Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
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|Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Italian)
Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem
Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem (Latin)
|Year consecrated||ca. 325|
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Minor basilica|
|Direction of façade||WNW|
|Length||70 metres (230 ft)|
|Width||37 metres (121 ft)|
The Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, or Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem (Latin: Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.
According to tradition, the basilica was consecrated circa 325 to house the relics of the Passion of Jesus Christ brought to Rome from the Holy Land by St. Empress Helena, mother of Roman Emperor Constantine I. At that time, the Basilica's floor was covered with soil from Jerusalem, thus acquiring the title in Hierusalem; it is not dedicated to the Holy Cross which is in Jerusalem, but the Basilica itself is "in Jerusalem" in the sense that a "piece" of Jerusalem was moved to Rome for its foundation. The current Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Crucis in Hierusalem is Miloslav Vlk.
At one time the site of the temple of El Gabal, or Sol Invictus, the god of Emperor Elagabalus, the Basilica was later built around a room in St. Empress Helena's imperial palace, the Palazzo Sessoriano, which she converted into a chapel circa AD 320. Some decades later, the chapel was converted into a basilica, called the Heleniana or Sessoriana. After falling into neglect, the Pope Lucius II (1144-5) restored the Basilica. It assumed a Romanesque appearance, with a nave, two aisles, belfry, and porch.
The Basilica was also modified in the 16th century, but it assumed its current Baroque appearance under Pope Benedict XIV (1740–58), who had been its titular prior to his elevation to the Papacy. New streets were also opened to connect the Basilica to two other Roman major basilicas, namely, San Giovanni in Laterano and Santa Maria Maggiore. The façade of the Basilica, which was designed by Pietro Passalacqua and Domenico Gregorini, shares the typical late Roman Baroque style of these other basilicas.
In May 2011, the Cistercian abbey linked to the Basilica was suppressed by a decree of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, following the results of an apostolic visitation prompted by years of serious problems, including significant liturgical disputes. According to a Vatican spokesman, "an inquiry found evidence of liturgical and financial irregularities as well as lifestyles that were probably not in keeping with that of a monk." According to Il Messaggero, Simone Fioraso, an abbot described as a "flamboyant former Milan fashion designer", "transformed the church, renovating its crumbling interior and opening a hotel, holding regular concerts, a televised bible-reading marathon and regularly attracting celebrity visitors with an unconventional approach."
Relics of the Passion of the Lord
Several famous relics of disputed authenticity are housed in the Cappella delle Reliquie, built in 1930 by architect Florestano Di Fausto, including part of the Elogium or Titulus Crucis, i.e. the panel which was hung on Christ's Cross (generally either ignored by scholars or considered to be a mediaeval forgery); two thorns of the Crown of Thorns; part of a nail; and three small wooden pieces of the True Cross. A much larger piece of the True Cross was taken from the Basilica on the instructions of Pope Urban VIII in 1629 to St. Peter's Basilica, where it is kept near the colossal statue of St. Empress Helena sculpted by Andrea Bolgi in 1639.
Chapel of St. Empress Helena
The relics were once in the ancient St. Helena's Chapel, which is partly subterranean. Here the founder of the Basilica had some soil from Calvary dispersed. In the vault is a mosaic designed by Melozzo da Forlì before 1485 depicting Jesus Blessing, Histories of the Cross, and various saints. The altar has a huge statue of St. Helena, which was obtained from an ancient statue of the pagan goddess Juno discovered at Ostia.
The apse of the Basilica includes frescoes telling the Legends of the True Cross, attributed to Melozzo, Antoniazzo Romano, and Marco Palmezzano. The Museum of the Basilica houses a mosaic icon from the 14th century which, according to the legend, Pope Gregory I had made after a vision of Christ. Notable also is the tomb of Cardinal Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones sculpted by Jacopo Sansovino in 1536.
Peter Paul Rubens, who had arrived in Rome by way of Mantua in 1601, was commissioned by Archduke Albert of Austria to paint an altarpiece with three panels for the Chapel of St. Helena. Two of these paintings, St. Helena with the True Cross and The Mocking of Christ, are now in Grasse, France. The third, The Elevation of the Cross, was lost. Before his marriage, the Archduke had been made a cardinal in the Basilica.
