List of birds of Singapore
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.
- Very common (VC) - found almost all the time in suitable locations
- Common (C) - found most of the time in suitable locations
- Uncommon (U) - found some of the time
- Rare (R) - found several times a year
- Very rare (VR) - not found every year
- Accidental (A) - a species that rarely or accidentally has occurred in Singapore
- Extirpated (Ex) - used to be found in Singapore, but not any more
- Resident (R) - stays throughout the year without known breeding record
- Resident breeder (RB) - stays throughout the year with known breeding record
- Winter visitor (WV) - spends months at wintering site
- Passage migrant (PM) - spends days to weeks at wintering site
- Migrant breeder (MB) - breeds locally, but winters elsewhere
- Non-breeding visitor (NBV) - can be found throughout the year for days to months, but does not breed locally
- Vagrant (V) - not usually found locally
- Introduced (I) - either released or escaped birds
- Reintroduced (rI) - previously extirpated, but has been re-introduced into the wild
There are many locations for bird-watching in Singapore. The habitats include forests, mangroves, rivers, coasts, grasslands, woodlands, marshes, and offshore islands.
- Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) - the forest surrounding the highest peak in Singapore
- Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) - the four reservoirs in central Singapore (MacRitchie, Lower Peirce (LPR), Upper Peirce (UPR) and Upper Seletar (USR)) and surrounding forests
- Labrador Nature Reserve (LNR) - the forest and surrounding coast at the southern tip of Singapore
- Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve (SBWR) - the wetland at the north-western tip of Singapore
There are many islands surrounding mainland Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "pulau" (P.), meaning "island" (Is.) in the Malay language.
- Islands in Johor Strait - including Pulau Punggol, Coney Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin
- Islands in Singapore Strait - including Sentosa, Sisters' Islands, St. John Island, Kusu Island, Jurong Island, Pulau Hantu, Pulau Salu, Pulau Semakau
- Pedra Branca - the easternmost end of Singapore Strait
There are many rivers in Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "sungei" (S.), meaning "river" in the Malay language.
- Sungei Punggol - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Punggol Reservoir. It contains Sengkang Floating Wetland (SFW) and is beside Sengkang Riverside Park (SRP).
- Sungei Serangoon - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Serangoon Reservoir. It is beside Lorong Halus Wetland and Punggol grassland.
There are many coastal habitats around mainland Singapore.
- Lower Seletar Dam (LSD) - a mudflat and sandy beach at north-eastern Singapore. It is the northern border of Lower Seletar Reservoir (LSR).
- Kranji Dam - a dam at north-western Singapore. It is the northern border of the Kranji Reservoir.
- Mandai Mudflat -a mudflat at north-western Singapore. It is a feeding ground for migratory waders.
There are many parks and gardens in Singapore. Some of them contain lakes, mangroves, forests, quarries, or rivers. Some are parks in a town, like Ang Mo Kio Town Garden West (AMK TGW) and Choa Chu Kang Park (CCKP). Others are parks in business or industrial areas, like Changi Business Park (CBP) and Jurong Eco-Garden (JEG).
- Admiralty Park - a park in northern Singapore with a mangrove and a river, Sungei Cina.
- Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park (BAMKP) - urban park along the banks of a former canal located in central Singapore
- Bukit Batok Nature Park (BBNP) - a forest near the western part of Singapore with a quarry within.
- Dairy Farm Nature Park (DFNP) - the forest adjacent to the north of BTNR, including Wallace Education Centre and Singapore Quarry
- Hindhede Nature Park (HNP) - the forest adjacent to the south-west of BTNR, including Hindhede Quarry.
- Jurong Lake Gardens (JLG) - includes the gardens surrounding the Jurong Lake, such as Chinese Garden and Japanese Garden.
- Pasir Ris Park (PRP) - a park in north-eastern Singapore containing Sungei Api Api and a mangrove board walk.
- Satay by the Bay (SBTB) is a part of the bigger Gardens by the Bay in south-eastern Singapore (formerly Marina South)
- Singapore Botanic Gardens (SBG) - Singapore's only UNESCO site containing three lakes (Eco, Symphony and Swan).
- Southern Ridges - contains Kent Ridge Park (KRP), Mount Faber Park (MFP) and Telok Blangah Hill Park (TBHP).
- Tampines Eco Green (TEG) - a park in eastern Singapore.
- West Coast Park (WCP) - a park in south-western Singapore.
Cemeteries, present or past, are good nature areas because they are left undisturbed most of the time.
- Bidadari Cemetery - the former cemetery along Upper Aljunied Road
- Bukit Brown Cemetery (BBC) - the former cemetery along Lornie Road
- Choa Chu Kang Cemetery (CCKC) - the cemeteries along Lim Chu Kang Road
The other locations include reclaimed lands, woodlands and military grounds
- Changi - the reclaimed land and coast at eastern Singapore
- Neo Tiew Lane (NTL) - the area from Neo Tiew Lane 1 to 3, including Kranji Marshes, Turut Track
- Western Water Catchment (WWC) - the four reservoirs in western Singapore (Tengeh, Poyan, Murai and Sarimbun) and surrounding forests
- Tuas - the reclaimed land and coast at southwestern Singapore
Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- Wandering whistling duck (Dendrocygna arcuata) - U/IRB - SBG, SBTB, WCP, Marina East, Marina South, P. Punggol
- Lesser whistling duck (Dendrocygna javanica) - U/RB - Halus, Jurong Central Park, Kranji Marsh, SBTB, SBG, SBWR, WCP, Yishun, P. Punggol, S. Serangoon
- Cotton pygmy-goose (Nettapus coromandelianus) - VR/NBV - CCNR, Halus, Kranji Marsh, SBTB, LSR, Poyan, WCP
- Garganey (Spatula querquedula) - R/WV - Changi, CCNR, Halus, Poyan, SBWR, Tuas, Marina South, Tanah Merah
- Northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata) - VR/WV - Changi, Halus, Poyan, SBWR (2008)
- Gadwall (Mareca strepera) - VR/V - Punggol (1989)
- Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) - VR/V - Kranji Marsh (2018), SBWR (1986-7)
- Northern pintail (Anas acuta) - VR/WV - Poyan
- Green-winged teal (Anas crecca) - VR/V - S. Jurong (1978)
- Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) - VR/V - Changi (1999)
Pheasants, grouse, and allies
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.
