, page 168
  39. ^ See William F. Albright for the former and for the latter Edwin R. Thiele's, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) 217. But Gershon Galil dates his reign to 697–642 BC.
  40. ^ Grena (2004), p. 26, Figs. 9 and 10
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kelle, Brad (2002), "What's in a Name? Neo-Assyrian Designations for the Northern Kingdom and Their Implications for Israelite History and Biblical Interpretation", Journal of Biblical Literature, 121 (4): 639–666, doi:10.2307/3268575, JSTOR 3268575
  42. ^ a b Kalimi, Isaac (2005). The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles. Eisenbrauns. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-57506-058-3. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  43. ^ Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (19 November 2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802837110. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Google Books.
  44. ^ Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1 January 2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802849601. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Quote: "For a defense of the idea that Azariah of Judah headed up an anti-Assyrian coalition, see Tadmor, 'Azarijau of Yaudi' Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961): 232–271. However, Israelite and Judaean History, Old Testament Library. Edited by John H. Hayes and J. Maxwell Miller. London: SCM Press, 1977 says, 'Recently, Na'aman [Nadav Na'aman. "Sennacherib's 'Letter to God' on His Campaign to Judah", BASOR CCXIV (1974) 25–39] has shown conclusively that the fragment presumably mentioning Azriau king of Yaudi actually belongs to the time of Sennacherib and refers not to Azariah but to Hezekiah. In Tiglath-Pileser's annals there are two references to an Azariah (in line 123 as Az-ri-a-[u] and in line 131 as Az-r-ja-a-í) but neither of these make any reference to his country. Thus the Azriau of Tiglath-pileser's annals and Azariah of the Bible should be regarded as two different individuals. Azriau's country cannot, at the present, be determined.' Na'aman separates the country (Yaudi) from the name Azriau (p. 36). Also p. 28 on line 5 where the original transcription was '[I]zri-ja-u mat Ja-u-di' he reads 'ina birit misrija u mat Jaudi'. However, Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (OROT), p. 18, is less dogmatic. He says 'Hence we cannot certainly assert that this Azriau (without a named territory!) is Azariah of Judah; the matter remains open and undecided for the present and probably unlikely.' See Also CAH, 3:35–36."
  46. ^ In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in Biblical Origins. Philip R. Davies, p. 63: "The reference to az-ri-a-u (? ANET ia-u-ha-zi) (mat)ia-u-da-a is seen by a minority of scholars (see e.g. ANET) as a reference to Azariah of Judah; the majority, however, identify the state in question as Y’di, mentioned in the Zinjirli inscription and located in northern Syria."
  47. ^ Shoham, Yair. "Hebrew Bullae" in City of David Excavations: Final Report VI, Qedem 41 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2000), 33
  48. ^ Kantrowitz, Jonathan (3 January 2012). "Archaeology News Report: Seals of Jeremiah's Captors Discovered!". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  49. ^ "Site History". Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  50. ^ "The First Extra-Biblical Reference to the Sabbath, c. 630 BC". Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
  51. ^ "Mezad Hashavyahu Ostracon, c. 630 BC". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  52. ^ Verzeichnis der in der Formerei der Königl. Museen käuflichen Gipsabgüsse (1902) Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine page 20
  53. ^ "Solving a Riddle Written in Silver". The New York Times. 28 September 2004. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  54. ^ "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context", Gabriel Barkay et al., Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 66, No. 4 (December 2003), pp. 162–171 (at JSTOR) Archived 16 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ "Biblical Artifact Proven to Be Real". Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  56. ^ Thomas, D. Winton (1958) Documents from Old Testament Times; 1961 ed. Edinburgh and London: Thomas Nelson and Sons; p. 84.
  57. ^ "Lachish letters". 10 January 1938. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  58. ^ T. C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 397. ISBN 978-0521227179.
  59. ^ "PH209961". Searchable Greek Inscriptions. The Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  60. ^ Friesen, Steven (January 2007). "The Wrong Erastus: Status, Wealth, and Paul's Churches". Corinth in Context. Institute for the Study of Antiquity and Christian Origins. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. Thus the Erastus inscription soon became a linchpin in 20th century reconstructions of the social status of Pauline Christianity. Unfortunately, the inscription was incorrectly published and the identification of the two Erastus references is wrong. - Abstract Only.
  61. ^ Gill, David W. J. (1989). "Erastus the Aedile". Tyndale Bulletin. 40 (2): 298.
  62. ^ 1 Chronicles 21:25, and 2 Samuel 24:18–25.
  63. ^ Luke 13
  64. ^ a b Allegro, John Marco (1965). The Shapira affair. Doubleday.
  65. ^ a b Vermès, Géza (2010). The story of the scrolls: the miraculous discovery and true significance of the Dead Sea scrolls. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-104615-0.
  66. ^ "Biblical artifacts". Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  67. ^ "New exhibit: Three Faces of Monotheism". Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2009.