Illustration of Philae
|Mission type||Comet lander|
|Operator||European Space Agency / DLR|
|Mission duration||Planned: 1–6 weeks|
Active: 12–14 November 2014
Hibernation: 15 November 2014 – 13 June 2015
|Manufacturer||DLR / MPS / CNES / ASI|
|Launch mass||100 kg (220 lb)|
|Payload mass||21 kg (46 lb)|
|Dimensions||1 × 1 × 0.8 m (3.3 × 3.3 × 2.6 ft)|
|Power||32 watts at 3 AU|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||2 March 2004, 07:17UTC|
|Rocket||Ariane 5G+ V-158|
|Launch site||Kourou ELA-3|
|End of mission|
|Last contact||9 July 2015, 18:07UTC|
|Landing date||12 November 2014, 17:32 UTC|
Philae (// or //) is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the Rosetta spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth. On 12 November 2014, Philae touched down on the comet, but it bounced when its anchoring harpoons failed to deploy and a thruster designed to hold the probe to the surface did not fire. After bouncing off the surface twice, Philae achieved the first-ever "soft" (nondestructive) landing on a comet nucleus, although the lander's final, uncontrolled touchdown left it in a non-optimal location and orientation.
Despite the landing problems, the probe's instruments obtained the first images from a comet's surface. Several of the instruments on Philae made the first direct analysis of a comet, sending back data that will be analysed to determine the composition of the surface.
On 15 November 2014 Philae entered safe mode, or hibernation, after its batteries ran down due to reduced sunlight and an off-nominal spacecraft orientation at the crash site. Mission controllers hoped that additional sunlight on the solar panels might be sufficient to reboot the lander. Philae communicated sporadically with Rosetta from 13 June to 9 July 2015, but contact was then lost. The lander's location was identified to within a few tens of metres but it was not seen. Philae, though silent, was finally identified unambiguously, lying on its side in a deep crack in the shadow of a cliff, in photographs taken by Rosetta on 2 September 2016 as the orbiter was sent on orbits closer to the comet. Knowledge of its location will help in interpretation of the images it had sent. On 30 September 2016, the Rosetta spacecraft ended its mission by crashing in the comet's Ma'at region.
The lander is named after the Philae obelisk, which bears a bilingual inscription and was used along with the Rosetta Stone to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. Philae was monitored and operated from DLR's Lander Control Center in Cologne, Germany.
Philae's mission was to land successfully on the surface of a comet, attach itself, and transmit data about the comet's composition. The Rosetta spacecraft and Philae lander were launched on an Ariane 5G+ rocket from French Guiana on 2 March 2004, 07:17 UTC, and travelled for 3,907 days (10.7 years) to Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Unlike the Deep Impact probe, which by design struck comet Tempel 1's nucleus on 4 July 2005, Philae is not an impactor. Some of the instruments on the lander were used for the first time as autonomous systems during the Mars flyby on 25 February 2007. CIVA, one of the camera systems, returned some images while the Rosetta instruments were powered down, while ROMAP took measurements of the Martian magnetosphere. Most of the other instruments need contact with the surface for analysis and stayed offline during the flyby. An optimistic estimate of mission length following touchdown was "four to five months".
The goals of the scientific mission have been summarized as follows:
"The scientific goals of its experiments focus on elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogical composition of the cometary material, the characterization of physical properties of the surface and subsurface material, the large-scale structure and the magnetic and plasma environment of the nucleus. In particular, surface and sub-surface samples will be acquired and sequentially analyzed by a suite of instruments. Measurements will be performed primarily during descent and along the first five days following touch-down."
Landing and surface operations
Philae remained attached to the Rosetta spacecraft after rendezvousing with Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014. On 15 September 2014, ESA announced "Site J" on the smaller lobe of the comet as the lander's destination. Following an ESA public contest in October 2014, Site J was renamed Agilkia in honour of Agilkia Island.
A series of four Go/NoGo checks were performed on 11–12 November 2014. One of the final tests before detachment from Rosetta showed that the lander's cold-gas thruster was not working correctly, but the "Go" was given anyway, as it could not be repaired. Philae detached from Rosetta on 12 November 2014 at 08:35 UTC SCET.
Philae's landing signal was received by Earth communication stations at 16:03 UTC after a 28-minute delay. Unknown to mission scientists at that time, the lander had bounced. It began performing scientific measurements while slowly moving away from the comet and coming back down, confusing the science team. Further analysis showed that it bounced twice.