- Blue-breasted quail (Synoicus chinensis) - R/RB - Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, Punggol, SBWR, Tuas
- Red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) - U/RB+IRB - RB: P. Ubin. IRB: Changi, East Coast, Fort Canning, Poyan, PRP, SBG, LNR, SBTB, SBWR, Sembawang Park, Tampines
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) - U/RB - Halus, P. Ubin, KRP, Kranji Marsh, P. Punggol, Punggol, Singapore Quarry, Tampines Quarry
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon (Columba livia) - VC/IRB - urban areas
- Oriental turtle-dove (Streptopelia orientalis) - VR/V - Sisters' Is. (2018)
- Red collared-dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) - C/IRB - Admiralty Park, Changi, Halus, NTL, PRP, P. Punggol, P. Ubin
- Spotted dove (Spilopelia chinensis) - VC/RB - urban areas
- Asian emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica) - U/RB - Admiralty Park, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Zebra dove (Geopelia striata) - C/RB - urban areas
- Little green-pigeon (Treron olax) - VR/NBV - BTNR, CCNR
- Pink-necked green-pigeon (Treron vernans) - C/RB - woodlands
- Cinnamon-headed green-pigeon (Treron fulvicollis) - VR/NBV - CCNR, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR, TEG
- Thick-billed green-pigeon (Treron curvirostra) - U/RB - BBC, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, Springleaf, St. John Is., Sentosa, Marina South
- Jambu fruit-dove (Ptilinopus jambu) - U/NBV - BBNP, Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, DFNP, JLG, Kranji Marsh, KRP, MFP, P. Punggol, SBG
- Green imperial-pigeon (Ducula aenea) - R/RB - BBNP, CBP, Halus, Loyang, PRP, P. Ubin, P. Tekong
- Mountain imperial-pigeon (Ducula badia) - VR/V - P. Ubin (2012, 2016-7)
- Pied imperial-pigeon (Ducula bicolor) - R/NBV, U/F - NBV: P. Salu, Singapore Strait, Southern Islands; F: BBNP, Bt Batok West, JLG, LNR, Poyan, PRP, Tuas, WCP
- Greater coucal (Centropus sinensis) - U/RB - woodlands: CCNR, Halus, Mandai, NTL, Poyan, PRP, SBG, SBWR, TBHP, Venus Dr
- Lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) - C/RB - grasslands
- Chestnut-bellied malkoha (Phaenicophaeus sumatranus) - U/RB - BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, JEG, Mandai, Poyan, TBHP
- Chestnut-winged cuckoo (Clamator coromandus) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, SBTB, Halus, JEG, JLG, Murai, Poyan, PRP, P. Punggol, Simpang, SBG, SBWR, TEG, Tuas, Khatib Bongsu, Marina South
- Pied cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) - VR/V - Halus (2013-4, 2015)
- Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) - C/RB - Islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Asian emerald cuckoo (Chrysococcyx maculatus) - VR/V - Sentosa (2017-8), Ulu Pandan Park Connector (2020)
- Violet cuckoo (Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus) - U/RBWV - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, JEG, Mandai, NTL, PRP, Poyan, P. Ubin, SBG, Simpang, Springleaf
- Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis) - R/WV - Changi Beach, CCKC, Halus, Kranji, P. Punggol, P. Tekong, Punggol, Sentosa, Tuas, Marina East, Marina South
- Little bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx minutillus) - U/RB - woodlands
- Banded bay cuckoo (Cacomantis sonnerati) - U/RB - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, Marina East, NTL, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Plaintive cuckoo (Cacomantis merulinus) - U/RB - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Halus, JLG, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Poyan, PRP, Punggol, SBWR, Tampines, Tuas
- Brush cuckoo (Cacomantis variolosus) - U/RB - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Coney Is., Halus, JLG, NTL, Poyan, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, PRP, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, Khatib Bongsu
- Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) - U/RBWV - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, JLG, Mandai, NTL, PRP, Poyan, SBG, SBWR
- Large hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx sparverioides) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, JLG, P. Punggol, PRP, Sentosa, Tuas, Khatib Bongsu
- Hodgson's hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx nisicolor) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Coney Is., JLG, Kusu Is., Mandai, PRP, Poyan, P. Punggol, Sembawang, Tuas
- Malaysian hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx fugax) - R/NBV - BAMKP, Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, JLG, Poyan, SBWR
- Indian cuckoo (Cuculus micropterus) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, JLG, Mandai, MFP, NTL, Poyan, P. Punggol, SBG, SBWR, Sembawang, Sentosa, Tuas
- Himalayan cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) - R/PM - Bidadari, BBNP, CCNR, Coney Is., JLG, Tuas
Nightjars and allies
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Malaysian eared-nightjar (Eurostopodus temminckii) - VR/NBV - BBNP, CCNR
- Gray nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, JLG, SBWR, TBHP
- Large-tailed nightjar (Caprimulgus macrurus) - C/RB - woodlands
- Savanna nightjar (Caprimulgus affinis) - U/RB - grasslands: Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Ubin, Punggol, Seletar East, TEG, Tuas
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Silver-rumped needletail (Rhaphidura leucopygialis) - VR/NBV - CCNR, Changi, Poyan
- White-throated needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus) - VR/PM - BTNR, CCNR, Henderson Waves
- Silver-backed needletail (Hirundapus cochinchinensis) - R/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, DFNP
- Brown-backed needletail (Hirundapus giganteus) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin
- Plume-toed swiftlet (Collocalia affinis) - U/R - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR
- Black-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus maxima) - C/RB - islandwide, including offshore islands
- Germain's swiftlet (Aerodramus germani)
- Pacific swift (Apus pacificus) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, KRP, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait, Tuas
- House swift (Apus nipalensis) - U/RB - Buangkok, Changi, CCNR, DFNP, Halus, Henderson Waves, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Tuas
- Asian palm-swift (Cypsiurus balasiensis) - U/RB - BTNR, CCKC, CCNR, Halus, KRP, Poyan, P. Ubin
The treeswifts, also called crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage.
- Gray-rumped treeswift (Hemiprocne longipennis) - C/RB - BAMKP, BBNP, Bidadari, CCNR, KRP, Mandai, SBG, TBHP
- Whiskered treeswift (Hemiprocne comata) - VR/NBV - BTNR, CCNR
Rails, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Slaty-breasted rail (Lewinia striata) - U/RB - tall grass areas
- Eurasian moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) - U/RB - Halus, Kranji Marsh, Poyan, WCP, Marina South, P. Punggol, Serangoon
- Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) - VR/V - Poyan
- Gray-headed swamphen (Porphyrio poliocephalus) - R/RB - Halus, Kranji Marsh, Neo Tiew, TEG, Poyan
- Watercock (Gallicrex cinerea) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, Jurong East, Kranji Marsh, Poyan, SBG, SBWR, Tuas, Khatib Bongsu, Marina South
- White-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) - C/RBWV - islandwide
- White-browed crake (Amaurornis cinerea) - U/RB - Halus, Kranji Marsh, SBWR, Punggol
- Red-legged crake (Rallina fasciata) - U/RBWV - BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, MFP, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR
- Slaty-legged crake (Rallina eurizonoides) - VR/WVPM - Admiralty Park, Bedok, Haig Road, Jurong Is., JLG, LPR, Sentosa, Punggol
- Ruddy-breasted crake (Zapornia fusca) - U/RBWV - BAMKP, Changi, Halus, Kranji Marsh, LSR, Punggol, P. Punggol, Tampines, Tuas, Marina South
- Band-bellied crake (Zapornia paykullii) - VR/PM - JLG (2011, 2014), SBG (2018)
- Baillon's crake (Zapornia pusilla) - R/WVPM - Bt. Batok, Halus, NTL, SBTB, Tampines, Tuas, P. Punggol
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots.