Cardinal Priests since 1120
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- Amicus (1120-1/2)
- Gerardo Caccianemici (1123–44)
- Ubaldo Caccianemici (1144-70/1)
- Ardoino da Piacenza (1178–83)
- Albinus (1185-9)
- Leone Brancaleone (1202–24)
- Pietro d'Aquila (1294-8)
- Teodorico Ranieri (1298-9)
- (Vacant or list is incomplete)
- Raymond de Canillac (1350–61)
- Gui de Maillesec (1375–84)
- Cosma Gentile Migliorati (1389-1404)
- Giovanni Migliorati (1405–10)
- Francesco Lando (1411–24)
- Niccolò Albergati (1426–33)
- Domenico Capranica (1444–58)
- Angelo Capranica (1460–72)
- Pedro González de Mendoza (1478–95)
- Bernardino López de Carvajal (1495-1507), in commendam (1507-11)
- Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, in commendam (1511–27)
- Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones (1527–40)
- Marcello Cervini (1540–55)
- Bartolomé de la Cueva de Albuquerque (1555–62)
- Giovanni Antonio Capizucchi (1562-5)
- Francisco Pacheco de Toledo (1565–79)
- Albert VII, Archduke of Austria (1580–98)
- Francisco de Múxica Guzmán de Avila (1599-1606)
- Ascanio Colonna (1606)
- Antonio Zapata y Cisneros (1606–16)
- Gaspar de Borja y Velasco (1616–30)
- Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval (1630–65)
- Alfonso Litta (1666–79)
- Johann Eberhard Neidhardt SJ (1679–81)
- Decio Azzolino the younger (1681-3)
- vacant (1683-9)
- Pedro de Salazar (1689-1706)
- Ulisse Giuseppe Gozzadini (1709–28)
- Prospero Lambertini (1728–40)
- Giuseppe Firrao (1740-4)
- Gioacchino Besozzi (1744–55)
- Luca Melchiore Tempi (1757–62)
- Lodovico Valenti (1762-3)
- Vacant (1763-6)
- Nicola Serra (1766-7)
- vacant (1767–75)
- Antonio Eugenio Visconti (1775–88)
- František de Paula Hrzán z Harrasova (1788-1804)
- Vacant (1804–16)
- Alessandro Malvasia (1816-9)
- Placido Zurla (1823–34)
- Alessandro Giustiniani (1834–43)
- Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1844–54)
- János Scitovszky (1854–66)
- Raffaele Monaco La Valletta (1868–84)
- Lucido Maria Parocchi (1884-9)
- Pierre-Lambert Goossens (1889-1906)
- Benedetto Lorenzelli (1907–15)
- Willem Marinus van Rossum (1915–32)
- Pietro Fumasoni Biondi (1933–60)
- Giuseppe Antonio Ferretto (1961)
- Efrem Forni (1962–76)
- Victor Razafimahatratra (1976–93)
- Miloslav Vlk (1994–Present)
- Hughes, Robert (2011). Rome: A Cultural, Visual, and Personal History. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-307-26844-0.
- "Santa Croce in Gerusalemme Church", World Monuments Fund
- "Pope Suppresses Abbey of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme". Wopular.com. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-26.[citation not found]
- "Pope shuts down irregular monastery in Rome". BBC News. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- Morris, Colin (2005). The sepulchre of Christ and the medieval West: from the beginning to 1600. OUP Oxford. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-19-826928-1.
- Byrne, Ryan; McNary-Zak, Bernadette (2009). Resurrecting the Brother of Jesus: The James Ossuary Controversy and the Quest for Religious Relics. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8078-3298-1.
- Partially referenced by Basilica of St. Peter
- Raimondo Besozzi, La storia della Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Roma: Generoso Salomoni 1750).
- Marie-Théodore de Busierre, Les sept basiliques de Rome Tome second (Paris: Jacques Lecoffre 1846), pp. 157-178.
- Paolo Coen, Le Sette Chiese (Rome: Newton Compton). [date missing]
- Claudio Rendina, La Grande Enciclopedia di Roma (Rome: Newton Compton)[date missing]
- Belkin, Kristin Lohse (1998). Rubens. Oxford Oxfordshire: Phaidon. pp. 63–6. ISBN 0-7148-3412-2.
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