Philae's first contact with the comet occurred at 15:34:04 UTC SCET. The probe rebounded off the comet's surface at 38 cm/s (15 in/s) and rose to an altitude of approximately 1 km (0.62 mi). For perspective, had the lander exceeded about 44 cm/s (17 in/s), it would have escaped the comet's gravity. After detecting the touchdown, Philae's reaction wheel was automatically powered off, resulting in its momentum being transferred back into the lander. This caused the vehicle to begin rotating every 13 seconds. During this first bounce, at 16:20 UTC SCET, the lander is thought to have struck a surface prominence, which slowed its rotation to once every 24 seconds and sent the craft tumbling. Philae touched down a second time at 17:25:26 UTC SCET and rebounded at 3 cm/s (1.2 in/s). The lander came to a final stop on the surface at 17:31:17 UTC SCET. It sits in rough terrain, apparently in the shadow of a nearby cliff or crater wall, and is canted at an angle of around 30 degrees, but is otherwise undamaged. Its final location was determined initially by analysis of data from CONSERT in combination with the comet shape model based on images from the Rosetta orbiter, and later precisely by direct imaging from Rosetta.
An analysis of telemetry indicated that the initial impact was softer than expected, that the harpoons had not deployed, and that the thruster had not fired. The harpoon propulsion system contained 0.3 grams of nitrocellulose, which was shown by Copenhagen Suborbitals in 2013 to be unreliable in a vacuum.
Operations and communication loss
The primary battery was designed to power the instruments for about 60 hours. ESA expected that a secondary rechargeable battery would be partially filled by the solar panels attached to the outside of the lander, but the limited sunlight (90 minutes per 12.4-hour comet day) at the actual landing site was inadequate to maintain Philae's activities, at least in this phase of the comet's orbit.
On the morning of 14 November 2014, the battery charge was estimated to be only enough for continuing operations for the remainder of the day. After first obtaining data from instruments whose operation did not require mechanical movement, comprising about 80% of the planned initial science observations, both the MUPUS soil penetrator and the SD2 drill were commanded to deploy. Subsequently, MUPUS data as well as COSAC and Ptolemy data were returned. A final set of CONSERT data was also downlinked towards the end of operations. During the evening's transmission session, Philae was raised by 4 centimetres (1.6 in) and its body rotated 35 degrees to more favourably position the largest solar panel to capture the most sunlight in the future. Shortly afterwards, electrical power dwindled rapidly and all instruments were forced to shut down. The downlink rate slowed to a trickle before coming to a stop. Contact was lost on 15 November at 00:36 UTC.
The German Aerospace Center's lander manager Stephan Ulamec stated:
Prior to falling silent, the lander was able to transmit all science data gathered during the First Science Sequence ... This machine performed magnificently under tough conditions, and we can be fully proud of the incredible scientific success Philae has delivered.
Data from the SESAME instrument determined that, rather than being "soft and fluffy" as expected, Philae's first touchdown site held a large amount of water ice under a layer of granular material about 25 cm (9.8 in) deep. It found that the mechanical strength of the ice was high and that cometary activity in that region was low. At the final landing site, the MUPUS instrument was unable to hammer very far into the comet's surface, despite power being gradually increased. This area was determined to have the consistency of solid ice or pumice.
In the atmosphere of the comet, the COSAC instrument detected the presence of molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. Soil elements could not be assessed, because the lander was unable to drill into the comet surface, likely due to hard ice. The SD2 drill went through the necessary steps to deliver a surface sample to the COSAC instrument, but nothing entered the COSAC ovens.
Upon Philae's first touchdown on the comet's surface, COSAC measured material at the bottom of the vehicle, which was disturbed by the landing, while the Ptolemy instrument measured material at the top of the vehicle. Sixteen organic compounds were detected, four of which were seen for the first time on a comet, including acetamide, acetone, methyl isocyanate and propionaldehyde.
Reawakening and subsequent loss of communication
On 13 June 2015 at 20:28 UTC, ground controllers received an 85-second transmission from Philae, forwarded by Rosetta, indicating that the lander was in good health and had sufficiently recharged its batteries to come out of safe mode. Philae sent historical data indicating that although it had been operating earlier than 13 June 2015, it had been unable to contact Rosetta before that date. The lander reported that it was operating with 24 watts of electrical power at −35 °C (−31 °F).
A new contact between Rosetta and Philae was confirmed on 19 June 2015. The first signal was received on the ground from Rosetta at 13:37 UTC, while a second signal was received at 13:54 UTC. These contacts lasted about two minutes each and delivered additional status data. By 26 June 2015, there had been a total of seven intermittent contacts between the lander and orbiter. There were two opportunities for contact between the two spacecraft each Earth day, but their duration and quality depended on the orientation of the transmitting antenna on Philae and the location of Rosetta along its trajectory around the comet. Similarly, as the comet rotated, Philae was not always in sunlight and thus not always generating enough power via its solar panels to receive and transmit signals. ESA controllers continued to try to establish a stable contact duration of at least 50 minutes.