- Masked finfoot (Heliopais personata) - VR/V - SBWR (1999), USR (2002, 2010)
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.
- Beach thick-knee (Esacus magnirostris) - Ex/R - Southern Islands
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
- Black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) - VR/WVPM+RB - WVPM: Changi, Kranji Marsh, LSD, SBWR, P. Punggol. RB: P. Tekong (2019)
- Pied stilt (Himantopus leucocephalus) - VR/RB - P. Tekong (2019)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) - U/WVPM - Changi, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Pacific golden-plover (Pluvialis fulva) - C/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats, open areas
- Gray-headed lapwing (Vanellus cinereus) - VR/V - Kranji, NTL, SBWR, Tuas
- Red-wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus) - U/RB - Bt. Batok West, Changi, Kranji, Marina East, NTL, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR, Sarimbun, Tuas, Warren
- Masked lapwing (Vanellus miles) - U/F - Mandai, Seletar West, Tanjong Rhu
- Lesser sand-plover (Charadrius mongolus) - C/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats
- Greater sand-plover (Charadrius leschenaultii) - U/WVPM - Changi, LSD, Marina Barrage, SBWR
- Malaysian plover (Charadrius peronii) - U/RB - Changi, Halus, LSD, Marina Barrage, P. Semakau, Tuas
- Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) - U/WVPM - Changi, Marina Barrage, Tuas
- Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) - VR/PM - Changi, SBWR
- Little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius) - U/WVPM - open areas, rivers, coasts
- Oriental plover (Charadrius veredus) - VR/PM - Changi, LSD
Painted-snipes are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured.
- Greater painted-snipe (Rostratula benghalensis) - R/RB - Halus, Jurong Central Park, Jurong West, Kranji Marsh, Pasir Ris Farmway, Punggol, Tuas, SBG
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
- Pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) - VR/WV - Halus, HNP (Hindhede Quarry), NTL (Kranji Marshes), SBTB, SBWR
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Eurasian Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) - C/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats
- Little curlew (Numenius minutus) - VR/V - Tuas (1997)
- Far Eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis) - VR/PM - Changi, SBWR
- Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) - R/WVPM - Changi, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR, Tuas
- Bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) - U/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) - U/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, SBWR
- Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Tekong, SBWR
- Great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) - R/PM - Changi, LSD, Mandai Mudflat, SBWR
- Red knot (Calidris canutus) - VR/WV - SBWR
- Ruff (Calidris pugnax) - VR/WV - Changi, SBWR
- Broad-billed sandpiper (Calidris falcinellus) - U/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, SBWR
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata) - R/V - Changi
- Curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) - U/WVPM - Changi, LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Tekong, SBWR
- Temminck's stint (Calidris temminckii) - VR/PM
- Long-toed stint (Calidris subminuta) - R/WVPM - Changi, NTL, Pulau Punggol, SBWR, Tuas
- Spoon-billed sandpiper (Calidris pygmeus) - VR/WV - Changi
- Red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) - U/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Sanderling (Calidris alba) - U/WV - Changi, LSD, P. Tekong, SBWR
- Dunlin (Calidris alpina) - VR/PM - Changi
- Little stint (Calidris minuta) - VR/PM - P. Ubin (2017)
- Pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos) - R/V - Changi
- Asian dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus) - U/WVPM - Changi, Halus, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) - VR/V
- Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago) - U/WV - Changi, JLG, Halus, Poyan, SBWR, Tuas, Venus Drive, Khatib Bongsu, P. Punggol, Punggol
- Pin-tailed snipe (Gallinago stenura) - U/WV - Changi, CCKC, Halus, JLG, Punggol, P. Ubin, SBWR, Tuas, Warren
- Swinhoe's snipe (Gallinago megala) - R/WV - Changi, Jurong West, Punggol, NTL
- Terek sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) - U/WVPM - Changi, LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus) - VR/WV - P. Tekong, Singapore Strait
- Common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) - VC/WVPM - waterbodies
- Green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) - VR/WV - CCK, NTL, SBWR
- Gray-tailed tattler (Tringa brevipes) - U/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, SBWR
- Spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) - VR/WV - Punggol, SBWR
- Common greenshank (Tringa nebularia) - VC/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats
- Nordmann's greenshank (Tringa guttifer) - VR/WV - Changi, SBWR
- Marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) - U/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats
- Wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola) - U/WVPM - Changi, Halus, JLG, NTL, Punggol, P. Punggol, SBWR, Tuas
- Common redshank (Tringa totanus) - VC/WVPM - rivers, coasts, mudflats
The buttonquail are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young.
- Barred buttonquail (Turnix suscitator) - U/RB - Changi, Coney Is., Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Punggol, TEG, Tuas
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.
- Oriental pratincole (Glareola maldivarum) - U/PM - CCNR, Changi, Kranji Marsh, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Semakau, P. Ubin, Tuas
- Small pratincole (Glareola lactea) - VR/PM - Changi, P. Punggol
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- Pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus) - R/WV - Singapore Strait
- Parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) - R/WV - P. Punggol, Singapore Strait
- Long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus) - R/WV - Singapore Strait
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.
- Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) - R/WV - LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
- Brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) - VR/V - Johor Strait, Kranji
- Lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) - VR/V - Singapore Strait (2011)
- Bridled tern (Onychoprion anaethetus) - U/RB, C/PM - Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait
- Aleutian tern (Onychoprion aleuticus) - U/WV - Singapore Strait
- Little tern (Sternula albifrons) - C/RBWV - inland (nest), rivers, coasts, seas
- Gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) - R/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, Sentosa, Singapore Strait
- Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) - R/WV - Mandai Mudflat
- White-winged tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) - U/WVPM - rivers, coasts, seas
- Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) - R/WVPM - Halus, Johor Strait, JLG, Kranji Dam, Serangoon, Singapore Strait
- Roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) - VR/V - Pedra Branca
- Black-naped tern (Sterna sumatrana) - U/RB - Changi, Johor Strait, Pedra Branca, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
- Common tern (Sterna hirundo) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, Mandai Mudflat, Singapore Strait
- Great crested tern (Thalasseus bergii) - C/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
- Lesser crested tern (Thalasseus bengalensis) - U/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Punggol, Singapore Strait
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
- White-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus) - VR/V - Tuas (2015)
- Red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) - VR/V - S. Serangoon (1986)
Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.
