List of asteroid close approaches to Earth

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Trajectory of 2004 FH in the Earth–Moon system
Goldstone radar images of asteroid 2007 PA8's Earth flyby in 2012

This is a list of examples where an asteroid or meteoroid travels close to the Earth. Some are regarded as potentially hazardous objects if they are estimated to be large enough to cause regional devastation.

Near-Earth object detection technology greatly improved about 1998, so objects being detected as of 2004 could have been missed only a decade earlier due to a lack of dedicated near-Earth astronomical surveys. As sky surveys improve, smaller and smaller asteroids are regularly being discovered. The small near-Earth asteroids 2008 TC3, 2014 AA, 2018 LA and 2019 MO are the only four asteroids discovered before impacting into Earth (see asteroid impact prediction). Scientists estimate that several dozen asteroids in the 6–12 m (20–39 ft) size range fly by Earth at a distance closer than the moon every year, but only a fraction of these are actually detected.[1][2]

Timeline of approaches within one lunar distance[edit]

The average distance to the Moon (or lunar distance (LD)) is about 384,400 km (238,900 mi), which is around 30 times the diameter of the Earth.[3] Below are lists of close approaches less than one LD for a given year. (See also near-Earth asteroids published by the International Astronomical Union[note 1] and NEO Earth Close Approaches.)

Known asteroids passing <1 LD from Earth
year discovered on opposition discovered later discovered prior
2001
1
1
0
2002
2
0
0
2003
5
0
0
2004
10
0
0
2005
6
0
0
2006
12
0
0
2007
15
0
1
2008
20
0
0
2009
19
0
0
2010
22
0
0
2011
27
0
3
2012
22
0
0
2013
23
0
1
2014
32
0
0
2015
27
0
0
2016
60
0
0
2017
56
0
1
2018
91
0
2
2019
17
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
  •   Discovered > 1 year in advance
  •   Discovered > 7 weeks in advance
  •   Discovered > 1 week in advance
  •   Discovered up to 1 week in advance
  •   < 24 hours' warning
  •   No warning

Closest known per year[edit]

Satellites in geostationary orbit

From the list in the first section, these are the closest-known asteroids per year that approach Earth within one lunar distance. More than one asteroid per year may be listed if its geocentric distance[note 2] is within a tenth of the lunar distance, or 0.10 LD. For comparison, since a satellite in a geostationary orbit has an altitude of about 36,000 km (22,000 mi), then its geocentric distance is 0.11 LD (approximately three times the width of the Earth).

The table shows that the years 2016 and 2017 had a total of 13 such close encounters that are known. Of these, eight were undetected until after they'd happened and only one was detected with more than 24 hours' notice. 2018 has fared better so far, with six out of the eight known close encounters being detected beforehand, albeit with less than 24 hours' notice in most cases.

This list does not include any of the hundreds of objects that collided with Earth, which were not discovered in advance, but were recorded by sensors designed to detect detonation of nuclear devices. Of the objects so detected, 78 had an impact energy greater than that of a 1-kiloton device (equivalent to 1000 tons of TNT), including 11 which had an impact energy greater than that of a 10-kiloton device i.e. comparable to the atomic bombs used in the Second World War.[4]

     Rows highlighted red indicate objects which were not discovered until after closest approach

     Rows highlighted yellow indicate objects discovered less than 24 hours before closest approach

     Rows highlighted green indicate objects discovered more than one week before closest approach

     Rows highlighted blue indicate objects discovered more than one year before closest approach, i.e. objects successfully cataloged on a previous orbit, rather than being detected during final approach.