Had Philae landed at the planned site of Agilkia in November 2014, its mission would probably have ended in March 2015 due to the higher temperatures of that location as solar heating increased. As of June 2015[update], Philae's key remaining experiment was to drill into the comet's surface to determine its chemical composition. Ground controllers sent commands to power up the CONSERT radar instrument on 5 July 2015, but received no immediate response from the lander. Confirmation was eventually received on 9 July, when the lander transmitted measurement data from the instrument.
Immediately after its reawakening, housekeeping data suggested that the lander's systems were healthy, and mission control uploaded commands for Rosetta to establish a new orbit and nadir so as to optimize communications, diagnostics, and enable new science investigations with Philae. However, controllers had difficulties establishing a stable communications connection with the lander. The situation was not helped by the need to keep Rosetta at a greater and safer distance from the comet as it became more active. The last communication was on 9 July 2015, and mission controllers were unable to instruct Philae to carry out new investigations. Subsequently, Philae failed to respond to further commands, and by January 2016, controllers acknowledged no further communications were likely.
The lander was located on 2 September 2016 by the narrow-angle camera aboard Rosetta as it was slowly making its descent to the comet. The search for the lander had been on-going during the Rosetta mission, using telemetry data and comparison of pictures taken before and after the lander's touchdown, looking for signs of the lander's specific reflectivity.
The search area was narrowed down to the most promising candidate, which was confirmed by a picture taken at a distance of 2.7 km (1.7 mi), clearly showing the lander. The lander sits on its side wedged into a dark crevice of the comet, explaining the lack of electrical power and proper communication with the probe. Knowing its exact location provides information needed to put Philae's two days of science into proper context.
The lander was designed to deploy from the main spacecraft body and descend from an orbit of 22.5 kilometres (14 mi) along a ballistic trajectory. It would touch down on the comet's surface at a velocity of around 1 metre per second (3.6 km/h; 2.2 mph). The legs were designed to dampen the initial impact to avoid bouncing as the comet's escape velocity is only around 1 m/s (3.6 km/h; 2.2 mph), and the impact energy was intended to drive ice screws into the surface. Philae was to then fire a harpoon into the surface at 70 m/s (250 km/h; 160 mph) to anchor itself. A thruster on top of Philae was to have fired to lessen the bounce upon impact and to reduce the recoil from harpoon firing. During the landing, the harpoons did not fire and the thruster failed to operate, leading to a multiple-contact landing.
Communications with Earth used the Rosetta orbiter as a relay station to reduce the electrical power needed. The mission duration on the surface was planned to be at least one week, but an extended mission lasting months was considered possible.
The main structure of the lander is made from carbon fiber, shaped into a plate maintaining mechanical stability, a platform for the science instruments, and a hexagonal "sandwich" to connect all the parts. The total mass is about 100 kilograms (220 lb). Its exterior is covered with solar cells for power generation.
The Rosetta mission was originally planned to rendezvous with the comet 46P/Wirtanen. A failure in a previous Ariane 5 launch vehicle closed the launch window to reach the comet with the same rocket. It resulted in a change in target to the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The larger mass of Churyumov–Gerasimenko and the resulting increased impact velocity required that the landing gear of the lander be strengthened.
|Structure||18.0 kg||39.7 lb|
|Thermal control system||3.9 kg||8.6 lb|
|Power system||12.2 kg||27 lb|
|Active descent system||4.1 kg||9.0 lb|
|Reaction wheel||2.9 kg||6.4 lb|
|Landing gear||10.0 kg||22 lb|
|Anchoring system||1.4 kg||3.1 lb|
|Central data management system||2.9 kg||6.4 lb|
|Telecommunications system||2.4 kg||5.3 lb|
|Common electronics box||9.8 kg||22 lb|
|Mechanical support system, harness, balancing mass||3.6 kg||7.9 lb|
|Scientific payload||26.7 kg||59 lb|
|Sum||97.9 kg||216 lb|
Philae's power management was planned for two phases. In the first phase, the lander operated solely on battery power. In the second phase, it was to run on backup batteries recharged by solar cells.
The power subsystem comprises two batteries: a non-rechargeable primary 1000 watt-hour battery to provide power for the first 60 hours and a secondary 140 watt-hour battery recharged by the solar panels to be used after the primary is exhausted. The solar panels cover 2.2 square metres (24 sq ft) and were designed to deliver up to 32 watts at a distance of 3 AU from the Sun.
The science payload of the lander consists of ten instruments totalling 26.7 kilograms (59 lb), making up just over one quarter of the mass of the lander.
- The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer detects alpha particles and X-rays, which provide information on the elemental composition of the comet's surface. The instrument is an improved version of the APXS on the Mars Pathfinder.