- Swinhoe's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma monorhis) - C/PM - P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Bulwer's petrel (Bulweria bulwerii) - R/PM - Singapore Strait
- Short-tailed shearwater (Ardenna tenuirostris) - U/PM - Singapore Strait
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
- Asian openbill (Anastomus oscitans) - U/WV - NTL/P. Punggol/Seletar West (2013), SBWR (2019), island-wide (Dec 2019)
- Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus) - Ex/RB, R/NBV - Kranji Marsh, P. Ubin, SBWR, WWC
- Milky stork (Mycteria cinerea) - U/F - Admiralty Park, JLG, SBWR
- Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala) - U/F - Admiralty Park, JLG, SBWR
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Lesser frigatebird (Fregata ariel) - VR/NBV - Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait
- Christmas Island frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi) - VR/NBV - P. Ubin, Singapore Strait, SBWR
Boobies and gannets
- Brown booby (Sula leucogaster) - VR/V - Pedra Branca, SBWR (2016), Singapore Strait
- Red-footed booby (Sula sula) - VR/V - CCKC (2011), Singapore Strait (2012, 2016), St. John Is. (2019), Marina East (2017, carcass)
Anhingas or darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
- Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) - R/NBV - Bukit Gombak, Hindhede Quarry, Kranji, P. Ubin, Singapore Quarry
Cormorants and shags
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
- Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) - U/F - Changi, JLG, Johor Strait, Kranji Dam, Mandai Mudflat, Tuas
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
- Spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) - R/F - Kranji, NTL, P. Ubin, Seletar, SBWR
Herons, egrets, and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Yellow bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) - C/RBWV - reeds
- Schrenck's bittern (Ixobrychus eurhythmus) - R/WV - CCNR, Changi, Halus, JLG, Jurong West, PRP, Punggol, Sengkang, SBG, SBTB, SBWR, Tuas, Venus Drive
- Cinnamon bittern (Ixobrychus cinnamomeus) - U/RBWV - Bidadari, CCKC, Changi, Halus, JLG, NTL, PRP, SBG, SBWR, Tuas, Jurong West, P. Punggol, Seletar West
- Black bittern (Ixobrychus flavicollis) - U/WVPM - BAMKP, CCNR, DFNP, Hindhede Quarry, JEG, JLG, Halus, PRP, P. Ubin, SBG, SBTB, SBWR, Tuas
- Gray heron (Ardea cinerea) - C/RB - waterbodies
- Great-billed heron (Ardea sumatrana) - U/RB - Changi, Coney Is., Jurong Is., JLG, LNR, LSD, KRP, Poyan, P. Hantu, P. Jong, P. Punggol, P. Semakau, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, Sentosa, SBWR, WCP, Tuas
- Purple heron (Ardea purpurea) - C/RB - grassfields, waterbodies
- Great egret (Ardea alba) - C/WV - waterbodies
- Intermediate egret (Ardea intermedia) - C/WV - grassfields, waterbodies
- Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes) - R/WV - Changi, PRP, P. Ubin, SBWR, S. Serangoon
- Little egret (Egretta garzetta) - C/WV - waterbodies
- Pacific reef-heron (Egretta sacra) - U/R - Changi, LSD, Marina Barrage, P. Hantu, P. Semakau, P. Ubin, PRP, Siglap Canal, SBWR, WCP, S. Punggol, S. Serangoon
- Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) - C/WV - grassfields
- Indian pond-heron (Ardeola grayii) - VR/V - Bidadari (2015, 2016), Pasir Ris Farmway (2012, 2016), Senoko (1994)
- Chinese pond-heron (Ardeola bacchus) - C/WV - Changi, Halus, JLG, LNR, Poyan, SBWR, Marina South
- Javan pond-heron (Ardeola speciosa) - U/WV - Pasir Ris Farmway, SBWR, S. Serangoon
- Striated heron (Butorides striatus) - C/RBWV - waterbodies
- Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) - U/RB - waterbodies
- Malayan night-heron (Gorsachius melanolophus) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Halus, JLG, NTL, SBG, Tuas
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) - VR/V - Halus (1984), Kranji Dam (2019), Sime Road (1992, 2007), SBWR (1989)
The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) - U/NBV - Changi, DFNP, Halus, Henderson Waves, Kranji, Mandai Mudflat, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, PRP, SBWR, Sembawang Park, S. Punggol, S. Serangoon
Hawks, eagles, and kites
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Black-winged kite (Elanus caeruleus) - C/RB - grasslands
- Oriental honey-buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus) - orientalis: C/WVPM, torquatus: U/NBV - WVPM: islandwide. NBV: Bidadari, CCNR, Poyan, PRP, Tampines, TBHP, Toa Payoh, USR, Warren
- Jerdon's baza (Aviceda jerdoni) - U/WVPM - AMK TGW, Bidadari, BTNR, CCKC, CCNR, Changi, Clementi, DFNP, Halus, JLG, PRP, Poyan, Springleaf, TEG, Marina South
- Black baza (Aviceda leuphotes) - C/WVPM - islandwide
- Himalayan griffon (Gyps himalayensis) - R/V - AMK, BTNR, Changi, Orchard Road, Simpang, SBWR, Toa Payoh, Tuas, Telok Ayer
- Crested serpent-eagle (Spilornis cheela) - R/R - BTNR, CCNR, Goldhill Avenue, JLG, Malcolm Park, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, Sembawang Park, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR
- Short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus) - VR/PM - CCNR, Changi, Henderson Waves, JLG, Halus, NTL, SBWR, Tuas
- Bat hawk (Macheiramphus alcinus) - VR/NBV - MacRitchie, P. Ubin
- Changeable hawk-eagle (Nisaetus cirrhatus) - U/RB - forests, woodlands
- Blyth's hawk-eagle (Nisaetus alboniger) - VR/NBV - KRP, Simpang
- Rufous-bellied eagle (Hieraaetus kienerii) - R/WVPM - BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, Pang Sua, SBG, SBWR, Swiss Club Road
- Greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga) - VR/WV - Changi, Henderson Waves, Murai, NTL, P. Punggol, SBG, Tuas
- Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) - U/WV - Bidadari, Bukit Panjang, CCKC, CCNR, Changi, Poyan, Punggol, P. Punggol, Tuas
- Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) - VR/V - Changi, Halus, Tuas, Punggol, S. Serangoon
- Imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) - VR/V - Changi, P. Ubin (2016-7), Punggol
- Gray-faced buzzard (Butastur indicus) - U/WV - BBNP, CCNR, Changi, Henderson Waves, P. Ubin, SBWR, Tuas
- Eastern marsh-harrier (Circus spilonotus) - U/WV - Changi, Henderson Waves, NTL, Poyan, P. Semakau, Sengkang, SBWR, Tuas
- Hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) - VR/WV - Halus, Poyan
- Pied harrier (Circus melanoleucos) - R/WV - Changi, NTL, P. Punggol, SBWR, TBHP, Tuas
- Crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) - U/RB - AMK TGW, BAMKP, Bedok, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Goldhill Ave, JLG, Kranji Dam, NTL, PRP, Punggol, P. Ubin, SBG, SBTB, Sembawang Park, Sentosa, Southern Ridges, Zoo