Year Date of
closest approach
Date
discovered
Object Nominal
geocentric
distance
(in 000's km)
Nominal
geocentric
distance
(in LD)
Size of object
(in meters)
(H) Ref
2034 2034-05-06 2014-04-29 2014 HB177 88.9 0.23 6–14 28.1 JPL · CAD
2032 2032-08-14 2008-02-18 2008 DB 125.0 0.32 19–43 25.7 JPL · CAD
2029 2029-04-13 2004-06-19 99942 Apophis 38.0 0.10 310–340 19.7 JPL · CAD
2028 2028-06-26 2001-11-20 2001 WN5 248.7 0.65 610–1400 18.2 JPL · CAD
2020 2020-09-01 2011-03-02 2011 ES4[note 3] 78.9 0.21 15–49 25.7 JPL · CAD
2019 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 2019 UN13 0.0000843 AU (12,610 km) 0.03 1.0–2.2 32.1 JPL · CAD
2019-01-08 2018-01-08 2019 AS5 0.000101 AU (15,100 km) 0.039 0.7–2.5 32.3 JPL · CAD
2019-03-01 2019-03-01 2019 EH1 0.000157 AU (23,500 km) 0.061 2–6 30.1 JPL · CAD
2019-03-04 2019-03-05 C09Q4H2 0.000178 AU (26,600 km) 0.069[note 4] 1–3 31.9 Pseudo-MPEC
CNEOS Distance (T)
2019-01-17 2019-01-16 P10LGkb 0.000225 AU (33,700 km) 0.088[note 5] 1–3 31.6 Pseudo-MPEC
CNEOS Distance (H) (T)
2019-09-05 2019-09-06 2019 RP1 0.00025 AU (37,000 km) 0.10 7.3–16 27.8 JPL · CAD
2018 2018-06-02 2018-06-02 2018 LA 5.0
(Impact)
0.0130
(Impact)
2–4 30.5 JPL · CAD
2018-10-19 2018-10-19 2018 UA 13.7 0.036 2–6 30.2 JPL · CAD
2018-01-22 2018-01-22
(Unconfirmed)
A106fgF 20? 0.03? 2–5 30.6
2018-06-17 2018-06-17
(Unconfirmed)
A107j4p 30.8 0.080 4–11 28.9
2018-11-16 2018-11-17 2018 WG 30.9 0.080 3–10 29.3 JPL · CAD
2018-12-02 2018-11-29
(Unconfirmed)
ZW0C3A5 33.2 0.086 2–6 30.3
2018-08-10 2018-08-11 2018 PD20 33.5 0.087 7–22 27.4 JPL · CAD
2018-01-18 2018-01-18 2018 BD 39.2 0.10 2–6 30.2 JPL · CAD
2017 2017-04-04 2017-04-03 2017 GM 16.3 0.042 2–7 29.9 JPL · CAD
2017-10-20 2017-10-21 2017 UJ2 18.0 0.047 1–5 30.8 JPL · CAD
2017-10-22 2017-10-30
(Unconfirmed)
YU95BEF 19.4 0.051 5–15 28.2
2017-03-02 2017-03-02 2017 EA 20.9 0.054 1–5 30.7 JPL · CAD
2017-11-26 2017-11-26 2017 WE30 30.1 0.078 1–3 31.8 JPL · CAD
2017-11-14 2017-11-20
(Unconfirmed)
P10ELNY 31.7 0.083 4–12 28.8
2017-11-08 2017-11-16
(Unconfirmed)
A104Vqx 33.2 0.086 4–14 28.4
2016 2016-02-25 2016-02-26 2016 DY30 14.3 0.04 2–5 30.5 JPL · CAD
2016-09-11 2016-09-11 2016 RN41 23.7 0.06 1–5 31.0 JPL · CAD
2016-01-12 2016-01-13 2016 AH164 26.7 0.07 3–7 29.6 JPL · CAD
2016-03-11 2016-03-15 2016 EF195[5] 31.7 0.08 16–31 25.6 JPL · CAD
2016-11-05 2016-11-14
(Unconfirmed)
XV88D4F 36.7 0.09 2–7 30.0[6]
2016-01-14 2016-01-14 2016 AN164 37.0 0.10 2–5 30.5 JPL · CAD
2015 2015-09-22 2015-09-24 2015 SK7 26.6 0.07 3–14 28.9 JPL · CAD
2015-11-15 2015-11-14 2015 VY105 34.6 0.09 4–9 29.0 JPL · CAD
2014 2014-01-02 2014-01-01 2014 AA 0.45[7][8]
(Impact)
0.001
(Impact)
2–4 30.9 JPL · CAD