- The Comet Nucleus Infrared and Visible Analyser (sometimes given as ÇIVA) is a group of seven identical cameras used to take panoramic pictures of the surface plus a visible-light microscope and an infrared spectrometer. The panoramic cameras (CIVA-P) are arranged on the sides of the lander at 60° intervals: five mono imagers and two others making up a stereo imager. Each camera has a 1024×1024 pixel CCD detector. The microscope and spectrometer (CIVA-M) are mounted on the base of the lander, and are used to analyse the composition, texture and albedo (reflectivity) of samples collected from the surface.
- The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission used electromagnetic wave propagation to determine the comet's internal structure. A radar on Rosetta transmitted a signal through the nucleus to be received by a detector on Philae.
- The COmetary SAmpling and Composition instrument is a combined gas chromatograph and time-of-flight mass spectrometer to perform analysis of soil samples and determine the content of volatile components.
- The MUlti-PUrpose Sensors for Surface and Sub-Surface Science instrument measured the density, thermal and mechanical properties of the comet's surface.
- An instrument measuring stable isotope ratios of key volatiles on the comet's nucleus.
- The Rosetta Lander Imaging System is a CCD camera used to obtain high-resolution images during descent and stereo panoramic images of areas sampled by other instruments. The CCD detector consists of 1024×1024 pixels.
- The Rosetta Lander Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor is a magnetometer and plasma sensor to study the nucleus' magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind.
- The Sampling, Drilling and Distribution system obtains soil samples from the comet and transfers them to the Ptolemy, COSAC, and CIVA instruments for in-situ analysis. SD2 contains four primary subsystems: drill, ovens, carousel, and volume checker. The drill system, made of steel and titanium, is capable of drilling to a depth of 230 mm (9.1 in), deploying a probe to collect samples, and delivering samples to the ovens. There are a total of 26 platinum ovens to heat samples—10 medium temperature ovens at 180 °C (356 °F) and 16 high temperature ovens at 800 °C (1,470 °F)—and one oven to clear the drill bit for reuse. The ovens are mounted on a rotating carousel that delivers the active oven to the appropriate instrument. The electromechanical volume checker determines how much material was deposited into an oven, and may be used to evenly distribute material on CIVA's optical windows. Development of SD2 was led by the Italian Space Agency with contributions by prime contractor Tecnospazio S.p.A (now Selex ES S.p.A.) in charge of the system design and overall integration; the Italian company Tecnomare S.p.A., owned by Eni S.p.A., in charge of the design, development, and testing of the drilling/sampling tool and the volume checker; Media Lario; and Dallara. The instrument's principal investigator is Amalia Ercoli-Finzi (Politecnico di Milano).
- The Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiments used three instruments to measure properties of the comet's outer layers. The Cometary Acoustic Sounding Surface Experiment (CASSE) measures the way in which sound travels through the surface. The Permittivity Probe (PP) investigates its electrical characteristics, and the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) measures dust falling back to the surface.
- The Austrian Space Research Institute developed the lander's anchor and two sensors within MUPUS, which are integrated into the anchor tips.
- The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA) cooperated with different partners to build one of the sensors (DFMS) of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument. The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA) and Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) provided information about the space weather conditions at Rosetta to support the landing of Philae. The main concern was solar proton events.
- Two Canadian companies played a role in the mission. SED Systems, located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon, built three ground stations that were used to communicate with the Rosetta spacecraft. ADGA-RHEA Group of Ottawa provided MOIS (Manufacturing and Operating Information Systems) software which supported the procedures and command sequences operations software.
- The Finnish Meteorological Institute provided the memory of the Command, Data and Management System (CDMS) and the Permittivity Probe (PP).
- The French Space Agency, together with some scientific laboratories (IAS, SA, LPG, LISA) provided the system's overall engineering, radiocommunications, battery assembly, CONSERT, CIVA and the ground segment (overall engineering and development/operation of the Scientific Operation & Navigation Centre).
- The German Space Agency (DLR) has provided the structure, thermal subsystem, flywheel, the Active Descent System (procured by DLR but made in Switzerland), ROLIS, downward-looking camera, SESAME, acoustic sounding and seismic instrument for Philae. It has also managed the project and did the level product assurance. The University of Münster built MUPUS (it was designed and built in Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences ) and the Braunschweig University of Technology the ROMAP instrument. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research made the payload engineering, eject mechanism, landing gear, anchoring harpoon, central computer, COSAC, APXS and other subsystems. The institute has led development and construction of COSAC and DIM, a part of SESAME, as well as contributed to the deveplopment and construction of ROMAP.
- The Command and Data Management Subsystem (CDMS) designed in the Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences jointly with the Space and Ground Facilities Ltd. (a spin-off company of the Wigner Research Centre for Physics). The Power Subsystem (PSS) designed in the Department of Broadband Infocommunications and Electromagnetic Theory at Budapest University of Technology and Economics. CDMS is the fault tolerant central computer of the lander, while PSS assures that the power coming from the batteries and solar arrays are properly handled, controls battery charging and manages the onboard power distribution.