- Shikra (Accipiter badius) - VR/V - CCNR (2019)
- Chinese sparrowhawk (Accipiter soloensis) - U/WVPM - AMK TGW, CCNR, Changi, Coney Is., JLG, LSD, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, PRP, SBG, SBWR, Southern Ridges, Tuas, WCP
- Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) - C/WVPM - islandwide
- Besra (Accipiter virgatus) - R/PM - Changi, Henderson Waves, Tuas
- Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) - VR/V - Henderson Waves (2016, 2017), TBHP (2018), Tuas (2010)
- Black kite (Milvus migrans) - U/WV - BBNP, CCNR, Changi, Jurong West, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Seletar Camp, SBWR, Tuas, Marina South
- Brahminy kite (Haliastur indus) - C/RB - islandwide
- White-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) - C/RB - islandwide near water
- Gray-headed fish-eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) - U/RB - CCNR, Changi, JLG, Little Guilin, LSR, NTL, Poyan, Seletar Camp, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR, Tampines
- Common buzzard (Buteo buteo)
- Himalayan buzzard (Buteo refectus) - A
- Eastern buzzard (Buteo japonicus) - U/WV - Airport Road, Bidadari, BBNP, Changi, Halus, Henderson Waves, Holland Road, JLG, KRP, Seletar West, Sembawang Park, Sentosa, Tuas
- Long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus) - A
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl (Tyto alba) - U/RB - Changi, Halus, Istana, JLG, Kranji Dam, Marina Barrage, Sentosa, Tanjong Rhu, Toa Payoh, Tuas
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Sunda scops-owl (Otus lempiji) - C/RB - Alexandra Hill, BBC, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, HNP, P. Ubin, PRP, SBWR, Sentosa
- Oriental scops-owl (Otus sunia) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCKP, CCNR, DFNP, Fort Canning, Kent Road, KRP, Mimosa Walk, MFP, P. Ubin, Seletar Country Club, SBWR
- Barred eagle-owl (Bubo sumatranus) - R/RB - BBC, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, P. Ubin
- Buffy fish-owl (Ketupa ketupu) - U/RB - CCNR, JEG, NTL, Poyan, P. Ubin, PRP, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa
- Spotted wood-owl (Strix seloputo) - U/RB - Bidadari, Chinatown, City, Dover Road, JLG, PRP, P. Ubin, Poyan, St. John Is., Sentosa, SBG, TBHP, Toa Payoh
- Brown wood-owl (Strix leptogrammica) - VR/RB - CCNR, P. Ubin
- Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) - VR/V - Changi, Marina East
- Brown boobook (Ninox scutulata) - C/RBWV - BTNR, CCNR, HNP, JLG, P. Ubin, Sentosa
- Northern boobook (Ninox japonica) - R/PMWV - Tuas
Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.
- Black hornbill (Anthracoceros malayanus) - R/NBV - P. Ubin
- Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) - U/RB - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi Village, P. Ubin, PRP, SBWR, St. John Is.
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
- Common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) - C/WV - water edges
- Rufous-collared kingfisher (Actenoides concretus) - Ex/RB
- Blue-eared kingfisher (Alcedo meninting) - R/RB - BBNP, CCNR, HNP, NTL, Poyan, P. Ubin, SBTB, SBWR
- Black-backed dwarf-kingfisher (Ceyx erithacus) - R/WV - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, SBWR, Tuas
- Rufous-backed dwarf-kingfisher (Ceyx rufidorsa) - Ex/RB
- Stork-billed kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis) - U/RB - water edges
- Ruddy kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda) - R/RBWV - RB: P. Tekong. WV: Bidadari, CBP, CCNR, City, DFNP, Fort Canning, JLG, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Venus Drive
- White-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) - C/RB - water edges
- Black-capped kingfisher (Halcyon pileata) - U/WV - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Halus, JLG, NTL, PRP, SBWR, S. Serangoon, Tuas, LSD
- Collared kingfisher (Todirhamphus chloris) - VC/RB - water edges
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar.
- Blue-throated bee-eater (Merops viridis) - C/MB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Blue-tailed bee-eater (Merops philippinus) - C/WV - islandwide (including offshore islands)
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not.
- Dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis) - C/RBWV - woodlands
The Asian barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.
- Coppersmith barbet (Psilopogon haemacephalus) - C/RB - woodlands
- Red-crowned barbet (Psilopogon rafflesii) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Poyan
- Lineated barbet (Psilopogon lineatus) - U/IRB - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, HNP, JEG, JLG, NTL, Poyan, SBG, Southern Ridges
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Sunda woodpecker (Yungipicus moluccensis) - C/RB - parks
- Rufous woodpecker (Micropternus brachyurus) - U/RB - woodlands
- Buff-rumped woodpecker (Meiglyptes tristis) - VR/NBV - Bidadari, CCNR, P. Ubin
- Common flameback (Dinopium javanense) - C/RB - woodlands
- Laced woodpecker (Picus vittatus) - C/RB - woodlands
- Banded woodpecker (Chrysophlegma miniaceum) - C/RB - forests
- Great slaty woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) - VR/NBV - BTNR
- White-bellied woodpecker (Dryocopus javensis) - Ex/R - CCNR
Falcons and caracaras
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- Black-thighed falconet (Microhierax fringillarius) - VR/NBV - BBNP, JLG
- Lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) - VR/WV - Changi (2001, 2010), Simei (2001)
- Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) - R/WV - Bukit Batok West, Changi, CCKC, JLG, Kranji, KRP, P. Punggol, Tuas, Jurong West
- Amur falcon (Falco amurensis) - VR/V - Changi (2007), DFNP (2017), LSD (2016), Tanah Merah Coast Road (2017)
- Eurasian hobby (Falco subbuteo) - VR/V - P. Ubin, SBWR
- Oriental hobby (Falco severus) - VR/V - P. Ubin
- Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) - U/WV - BAMKP, BBNP, CCNR, Changi, City, JLG, Kranji, KRP, LSD, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Punggol Park, SBWR, Seletar Camp, Sembawang Park, St. John Is., Tuas, Woodlands, Khatib Bongsu
The cockatoos share many features with other parrots including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with two forward toes and two backwards toes. They differ, however in a number of characteristics, including the often spectacular movable headcrest.