2014-06-03 2014-06-02 2014 LY21 16.7 0.04 4–8 29.1 JPL · CAD
2013 2013-12-23 2013-12-23 2013 YB 27.3 0.07 3 31.4 JPL · CAD
2013-02-15 2012-02-23 367943 Duende 34.1 0.09 30 24.0 JPL · CAD
2012 2012-05-29 2012-05-28 2012 KT42 20.8 0.05 9 29.0 JPL · CAD
2011 2011-02-04 2011-02-04 2011 CQ1[9] 11.9 0.03 1 32.1 JPL · CAD
2011-06-27 2011-06-22 2011 MD 18.7 0.05 14 28.0 JPL · CAD
2010 2010-11-17 2010-11-16 2010 WA 38.9 0.10 2–6 30.0 JPL · CAD
2009 2009-11-06 2009-11-06 2009 VA 20.4 0.05 4–13 28.6 JPL · CAD
2008 2008-10-07 2008-10-06 2008 TC3 5.9
(Impact)
0.0152
(Impact)
4.1 30.4 JPL · CAD
2008-10-09 2008-10-09 2008 TS26 12.6 0.03 0.5-1.6 33.2 JPL · CAD
2008-10-20 2008-10-21 2008 US 32.9 0.09 1–4 31.4 JPL · CAD
2007 2007-10-17 2007-10-21 2007 UN12 69.7 0.18 4–11 28.7 JPL · CAD
2006 2006-02-23 2006-02-22 2006 DD1 117.5 0.31 12–30 26.5 JPL · CAD
2005 2005-11-26 2005-11-25 2005 WN3 83.8 0.22 3–6 29.9 JPL · CAD
2004 2004-03-31 2004-03-31 2004 FU162 12.9 0.03 4–12 28.7 JPL · CAD
2003 2003-09-27 2003-09-28 2003 SQ222 84.2 0.22 2–6 30.1 JPL · CAD
2002 2002-12-11 2002-12-13 2002 XV90 117.7 0.31 19–47 25.5 JPL · CAD
2001 2001-01-15 2001-01-19 2001 BA16 79.0 0.21 15–38 26.0 JPL · CAD
1999 1999-03-12 2013 2013 EC20 315.4 0.82 3–12 29.0 JPL · CAD
1994 1994-12-09 1994-12-09 1994 XM1 105.5 0.27 5–16 28.2 JPL · CAD
1993 1993-05-20 1993-05-21 1993 KA2 149.2 0.39 3–11 29.0 JPL · CAD
1991 1991-01-18 1991-01-18 1991 BA 168.2 0.44 4–13 28.6 JPL · CAD
1990 1990-09-19 2003 2003 SW130 213.9 0.56 3–10 29.1 JPL · CAD
1984 1984-01-10 2016 2016 TB57 294.8 0.77 13–43 26.0 JPL · CAD
1982 1982-11-04 2012 2012 TY52 314.4 0.82 111–358 21.2 JPL · CAD
1979 1979-09-02 2014 2014 WX202 334.3 0.87 3–8 29.6 JPL · CAD
1976 1976-10-17 2013 2013 UG1 328.1 0.85 70–226 22.4 JPL · CAD
1971 1971-04-11 2002 2002 JE9 237.0 0.62 122–393 21.2 JPL · CAD
1965 1965-10-27 2005 2005 VL1 289.2 0.75 10–33 26.6 JPL · CAD
1959 1959-01-27 2012 2012 BX34 203.4 0.53 6–21 27.6 JPL · CAD
1957 1957-12-10 2010 2010 XW58 60.8 0.16 22–71 24.9 JPL · CAD
1955 1955-06-19 2015 2015 LR21 225.6 0.59 11–34 26.5 JPL · CAD
1954 1954-03-13 2013 2013 RZ53 102.7 0.27 1–4 31.1 JPL · CAD
1949 1949-01-01 2003 2003 YS70 259.6 0.68 3–10 29.1 JPL · CAD
1938 1938-11-02 2018 2018 RW 105.0 0.27 2-5 30.3 JPL · CAD
1936 1936-01-06 2010 2010 VB1 212.6 0.55 61–140 23.2 JPL · CAD
1935 1935-03-08 2015 2015 DD54 182.8 0.48 18–57 25.4 JPL · CAD
1925 1925-03-29 2012 2012 FT35 39.3 0.10 4-9 29.2 JPL · CAD
1918 1918-09-17 2011 (458732) 2011 MD5 350.1 0.91 556–1795 17.9 JPL · CAD
1914 1914-12-31 1998 (152680) 1998 KJ9 232.9 0.61 279–900 19.4 JPL · CAD
1910 1910-05-09 2007 2007 JB21 288.7 0.75 18–57 25.4 JPL · CAD