- Captec Ltd., based in Malahide, provided the independent validation of mission critical software (independent software validation facility or SVF) and developed the software for the communications interface between the orbiter and the lander. Captec also provided engineering support to the prime contractor for the launch activities at Kourou. Space Technology Ireland Ltd. at Maynooth University has designed, constructed and tested the Electrical Support System Processor Unit (ESS) for the Rosetta mission. ESS stores, transmits and provides decoding for the command streams passing from the spacecraft to the lander and handles the data streams coming back from the scientific experiments on the lander to the spacecraft.
- The Italian Space Agency (ASI) developed the SD2 instrument and the photovoltaic assembly. Italian Alenia Space was involved in the assembly, integration and testing of the probe, as well as several mechanical and electrical ground support equipment. The company also built the probe's S-band and X-band digital transponder, used for communications with Earth.
- Moog Bradford (Heerle, The Netherlands) provided the Active Descent System, which guided and propelled the lander down to its landing zone. To accomplish the ADS, a strategic industrial team was formed with Bleuler-Baumer Mechanik in Switzerland.
- The Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences built the Multi-Purpose Sensors for Surface and Subsurface Science (MUPUS).
- The GMV Spanish division has been responsible for the maintenance of the calculation tools to calculate the criteria of lighting and visibility necessary to decide the point of landing on the comet, as well as the possible trajectories of decline of the Philae module. Other important Spanish companies or educational institutions that have been contributed are as follows: INTA, Airbus Defence and Space Spanish division, other small companies also participated in subcontracted packages in structural mechanics and thermal control like AASpace (former Space Contact), and the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
- United Kingdom
- The Open University and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) developed PTOLEMY. RAL also constructed the blankets that kept the lander warm throughout its mission. Surrey Satellites Technology Ltd. (SSTL) constructed the momentum wheel for the lander. It stabilised the module during the descent and landing phases. Manufacturer e2v supplied the CIVA and Rolis camera systems used to film the descent and take images of samples, as well as three other camera systems.
The landing was featured heavily in social media, with the lander having an official Twitter account portraying a personification of the spacecraft. The hashtag "#CometLanding" gained widespread traction. A Livestream of the control centres was set up, as were multiple official and unofficial events around the world to follow Philae's landing on Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Various instruments on Philae were given their own Twitter accounts to announce news and science results.
On 12 November 2014, the search engine Google featured a Google Doodle of Philae on its home page. On 31 December 2014, Google featured Philae again as part of its New Year's Eve 2014 Doodle.
- MASCOT, DLR-CNES mini asteroid lander
- NEAR Shoemaker
- Timeline of Rosetta spacecraft
- "Philae". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Philae lander fact sheet" (PDF). German Aerospace Center. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Three Touchdowns For Rosetta's Lander". European Space Agency. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Philae found!". European Space Agency. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Lander Instruments". European Space Agency. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "philae". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Ellis, Ralph (12 November 2014). "Space probe scores a 310-million-mile bull's-eye with comet landing". CNN. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Chang, Kenneth (5 August 2014). "Rosetta Spacecraft Set for Unprecedented Close Study of a Comet". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "In Pursuit of an Oddly Shaped Comet". The New York Times. 23 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- Ulamec, S.; Espinasse, S.; Feuerbacher, B.; Hilchenbach, M.; Moura, D.; et al. (April 2006). "Rosetta Lander—Philae: Implications of an alternative mission". Acta Astronautica. 58 (8): 435–441. Bibcode:2006AcAau..58..435U. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2005.12.009.
- Biele, Jens (2002). "The Experiments Onboard the ROSETTA Lander". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 90 (1–4): 445–458. Bibcode:2002EM&P...90..445B. doi:10.1023/A:1021523227314.
- Agle, D. C.; Cook, Jia-Rui; Brown, Dwayne; Bauer, Markus (17 January 2014). "Rosetta: To Chase a Comet". NASA. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Aron, Jacob (13 November 2014). "Problems hit Philae after historic first comet landing". New Scientist. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Agle, D. C.; Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne; Bauer, Markus (12 November 2014). "Rosetta's 'Philae' Makes Historic First Landing on a Comet". NASA. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Chang, Kenneth (12 November 2014). "European Space Agency's Spacecraft Lands on Comet's Surface". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Withnall, Adam (13 November 2014). "Philae lander 'bounced twice' on comet but is now stable, Rosetta mission scientists confirm". The Independent. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Rosetta: Battery will limit life of Philae comet lander". BBC News. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Europe's Comet Chaser – Historic mission". European Space Agency. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Pioneering Philae completes main mission before hibernation". European Space Agency. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Brumfield, Ben; Carter, Chelsea J. (18 November 2014). "On a comet 10 years away, Philae conks out, maybe for good". CNN. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Biever, Celeste; Gibney, Elizabeth (14 June 2015). "Philae comet lander wakes up and phones home". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.17756.