- Tanimbar corella (Cacatua goffiniana) - C/IRB - Bidadari, BBNP, Changi Village, Malcolm Park, MFP, PRP SBG, Sembawang Park, Sentosa, Springleaf
- Yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) - U/IRB - Bidadari, Changi Village, Clementi, Dover Road, Malcolm Park, St. John Is., Sentosa, SBG, Southern Ridge
Old world parrots
Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Old World parrots are found from Africa east across south and southeast Asia and Oceania to Australia and New Zealand.
- Blue-rumped parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) - R/R - Bukit Batok West, CCNR
- Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) - U/IRB - Bidadari, Halus, LSD, Marina East, Poyan, PRP, P. Ubin, Seletar Camp, Sembawang Park, Simpang, SBG
- Red-breasted parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) - C/IRB - woodlands
- Long-tailed parakeet (Psittacula longicauda) - C/RB - woodlands
- Coconut lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) - U/IRB - BAMKP, BBC, Bidadari, BTNR, Buona Vista, CCNR, Goldhill Ave, JLG, SBG, Sentosa
- Blue-crowned hanging-parrot (Loriculus galgulus) - U/RB - BAMKP, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, KRP, Malcolm Park, MFP, SBG
African and green broadbills
The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests.
- Green broadbill (Calyptomena viridis) - Ex/RB, CCNR (Single individual. Mid 2000s). Indeterminate - East Coast Park (Nov2014)
Asian and Grauer’s broadbills
The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests.
- Black-and-red broadbill (Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos) - Ex/RB, VR/NBV - P. Ubin, SBWR
Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards and are stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates.
- Blue-winged pitta (Pitta moluccensis) - U/WVPM+R/RB - WVPM: Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, Bukit Batok West, CCNR, Hougang, Jurong Is., JLG, NTL, PRP, Poyan, Punggol Park, SBG, Sembawang Park, Tuas, WCP, Kranji Nature Trail. RB: P. Ubin (2016)
- Fairy pitta (Pitta nympha) - VR/V - CCNR (2019)
- Hooded pitta (Pitta sordida) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, HNP, JLG, SBG, WCP
- Mangrove pitta (Pitta megarhyncha) - R/RB - PRP, P. Ubin, P. Tekong, SBG, SBWR
Thornbills and allies
Thornbills are small passerine birds, similar in habits to the tits.
- Golden-bellied gerygone (Gerygone sulphurea) - C/RB - woodlands
The cuckooshrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured.
- Scarlet minivet (Pericrocotus flammeus) - Ex/R - BTNR
- Ashy minivet (Pericrocotus divaricatus) - C/WVPM - woodlands
- Pied triller (Lalage nigra) - C/RB - woodlands
- Lesser cuckooshrike (Coracina fimbriata) - VR/R - BTNR, CCNR
Whistlers and allies
The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and crested bellbird.
- Mangrove whistler (Pachycephala grisola) - R/RB - Changi, Halus, JEG, P. Hantu, P. Semakau, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles.
- Black-naped oriole (Oriolus chinensis) - C/RBWV - parks, woodlands, mangroves
Vangas, helmetshrikes, and allies
The family Vangidae is highly variable, though most members of it resemble true shrikes to some degree.
- Large woodshrike (Tephrodornis gularis) - VR/NBV - CCNR (2018)
- Black-winged flycatcher-shrike (Hemipus hirundinaceus) - VR/NBV - CCNR, P. Ubin
The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens.
- Common iora (Aegithina tiphia) - C/RB - woodlands
The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders.
- Malaysian pied-fantail (Rhipidura javanica) - C/RB - woodlands, mangroves
The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground.
- Black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) - U/WVPM - Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, Poyan, Punggol, SBWR, Seletar, Tuas
- Ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) - R/WV - Bidadari, BBNP, CCNR, CBP, MFP, P. Semakau, SBG, TBHP
- Crow-billed drongo (Dicrurus annectens) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Fort Canning, Halus, MFP, NTL, P. Ubin, PRP, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, St. John Is., Tuas
- Greater racket-tailed drongo (Dicrurus paradiseus) - C/RB - forests
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching.
- Black-naped monarch (Hypothymis azurea) - VR/R - P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBG (2019)
- Japanese paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone atrocaudata) - R/PM - BAMKP, Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, JLG, P. Hantu, SBWR, TBHP, Tuas
- Amur paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone incei) - C/WVPM - forests, woodlands
- Blyth's paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone affinis) - C/WVPM - forests, woodlands
- Indian paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) - VR/V - SBWR
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
- Tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) - C/WVPM - woodlands
- Brown shrike (Lanius cristatus) - C/WVPM - grasslands, woodlands
- Long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach) - C/RB - grasslands
Crows, jays, and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
- House crow (Corvus splendens) - VC/IRB - islandwide
- Large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) - C/RB - forests
Tits, chickadees, and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.
- Common tailorbird (Orthotomus sutorius) - C/RB - scrubby areas
- Dark-necked tailorbird (Orthotomus atrogularis) - C/RB - forests
- Ashy tailorbird (Orthotomus ruficeps) - C/RB - mangroves
- Rufous-tailed tailorbird (Orthotomus sericeus) - U/RB - forests
- Yellow-bellied prinia (Prinia flaviventris) - C/RB - grasslands
- Zitting cisticola (Cisticola juncidis) - C/RB - grasslands
Reed warblers and allies
The members of this family are usually rather large for "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but it also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.
- Booted warbler (Iduna caligata) - VR/V - Kranji Marsh (2017-8)
- Black-browed reed warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, JLG, NTL, Punggol, SFW, SBWR, Tuas, Marina South
- Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) - C/WV - marshes, woodlands near water
Grassbirds and allies
Locustellidae are a family of small insectivorous songbirds found mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. They are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed, and tend to be drab brownish or buffy all over.
- Pallas's grasshopper-warbler (Locustella certhiola) - U/WVPM - Changi, Halus, SFW, Tuas
- Lanceolated warbler (Locustella lanceolata) - U/WVPM - Marina East, NTL, P. Punggol, Punggol, SFW, Tuas
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Bank swallow (Riparia riparia) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Halus, Kranji Marsh, LSD, NTL, P. Punggol
- Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) - VC/WVPM - islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Pacific swallow (Hirundo tahitica) - C/RB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) - U/WVPM - Admiralty Park, BTNR, CCKC, CCNR, Changi, Halus, Henderson Waves, LSD, Poyan, Punggol, TEG, Tuas
- Asian house-martin (Delichon dasypus) - R/PM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Henderson Waves, NTL
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.