A notable case is the relatively large asteroid Duende, which was predicted nearly a year in advance, coincidentally approaching just a few hours after the unrelated Chelyabinsk meteor, which was unpredicted, but injured thousands of people when it impacted.

Largest per year[edit]

From the lists in the first section, these are the largest-known asteroids per year that approach Earth within one LD. (More than one asteroid per year may be listed if its size is 100 m [330 ft] or more.) For comparison, the 1908 Tunguska event was caused by an object about 60–190 m (200–620 ft) in size, while the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor which injured thousands of people and buildings when it generated a large airburst over Russia was estimated to be just 20 m (66 ft) across.

The table shows about 14 events in the 12 decades of 1900–2020 involving a body with an upper size estimate of 100 m (330 ft) or more making a close approach to Earth within one LD, with one (the Tunguska object) making impact.

Animation of the trajectory of the asteroid 2005 YU55 compared with the orbits of Earth and the Moon on 8–9 November 2011.
Trajectory of the relatively large 2005 YU55 compared with the orbits of Earth and the Moon on 8–9 Nov 2011
Year Date of
closest approach
Object Nominal
geocentric
distance
(in 000s km)
Nominal
geocentric
distance
(in LD)
Est. size
(in m)
(H) Ref
2029 2029-04-13 99942 Apophis 38.0 0.10 310–340 19.7 JPL · CAD
2028 2028-06-26 (153814) 2001 WN5 248.7 0.65 921–942 18.3 JPL · CAD
2019 2019-07-25 2019 OK 78 0.2 57–130 23.3 JPL · CAD
2018 2018-01-03 2018 AH 298 0.77 65–226 22.5 JPL · CAD
2018-05-15 2010 WC9 203 0.53 42-136 23.5 JPL · CAD
2018-04-15 2018 GE3 193 0.50 48–110 23.6 JPL · CAD
2017 2017-07-21 2017 QP1 63 0.16 31–91 24.3 JPL · CAD
2016 2016-03-21 2016 FN56 384 1.00 35–86 24.2 JPL · CAD
2015 2015-01-18 2015 BP513 240 0.62 12–27 26.7 JPL · CAD
2014 2014-03-05 2014 DX110 349 0.91 20–40 25.7 JPL · CAD
2013 2013-08-04 2013 PJ10 371 0.97 60 24.6 JPL · CAD
2012 2012-04-01 2012 EG5 230 0.60 60 24.3 JPL · CAD
2011 2011-11-08 (308635) 2005 YU55 324 0.84 360 21.9 JPL · CAD
2011-12-03 2011 XC2 347 0.90 100 23.1 JPL · CAD
2010 2010-11-02 2010 UJ7 286 0.74 20–49 25.4 JPL · CAD
2009 2009-03-02 2009 DD45 72 0.19 15–47 25.8 JPL · CAD
2008 2008-02-15 2008 CK70 371 0.97 22–71 24.9 JPL · CAD
2007 2007-01-18 2007 BD 324 0.84 18–57 25.4 JPL · CAD
2006 2006-02-23 2006 DD1 117 0.31 11–34 26.5 JPL · CAD
2005 2005-12-05 2005 XA8 217 0.57 15–49 25.7 JPL · CAD
2004 2004-03-18 2004 FH 49 0.13 15–49 25.7 JPL · CAD
2003 2003-12-06 2003 XJ7 148 0.39 11–36 26.4 JPL · CAD
2002 2002-06-14 2002 MN 120 0.31 40–130 23.6 JPL · CAD
2001 2001-01-15 2001 BA16 306 0.80 13–43 26.0 JPL · CAD
1999 1999-08-12 2016 CD137 179 0.47 13–43 26.0 JPL · CAD
1994 1994-12-09 1994 XM1 105 0.27 5–16 28.2 JPL · CAD
1993 1993-05-20 1993 KA2 149 0.39 3–11 29.0 JPL · CAD
1991 1991-04-08 2012 UE34 322 0.84 46–149 23.3 JPL · CAD
1990 1990-09-19 2003 SW130 186 0.48 3–10 29.1 JPL · CAD
1988 1988-10-16 2010 UK 322 0.84 9–30 26.8 JPL · CAD
1982 1982-11-04 2012 TY52 314 0.82 111-358 21.4 JPL · CAD
1980 1980-05-18 2009 WW7 74 0.19 4-11 28.9 JPL · CAD
1976 1976-10-17 2013 UG1 328.1 0.85 70–226 22.4 JPL · CAD
1971 1971-04-11 2002 JE9 237.0 0.62 122–393 21.2 JPL · CAD
1936 1936-01-06 2010 VB1 212.6 0.55 48–156 23.2 JPL · CAD
1925 1925-08-30 (163132) 2002 CU11 347.0 0.90 443–467 18.5 JPL · CAD
1918 1918-09-17 (458732) 2011 MD5 350.1 0.91 556–1795 17.9 JPL · CAD
1914 1914-12-31 (152680) 1998 KJ9 232.9 0.61 279–900 19.4 JPL · CAD