- "Spacecraft That Landed on Comet Finally Wakes Up". The New York Times. Associated Press. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Baldwin, Emily (20 July 2015). "Rosetta and Philae status update". European Space Agency. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- Victor, Daniel (5 September 2016). "No Longer Missing: Rosetta's Philae Spacecraft Located on Comet". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- Gannon, Megan (30 September 2016). "Goodbye, Rosetta! Spacecraft Crash-Lands on Comet in Epic Mission Finale". Space.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- "Rosetta Lander Control Center". German Aerospace Center. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Gilpin, Lyndsey (14 August 2014). "The tech behind the Rosetta comet chaser: From 3D printing to solar power to complex mapping". TechRepublic.
- Bibring, J.-P.; Rosenbauer, H.; Boehnhardt, H.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; et al. (February 2007). "The Rosetta Lander ("Philae") Investigations". Space Science Reviews. 128 (1–4): 205–220. Bibcode:2007SSRv..128..205B. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9138-2.
- Bauer, Markus (15 September 2014). "'J' Marks the Spot for Rosetta's Lander". European Space Agency. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Kramer, Miriam (5 November 2014). "Historic Comet Landing Site Has a New Name: Agilkia". Space.com. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Spotts, Pete (12 November 2014). "Will Philae successfully land on comet? Thruster trouble heightens drama". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Baldwin, Emily (12 November 2014). "Rosetta and Philae Go for separation". European Space Agency. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Rosetta to Deploy Lander on 12 November". European Space Agency. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Platt, Jane (6 November 2014). "Rosetta Races Toward Comet Touchdown". NASA. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- "Probe makes historic comet landing". BBC News. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Lakdawalla, Emily (12 November 2014). "Philae Has Landed! [Updated]". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Agle, D. C.; Brown, Dwayne; Bauer, Markus (13 November 2014). "Rosetta's Comet Lander Landed Three Times". NASA. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Three touchdowns for Rosetta's lander". European Space Agency. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Baldwin, Emily (28 November 2014). "Did Philae graze a crater rim during its first bounce?". European Space Agency. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Wall, Mike (14 November 2014). "European Probe Survived Comet Landing with Luck and Great Design". Space.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Howell, Elizabeth (2 December 2014). "Philae's Wild Comet Landing: Crater Grazing, Spinning And Landing In Parts Unknown". Universe Today. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Beatty, Kelly (15 November 2014). "Philae Wins Race to Return Comet Findings". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Baldwin, Emily (21 November 2014). "Homing in on Philae's final landing site". European Space Agency. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Connor, Steve (12 November 2014). "Rosetta space mission: Philae probe lands on Comet 67P". The Independent. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- Ellis, Ralph (12 November 2014). "Philae touches down on the surface of a comet". CNN. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Djursing, Thomas (13 November 2014). "ESA skrev til danske raketbyggere om eksplosiv-problem på Philae". Ingeniøren (in Danish). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Amos, Jonathan (13 November 2014). "Rosetta: Battery will limit life of Philae comet lander". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Harwood, William (15 November 2014). "Loss of contact with Philae". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Lakdawalla, Emily (13 November 2014). "Philae status, a day later". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Djursing, Thomas (13 November 2014). "Kometsonden Philae står skævt under en klippe og får for lidt sollys". Ingeniøren (in Danish). Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Lakdawalla, Emily (14 November 2014). "Philae update: My last day in Darmstadt, possibly Philae's last day of operations". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Amos, Jonathan (15 November 2014). "Philae comet lander sends more data before losing power". BBC News. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Lakdawalla, Emily (15 November 2014). "Now Philae down to sleep". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Scuka, Daniel (15 November 2014). "Our Lander's Asleep". European Space Agency. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Wall, Mike (30 July 2015). "Surprising Comet Discoveries by Rosetta's Philae Lander Unveiled". Space.com. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Churyumov-Gerasimenko – hard ice and organic molecules". German Aerospace Center. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Sinha, Kounteya (18 November 2014). "Philae reveals presence of large amount of water ice on the comet". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Wendel, JoAnna (31 July 2015). "Comet Lander Makes a Hard Discovery". Eos. 96. doi:10.1029/2015EO033623.