- Black-and-white bulbul (Brachypodius melanoleucus) - VR/NBV - CCNR (2012)
- Black-headed bulbul (Brachypodius atriceps) - R/RB - BBC, BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, PRP
- Black-crested bulbul (Rubigula flaviventris) - R/IR - BTNR
- Straw-headed bulbul (Pycnonotus zeylanicus) - U/RB - BBC, BBNP, BTNR, Choa Chu Kang, CCNR, DFNP, HNP, NTL, Poyan, P. Ubin
- Red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) - U/IRB - Changi, Halus, JLG, Marina East, Poyan, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Saddle Club, SBG, Sentosa, S. Serangoon
- Sooty-headed bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster) - U/IRB - BAMKP, Halus, Marina East, NTL, P. Punggol, PRP, Punggol, S. Serangoon, TEG
- Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) - VC/RB - parks
- Olive-winged bulbul (Pycnonotus plumosus) - C/RB - BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, P. Hantu, P. Ubin, PRP, SBG, SBWR
- Cream-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus simplex) - U/RB - BTNR, CCNR
- Red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus brunneus) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP
- Buff-vented bulbul (Iole olivacea) - VR/NBV - BTNR
- Cinereous bulbul (Hemixos cinereus) - U/NBV - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, JLG, KRP, Lazarus Is., NTL, P. Ubin, SBTB, SBWR, TBHP, Tuas, Marina South
- Streaked bulbul (Ixos malaccensis) - R/NBV - BBNP, BTNR, Central Catchment, Changi Village, KRP, SBWR, Tuas
Leaf warblers are a family of small insectivorous birds found mostly in Eurasia and ranging into Wallacea and Africa. The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with greyish-green to greyish-brown colours.
- Yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) - R/WVPM - BBNP, BTNR, Bidadari, CCNR, DFNP, MFP, P. Hantu, Sentosa
- Dusky warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus) - VR/PM - Tuas (1994, 1995), Yishun Pond (2019)
- Eastern crowned warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus) - U/WV - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, DFNP, PRP, SBWR, York Road
- Sakhalin leaf warbler (Phylloscopus borealoides) - VR/WV - BTNR (2018), CCNR (2014), DFNP (2014)
- Arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) - C/WVPM - parks, woodlands
White-eyes, yuhinas, and allies
The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye.
- Swinhoe's white-eye (Zosterops simplex) - C/rIRB - woodlands
Tree-babblers, scimitar-babblers, and allies
The babblers, or timaliids, are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage.
- Pin-striped tit-babbler (Mixornis gularis) - C/RB - forested areas
- Chestnut-winged babbler (Cyanoderma erythropterum) - U/RB - CCNR
Ground babblers and allies
These small to medium-sized songbirds have soft fluffy plumage but are otherwise rather diverse. Members of the genus Illadopsis are found in forests, but some other genera are birds of scrublands.
- Moustached babbler (Malacopteron magnirostre) - Ex/RB - CCNR
- Short-tailed babbler (Pellorneum malaccense) - U/RB - BTNR, CCN
- White-chested babbler (Pellorneum rostratum) - R/RB - CCNR, Kranji Marsh, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Abbott's babbler (Turdinus abbotti) - U/RB - BTNR, CCNR, JEG, NTL, P. Ubin, Sentosa, SBG, SBWR, WCPR
Laughingthrushes and allies
The members of this family are diverse in size and colouration, though those of genus Turdoides tend to be brown or greyish. The family is found in Africa, India, and southeast Asia.
- White-crested laughingthrush (Garrulax leucolophus) - C/IRB - woodlands
- Chinese hwamei (Garrulax canorus) - R/IRB - Bt. Gombak, Sentosa, KRP, MFP
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- Asian glossy starling (Aplonis panayensis) - VC/RB - islandwide
- Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) - C/RB - Admiralty Park, AMKTGW, Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, Poyan, P. Ubin, SBG, Southern Ridges
- Rosy starling (Pastor roseus) - R/WV - Changi, Halus, Jurong Is., JLG, KRP, St John Is., Tuas
- Daurian starling (Agropsar sturninus) - VC/WVPM - woodlands
- Chestnut-cheeked starling (Agropsar philippensis) - VR/V - Bidadari (2014), Loyang (1987), Henderson Waves (2019), JLG (2020)
- White-shouldered starling (Sturnia sinensis) - U/WVPM - Changi, Coney Is., KRP, Halus, Punggol, Seletar, Tuas
- Red-billed starling (Spodiopsar sericeus) - VR/PM - SBTB (2013), TEG (2015)
- White-cheeked starling (Spodiopsar cineraceus) - VR/V - Seletar End (2020)
- Common myna (Acridotheres tristis) - C/RB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Black-winged starling (Acridotheres melanopterus) - Ex/IRB
- Javan myna (Acridotheres javanicus) - VC/IRB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
- Crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus) - Ex/IRB
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Siberian thrush (Geokichla sibirica) - R/PM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, KRP, JLG, Sentosa, Tuas
- Orange-headed thrush (Geokichla citrina) - R/WV - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, HNP, SBG, WCP
- Chinese blackbird (Turdus mandarinus) - VR/V - JLG (2020)
- Eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, KRP, NTL, P. Ubin, SBG, TBHP, Tuas
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- Gray-streaked flycatcher (Muscicapa griseisticta) - VR/PM - Poyan (1991), PRP (2017)
- Dark-sided flycatcher (Muscicapa sibirica) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, NTL, SBG, Southern Ridges
- Ferruginous flycatcher (Muscicapa ferruginea) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, JLG, SBG
- Asian brown flycatcher (Muscicapa dauurica) - C/WVPM - woodlands
- Brown-streaked flycatcher (Muscicapa williamsoni) - R/WVPM - BBNP, Bidadari, CCKP, CCNR, JLG, MFP, PRP, SBWR
- Oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) - U/RB - woodlands
- White-rumped shama (Copsychus malabaricus) - R/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, MFP, Poyan, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Chinese blue flycatcher (Cyornis glaucicomans) - VR/PM - Bidadari (2013), CCNR, (2020) SBWR (1997)
- Mangrove blue flycatcher (Cyornis rufigastra) - VR/RB - Bidadari (2015), P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Brown-chested jungle-flycatcher (Cyornis brunneatus) - R/WVPM - BBNP, Bidadari, BTNR, CCKP, CCNR, DFNP, Jurong Is., SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, St John Is., TEG, Tuas
- Blue-and-white flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana) - R/PM - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, Sentosa
- Zappey's flycatcher (Cyanoptila cumatilis) - R/PM - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, JLG, KRP, SBG, TEG, Tuas
- Verditer flycatcher (Eumyias thalassinus) - VR/NBV - DFNP (2017)
- Siberian blue robin (Luscinia cyane) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR
- Blue whistling-thrush (Myophonus caeruleus caeruleus) - VR/Indeterminate - Fort Canning (2019)
- Yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) - C/PM - woodlands, forests
- Green-backed flycatcher (Ficedula elisae) - R/WVPM - BAMKP, Bidadari, CCNR, KRP, NTL, Tuas, Khatib Bongsu, Marina South
- Narcissus flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina) - VR/PM - Bidadari (2015), DFNP (2017)
- Mugimaki flycatcher (Ficedula mugimaki) - U/PM - AMKTGW, Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, JLG, KRP, MFP, PRP, Sentosa, Tuas
- Taiga flycatcher (Ficedula albicilla) - VR/V - SBG (2019-20), WCP (2020)
- Daurian redstart (Phoenicurus auroreus) - VR/V - SBTB (2013), Cashew Road (2014), SBG (2019), UTown (2020)
- White-throated rock-thrush (Monticola gularis) - VR/WVPM - BTNR
- Blue rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius) - R/PM - Ascentia Sky, BTNR, Labrador Villa Road, Marina Barrage, Pinnacle@Duxton, Sentosa, Tuas
- Siberian stonechat (Saxicola maurus) - R/WVPM - Changi, Halus, NTL, Poyan, P. Punggol, Tuas, Warren, Marina South, Punggol
The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues.