The year 2011 was notable as two asteroids with size 100 m (330 ft) or more approached within one lunar distance.

Passed by outside of atmosphere[edit]

Objects with distances greater than 100 km (62 mi) are listed here, although there is no discrete beginning of space. The lists do not pretend to completeness.

Objects < 50 meters[edit]

Asteroids smaller than about 50 m (160 ft).[10]

Nominal
geocentric
distance (AU)
Nominal
geocentric
distance (km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object Ref
0.000079 11,900 1 February 4, 2011 2011 CQ1 JPL · CAD
0.000084 12,500 1 October 9, 2008 2008 TS26 JPL · CAD
0.000086 12,900 6 March 31, 2004 2004 FU162 JPL · CAD
0.000125 18,700 10 June 27, 2011 (381943) 2010 CD250[11] JPL · CAD
0.000137 20,400 7 November 6, 2009 2009 VA JPL · CAD
0.000139 20,800 4–10 May 29, 2012 2012 KT42 JPL · CAD
0.000177 26,500 3-14 September 22, 2015 2015 SK7 JPL · CAD
0.00018 27,000 3 December 23, 2013 2013 YB JPL · CAD
0.000228 34,100 40×20[12] February 15, 2013 367943 Duende[13] JPL · CAD
0.000260 38,900 3 November 17, 2010 2010 WA JPL · CAD
0.000328 49,100 30 March 18, 2004 2004 FH JPL · CAD
0.000346 51,800 5–10 October 12, 2010 2010 TD54 JPL · CAD
0.000383 57,300 25 May 28, 2012 2012 KP24[14] JPL · CAD
0.000437 65,400 8 January 27, 2012 2012 BX34 JPL · CAD
0.000482 72,100 9 September 8, 2010 2010 RK53 JPL · CAD
0.000483 72,200 19 March 2, 2009 2009 DD45 JPL · CAD
0.000484 72,400 2–7 December 11, 2013 2013 XS21 JPL · CAD
0.000531 79,400 7 September 8, 2010 2010 RF12 JPL · CAD
0.000564 84,300 5 September 27, 2003 2003 SQ222 JPL · CAD
0.000568 85,000 15 March 18, 2009 2009 FH JPL · CAD
0.000635 95,000 17 October 12, 2012 2012 TC4 JPL · CAD
0.000704 105,400 10 December 9, 1994 1994 XM1[15] JPL · CAD
0.000856 128,000 2 October 13, 2015 2015 TC25 JPL · CAD
0.000862 129,000 15–30 January 13, 2010 2010 AL30 JPL · CAD
0.000998 149,200 7 May 20, 1993 1993 KA2[15] JPL · CAD
0.001124 168,200 6–10 January 18, 1991 1991 BA JPL · CAD
0.001539 230,200 47 April 1, 2012 2012 EG5 JPL · CAD
0.001655 247,600 12 September 8, 2010 2010 RX30 JPL · CAD
0.002454 367,100 10–17 March 4, 2013 2013 EC JPL · CAD
0.00257 384,400 average distance to the Moon[3]
0.002899 433,600 22 April 9, 2010 2010 GA6 JPL · CAD