- Gray, Richard (19 November 2014). "Rosetta mission lander detects organic molecules on surface of comet". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Hand, Eric (17 November 2014). "COSAC PI: Drill tried to deliver sample". Twitter.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Jordans, Frank (30 July 2015). "Philae probe finds evidence that comets can be cosmic labs". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Science on the Surface of a Comet". European Space Agency. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- Bibring, J.-P.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Alexander, C.; Auster, U.; Biele, J.; et al. (31 July 2015). "Philae's First Days on the Comet". Science. 349 (6247): 493. Bibcode:2015Sci...349..493B. doi:10.1126/science.aac5116. PMID 26228139.
- Baldwin, Emily (14 June 2015). "Rosetta's lander Philae wakes up from hibernation". European Space Agency. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Mignone, Claudia (19 June 2015). "Rosetta and Philae in contact again". European Space Agency. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Baldwin, Emily (26 June 2015). "Rosetta and Philae: Searching for a good signal". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Philae wake-up triggers intense planning". European Space Agency. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Amos, Jonathan (19 June 2015). "Comet lander Philae renews contact". BBC News. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "New communication with Philae – commands executed successfully". Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Moulson, Geir (15 June 2015). "Europe's comet lander makes 2nd contact after waking up". Excite News. Associated Press. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Amos, Jonathan (17 June 2015). "Controllers wait on Philae link". BBC News. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Rosetta team struggles with Philae link". Earthsky. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Sutherland, Paul (14 August 2015). "Comet's fizzing all over during closest approach to the Sun". Space Exploration Network.
- Sutherland, Paul (20 July 2015). "Rosetta sends software patch to fix Philae". Space Exploration Network. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Aron, Jacob (11 January 2016). "Philae lander fails to respond to last-ditch efforts to wake it". New Scientist. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Mignone, Claudia (26 July 2016). "Farewell, silent Philae". European Space Agency. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Gibney, Elizabeth (26 July 2016). "Philae comet lander goes quiet for good". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20338. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Baldwin, Emily (11 June 2015). "The quest to find Philae". European Space Agency. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- Amos, Jonathan (26 September 2014). "Rosetta: Date fixed for historic comet landing attempt". BBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Amos, Jonathan (25 August 2014). "Rosetta mission: Potential comet landing sites chosen". BBC News. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Dambeck, Thorsten (21 January 2014). "Expedition to primeval matter". Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Böhnhardt, Hermann (10 November 2014). "About the Upcoming Philae Separation, Descent and Landing". Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Richter, L.; Kührt, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Möhlmann, D. (2009). "The Strength of Cometary Surface Material: Relevance of Deep Impact Results for Philae Landing on a Comet". In Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Sterken, Christiaan (eds.). Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time, and Wavelength. Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space. ESO Astrophysics Symposia. Springer. p. 297. Bibcode:2009diwo.conf..285B. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-76959-0_38. ISBN 978-3-540-76958-3.
- Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan (2013). Preparing for Landing on a Comet – The Rosetta Lander Philae (PDF). 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 18–22 March 2013. The Woodlands, Texas. Bibcode:2013LPI....44.1392B. LPI Contribution No. 1719.
- "Why was 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko selected as the target comet instead of Wirtanen?". Rosetta's Frequently Asked Questions. European Space Agency. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
The other options, including a launch to Wirtanen in 2004, would have required a more powerful launch vehicle, either an Ariane 5 ECA or a Proton.
- "Highlights from the Rosetta mission thus far". European Space Agency. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Philae Lander Factsheets" (PDF). DLR Public Relations. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "APXS". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Lamy, P; Langevin, Y; Souufflot, A; Berthé, J; Borg, J; Poulet, F; Mottola, S (2007). "CIVA". Space Science Reviews. 138 (1–4): 397–412. Bibcode:2007SSRv..128..397B. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9135-5.
- Biele, J.; Ulamec, S. (July 2008). "Capabilities of Philae, the Rosetta Lander". Space Science Reviews. 138 (1–4): 275–289. Bibcode:2008SSRv..138..275B. doi:10.1007/s11214-007-9278-z.
- "Comet nucleus Infrared and Visible Analyser (CIVA)". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "ÇIVA". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Kofman, W.; Herique, A.; Goutail, J.-P.; Hagfors, T.; Williams, I. P.; et al. (February 2007). "The Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT): A Short Description of the Instrument and of the Commissioning Stages". Space Science Reviews. 128 (1–4): 413–432. Bibcode:2007SSRv..128..413K. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9034-9.
- "CONCERT". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Goesmann, Fred; Rosenbauer, Helmut; Roll, Reinhard; Böhnhardt, Hermann (October 2005). "COSAC Onboard Rosetta: A Bioastronomy Experiment for the Short-Period Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko". Astrobiology. 5 (5): 622–631. Bibcode:2005AsBio...5..622G. doi:10.1089/ast.2005.5.622. PMID 16225435.