- Scarlet-breasted flowerpecker (Prionochilus thoracicus) - VR/NBV - P. Ubin
- Thick-billed flowerpecker (Dicaeum agile) - VR/NBV - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP
- Yellow-vented flowerpecker (Dicaeum chrysorrheum) - VR/R - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP
- Orange-bellied flowerpecker (Dicaeum trigonostigma) - C/RB - forests
- Scarlet-backed flowerpecker (Dicaeum cruentatum) - C/RB - parks
Sunbirds and spiderhunters
The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.
- Ruby-cheeked sunbird (Chalcoparia singalensis) - VR/R - CCNR (2005), P. Ubin (2018)
- Plain sunbird (Anthreptes simplex) - VR/R - CCNR, Senoko
- Brown-throated sunbird (Anthreptes malacensis) - C/RB - parks
- Van Hasselt's sunbird (Leptocoma brasiliana) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin
- Copper-throated sunbird (Leptocoma calcostetha) - U/RB - BBNP, P. Ubin, SBWR
- Olive-backed sunbird (Cinnyris jugularis) - VC/RB - parks
- Crimson sunbird (Aethopyga siparaja) - C/RB - parks, forests
- Thick-billed spiderhunter (Arachnothera crassirostris) - VR/R - BTNR, CCNR
- Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, Mandai, P. Ubin
- Yellow-eared spiderhunter (Arachnothera chrysogenys) - VR/R - BTNR, CCNR, P. Tekong, P. Ubin
The fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green.
- Asian fairy-bluebird (Irena puella) - C/RB - BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, DFNP
The leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows.
- Greater green leafbird (Chloropsis sonnerati) - U/RB - BTNR, CCNR
- Lesser green leafbird (Chloropsis cyanopogon) - R/RB - BTNR, CCNR
- Blue-winged leafbird (Chloropsis cochinchinensis) - U/RB - BTNR, CCNR
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season.
- Golden-backed weaver (Ploceus jacksoni) - U/IRB - Coney Is., Halus, Marina East, NTL, P. Punggol
- Streaked weaver (Ploceus manyar) - R/IRB - Halus, SBWR, Khatib Bongsu, Sg. Serangoon
- Baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) - C/RB - grasslands
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
- Orange-cheeked waxbill (Estrilda melpoda) - R/I - BAMKP, Coney Is., JLG, NTL, P. Punggol, S. Pandan, SBTB
- Crimson-rumped waxbill (Estrilda rhodopyga) - U/I - Coney Is., Halus, P. Punggol, Punggol
- Red avadavat (Amandava amandava) - U/IRB - BAMKP, Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, Tuas, Marina South, Punggol
- White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata) - R/RB - BTNR, CCNR, DFNP, Halus, NTL, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, Tuas, Telok Blangah
- Javan munia (Lonchura leucogastroides) - U/IRB - Bidadari, Halus, Hort Park, Marina East, Murai, SBTB, Serangoon Reservoir, SBWR, BAMKP
- Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) - C/RB - grasslands
- Chestnut munia (Lonchura atricapilla) - U/RB - grasslands
- White-capped munia (Lonchura ferruginosa) - VR/I - Punggol
- White-headed munia (Lonchura maja) - U/RB - grasslands
- Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora) - Ex/IRB - Halus, P. Ubin
- Pin-tailed whydah (Vidua macroura) - R/I - Changi, NTL, P. Punggol
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow (Passer domesticus) - R/IRB - Jurong Is., Tuas South
- Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) - VC/RB - urban areas
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.
- Forest wagtail (Dendronanthus indicus) - U/WVPM - Admiralty Park, BBNP, Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Central Park, Mandai, P. Ubin, Sembawang, Simpang, SBWR, Yishun
- Gray wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) - U/WVPM - Admiralty Park, BAMKP, Bedok, Bt Batok, BTNR, Buona Vista, CCNR, Changi, JLG, Marsiling Park, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Sembawang, Simpang, Yishun
- Eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis) - C/WV - Bidadari, Changi, Halus, LSD, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Punggol, Sembawang, Yishun
- Citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola) - VR/WV - NTL (2018), Punggol (1989), Tuas (1994)
- White wagtail (Motacilla alba) - U/WV - BAMKP, BBC, Buona Vista, Changi, Jurong West, Marina East, NTL, P. Punggol, Punggol, SBG, TEG, Yishun
- Richard's pipit (Anthus richardi) - A
- Paddyfield pipit (Anthus rufulus) - C/RB - grassfields
- Olive-backed pipit (Anthus hodgsoni) - VR/PM - Bidadari (2010)
- Red-throated pipit (Anthus cervinus) - R/WV - Changi, P. Punggol, Seletar East, Tuas
Old World buntings
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Black-headed bunting (Emberiza melanocephala) - Indeterminate
- Yellow-breasted bunting (Emberiza aureola) - VR/WV - Marina East'
- Lists of birds by region
- List of mammals of Singapore
- List of reptiles of Singapore
- List of amphibians of Singapore
- "Checklist of Birds of Singapore". Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "Clements Checklist". Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "Nature Areas & Nature Reserves". Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "Singapore's 63 Islands". Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "Reservoirs and Rivers". Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Gardens, Parks & Nature". Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "Oriental Turtle Dove, Wild or Caged?". Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "First breeding record of Black-winged Stilt in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "First record of Pied Stilt in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "First record of Little Stint in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "First record of Bulwer's petrel in Singapore".
- "First record of Short-tailed Shearwater in Singapore".
- "First record of Asian Openbill in Singapore".
- "Glossy Ibis sightings in Singapore". Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "First record of Amur Falcon in Singapore".
- Roselaar, C.S.; J.P. Michels. ". Systematic notes on Asian birds. 48. Nomenclatural chaos untangled, resulting in the naming of the formally undescribed Cacatua species from the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Zool. Verh. Leiden. 350: 183–196.
- "First documented records of the Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis breeding in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "Nature lovers atwitter about first sightings of 2 birds in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "Family Paridae (Tits)". Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "First record of an Eurasian Skylark in Singapore". Retrieved 18 November 2019.