Objects > 50 meters[edit]

Goldstone radar image of asteroid 2005 YU55 taken November 7, 2011

Asteroids larger than about 50 m (160 ft).[10][16]

Nominal
geocentric
distance (AU)
Nominal
geocentric
distance (km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object Ref
0.000521 78,000 57–130 July 25, 2019 2019 OK JPL · CAD
0.000802 120,000 73 June 14, 2002 2002 MN JPL · CAD
0.00155* 233,000 500 December 31, 1914 (152680) 1998 KJ9 JPL · CAD
0.00159* 239,000 200 April 11, 1971 2002 JE9 JPL · CAD
0.00210* 314,000 200 November 4, 1982 2012 TY52 JPL · CAD
0.002172 324,900 360 November 8, 2011 (308635) 2005 YU55 JPL · CAD
0.00219* 328,000 150 October 17, 1976 2013 UG1 JPL · CAD
0.0022** 329,000 100 April 8, 1991 2012 UE34 JPL · CAD
0.0023* 340,000 730 August 30, 1925 (163132) 2002 CU11 JPL · CAD
0.0023 340,000 100 December 3, 2011 2011 XC2 JPL · CAD
0.00257 384,400 average distance to the Moon[3]
<0.00266* <398,000 100 January 6, 1936 2010 VB1 JPL · CAD
0.002891 432,400 500 July 3, 2006 2004 XP14 JPL · CAD
0.003704 554,200 250 January 29, 2008 2007 TU24 JPL · CAD
0.004241* 634,500 300 April 26, 1942 69230 Hermes JPL · CAD
0.004572 684,000 300 March 22, 1989 4581 Asclepius JPL · CAD
0.004950 740,500 300 October 30, 1937 69230 Hermes JPL · CAD
0.0062* 930,000 200 December 27, 1976 2010 XC15 JPL · CAD
0.00836 1,251,000 325 June 8, 2014 2014 HQ124 JPL · CAD
0.0093* 1,390,000 5000 August 27, 1969 (192642) 1999 RD32 JPL · CAD
0.0124855 1,867,800 400 December 16, 2001 (33342) 1998 WT24 JPL · CAD
0.036415 5,447,600 1000 June 14, 2012 2012 LZ1 JPL · CAD
0.043294 6,476,600 1600 November 5, 2012 (214869) 2007 PA8[17] JPL · CAD
0.046332 6,900,000 5400 December 12, 2012 4179 Toutatis[18] JPL · CAD

Asteroids with large uncertainty regions are not included.

* Asteroid approach did not occur during an observed apparition. Passage is calculated by integrating the equations of motion.

** Only the nominal (best-fit) orbit shows a passage this close. The uncertainty region is still somewhat large due to a short observation arc.