- "COSAC". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "MUPUS". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Wright, I. P.; Barber, S. J.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.; Sheridan, S.; et al. (February 2007). "Ptolemy: An Instrument to Measure Stable Isotopic Ratios of Key Volatiles on a Cometary Nucleus". Space Science Reviews. 128 (1–4): 363–381. Bibcode:2007SSRv..128..363W. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9001-5.
- Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Morse, A. D.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; et al. (2006). Ptolemy: An Instrument aboard the Rosetta Lander Philae, to Unlock the Secrets of the Solar System (PDF). 37th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 13–17 March 2006. League City, Texas.
- "ROLIS". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Rosetta Lander Imaging System (ROLIS)". National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "ROMAP". European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Di Lizia, Pierluigi (9 April 2014). "Introducing SD2: Philae's Sampling, Drilling and Distribution instrument". European Space Agency. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Philae SD2". Politecnico di Milano. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Marchesi, M.; Campaci, R.; Magnani, P.; Mugnuolo, R.; Nista, A.; et al. (2001). Comet sample acquisition for ROSETTA lander mission. 9th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium. 19–21 September 2001. Liège, Belgium. Bibcode:2001ESASP.480...91M.
- "Drill Box". Politecnico di Milano. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Ovens". Politecnico di Milano. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Carousel". Politecnico di Milano. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Volume Checker". Politecnico di Milano. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Rosetta, anche l'Italia sbarca sulla cometa". La Repubblica (in Italian). 12 November 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Seidensticker, K. J.; Möhlmann, D.; Apathy, I.; Schmidt, W.; Thiel, K.; et al. (February 2007). "Sesame – An Experiment of the Rosetta Lander Philae: Objectives and General Design". Space Science Reviews. 128 (1–4): 301–337. Bibcode:2007SSRv..128..301S. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9118-6.
- "Rosetta" (in German). Institut für Weltraumforschung. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Christiaens, Kris (6 November 2014). "België mee aan boord van Rosetta kometenjager". Belgium in Space (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Christiaens, Kris (19 July 2009). "Rosetta". Belgium in Space (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Scuka, Daniel (12 November 2014). "Space weather report for Rosetta". European Space Agency. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Two Canadian Firms Play Small but Key Roles in Comet Landing". Maclean's. The Canadian Press. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Rosetta "The Comet Chaser" – The Canadian Connection" (Press release). ADGA Group. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Lander successfully touches down on the comet surface" (Press release). Finnish Meteorological Institute. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Active Descent System" (PDF). Moog Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "The MUPUS Instrument for Rosetta mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko". Laboratorium Mechatroniki i Robotyki Satelitarnej. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.
- "12 November, 2014 A Space Probe landed on the Surface of a Comet for the first time in Space Research". Wigner Research Centre for Physics. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- "CDMS". Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "References". Space Research Group. 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "Industrial Involvement in the Rosetta Mission". European Space Agency. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Comet chaser 'Rosetta' has technology from 2 Irish companies on board". Enterprise Ireland. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "CAPTEC's Fred Kennedy explains its role in the Rosetta Project". RTE News. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Maynooth University scientists play key role in historic Rosetta mission". Maynooth University Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Rosetta Mission: Italy's decisive technological contribution". Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Presentación de PowerPoint – Space Activities". AASpace.
- "Tecnología española para aterrizar sobre un cometa". Cinco Dias. 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "CIVA Project". 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Alan Tovey (11 November 2014). "UK space industry behind Rosetta comet mission". The Telegraph.
- "Live updates: Rosetta mission comet landing". European Space Agency. 12 November 2014.
- "Call for Media Opportunities to follow Rosetta mission's historic comet landing". European Space Agency. 16 October 2014.
- Jackson, Patrick (13 November 2014). "Rosetta comet: One giant leap for Europe (not Nasa)". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- on YouTube
- on YouTube
- on YouTube
- Solon, Olivia (12 November 2014). "Philae: Google Doodle marks Rosetta's historic comet landing". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Mukherjee, Trisha (30 December 2014). "Google doodle wraps up year in animated '2014 trending topics'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Randall, Munroe (12 November 2014). "Landing". xkcd. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Davis, Lauren (12 November 2014). "xkcd Animates The Philae Comet Landing—And It's Adorable". io9.com. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Ball, Andrew J. (November 1997). "Rosetta Lander". CapCom. 8 (2).
- Ulamec, S.; Biele, J. (January 2006). From the Rosetta Lander Philae to an Asteroid Hopper: Lander Concepts For Small Bodies Missions (PDF). 7th International Planetary Probe Workshop. 14–18 June 2010. Barcelona, Spain.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philae (spacecraft).|
- Rosetta mission website by the European Space Agency
- Philae entry at the National Space Science Data Center
- Philae blog at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research
- Rosetta Lander Mission Data Archive at the NASA Planetary Data System, Small Bodies Node