Predicted encounters[edit]

Incomplete list of asteroids larger than about 50 m (160 ft) predicted to pass close to Earth (see also asteroid impact prediction and Sentry (monitoring system)):[16][19]

Nominal
geocentric
distance (AU)
Nominal
geocentric
distance (km)
Size (m)
(estimated)
Date of
closest approach
Object JPL-Ref
0.000256 38,300 325 April 13, 2029 99942 Apophis JPL · CAD
0.000670 100,200 75–170 October 19, 2129 2007 UW1 JPL · CAD
0.000721 107,800 50–120 April 8, 2041 2012 UE34 JPL · CAD
0.001572 235,200 170–370 January 2, 2101 (456938) 2007 YV56 JPL · CAD
0.001585 237,000 360±40 November 8, 2075 (308635) 2005 YU55 JPL · CAD
0.001629 243,700 370–840 December 1, 2140 (153201) 2000 WO107 JPL · CAD
0.001635** 244,600 190–420 October 26, 2087 2011 WL2 JPL · CAD
0.001663 248,800 700–1500 June 26, 2028 (153814) 2001 WN5 JPL · CAD
0.001980 296,200 170–370 January 22, 2148 (85640) 1998 OX4 JPL · CAD
0.002222 332,500 190–250 May 28, 2065 2005 WY55 JPL · CAD
0.002241 335,200 75–170 March 23, 2146 2009 DO111 JPL · CAD
0.00257 384,400 for comparison, this is the average distance to the Moon[3]

A list of predicted NEO approaches at larger distances is maintained as a database by the NASA Near Earth Object Program.[20]

** Only the nominal (best-fit) orbit shows a passage this close. The uncertainty region is still somewhat large due to a short observation arc.

Earth grazers[edit]

All-sky photo with the Earth-grazing meteoroid of 13 October 1990 (the light track across the picture going from the south to the north) taken at Červená hora (Czechoslovakia), one of the stations of the European Fireball Network. The bright track on the left is the Moon.

Objects which enter and then leave Earth's atmosphere, the so-called 'Earth-grazers', are a distinct phenomenon, in as much as entering the lower atmosphere can constitute an impact event rather than a close pass. Earth grazer can also be short for a body that "grazes" the orbit of the Earth, in a different context.

Altitude
(km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Mass (kg)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object Note Ref.
0 mean sea level
8.8 Mount Everest (height)
58 5 105–106 August 10, 1972 1972 Great Daylight Fireball above the United States and Canada First scientifically observed [21]
71.4 100 March 29, 2006 2006 Earth-grazing Fireball above Japan

[22]

98.7 44 October 13, 1990 1990 Earth-grazing Fireball above Czechoslovakia and Poland First captured from 2 distant locations, which enabled computing its orbit by geometrical methods [23]
August 7, 2007 2007 Earth-grazing Fireball Its pre-encounter orbit belonged to the rare Aten type [24]
100 Kármán line

Animations[edit]

Animation of the 2015 TB145 (NEO) flyby, as seen from the center of the Earth, with hourly trace circles along the path of motion

Overview[edit]

Plot of orbits of known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (size over 140 m [460 ft] and passing within 7.6 million km [4.7 million mi] of Earth's orbit) as of early 2013 (alternate image)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ : "Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs): A Chronology of Milestones" Archived 2013-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Distance from the center of Earth to the center of the object. See the NASA/JPL Solar System Dynamics Glossary: Geocentric Archived 2013-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. Earth has a radius of approximately 6,400 km.
  3. ^ There is a high degree of uncertainty as to exactly when and where this asteroid will approach, as it was only observed for four days
  4. ^ the asteroid is unconfirmed and will likely never receive a provisional designation.
  5. ^ Distance error: 0.000420 AU, approach range: 0.016 to 0.25 LD. There was a roughly 2% chance of impact. The asteroid is most likely between 1 and 14 meters across, so would probably be detectable. The asteroid is unconfirmed and will likely never receive a provisional designation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Responding to Potential Asteroid Redirect Mission Targets". Archived from the original on 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  2. ^ Chang, Kenneth (June 14, 2018). "Asteroids and Adversaries: Challenging What NASA Knows About Space Rocks - Relevant Comments". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 22, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
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