List of birds of Mongolia
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mongolia. The avifauna of Mongolia include a total of 427 species, of which four are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Mongolia and is not included in the species count.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Mongolia.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mongolia
- (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Mongolia although populations exist elsewhere
Loons, known as divers in Europe, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resemble when swimming, but to which they are completely unrelated. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Arctic loon, Gavia arctica
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
- Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Dalmatian pelican, Pelecanus crispus
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Chinese pond heron, Ardeola bacchus
- Great bittern, Botaurus stellaris
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 32 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Mute swan, Cygnus olor
- Whooper swan, Cygnus cygnus
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus
- Swan goose, Anser cygnoides
- Bean goose, Anser fabalis
- Greylag goose, Anser anser
- Bar-headed goose, Anser indicus
- Ruddy shelduck, Tadorna ferruginea
- Common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna
- Mandarin duck, Aix galericulata (A)
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope
- Falcated duck, Anas falcata
- Gadwall, Anas strepera
- Baikal teal, Anas formosa
- Eurasian teal, Anas crecca
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
- Spot-billed duck, Anas poecilorhyncha
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Garganey, Anas querquedula
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata
- Red-crested pochard, Netta rufina
- Common pochard, Aythya ferina
- Ferruginous pochard, Aythya nyroca
- Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila
- Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
- White-winged scoter, Melanitta fusca
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
- Smew, Mergellus albellus
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser
- White-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- European honey buzzard, Pernis apivorus
- Crested honey buzzard, Pernis ptilorhynchus
- Black kite, Milvus migrans
- Pallas's fish eagle, Haliaeetus leucoryphus
- White-tailed eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla
- Lammergeier, Gypaetus barbatus
- Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus
- Himalayan griffon, Gyps himalayensis
- Eurasian griffon, Gyps fulvus
- Cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus
- Short-toed snake eagle, Circaetus gallicus
- Western marsh-harrier, Circus aeruginosus
- Eastern marsh-harrier, Circus spilonotus
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Pallid harrier, Circus macrourus
- Pied harrier, Circus melanoleucos
- Montagu's harrier, Circus pygargus
- Shikra, Accipiter badius
- Japanese sparrowhawk, Accipiter gularis
- Eurasian sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
- Eastern buzzard, Buteo japonicus
- Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus
- Upland buzzard, Buteo hemilasius
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus
- Greater spotted eagle, Aquila clanga
- Steppe eagle, Aquila nipalensis
- Imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
- Booted eagle, Hieraaetus pennatus
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus
- Red-footed falcon, Falco vespertinus
- Amur falcon, Falco amurensis
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Eurasian hobby, Falco subbuteo
- Saker falcon, Falco cherrug
- Barbary falcon, Falco pelegrinoides
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Grouse are game birds, similar to quails and partridges. There are 18 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus
- Rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta
- Black-billed capercaillie, Tetrao parvirostris
- Eurasian capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus
- Black grouse, Tetrao tetrix
- Hazel grouse, Bonasa bonasia
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Altai snowcock, Tetraogallus altaicus
- Chukar, Alectoris chukar
- Grey partridge, Perdix perdix
- Daurian partridge, Perdix dauurica
- Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica
- Common quail, Coturnix coturnix
- Koklass pheasant, Pucrasia macrolopha
- Brown eared-pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum (Ex)
- Blue eared-pheasant, Crossoptilon auritum
- Reeves's pheasant, Syrmaticus reevesii
- Ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Demoiselle crane, Anthropoides virgo
- Siberian crane, Grus leucogeranus
- White-naped crane, Grus vipio
- Common crane, Grus grus
- Hooded crane, Grus monacha
- Red-crowned crane, Grus japonensis
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Swinhoe's rail, Coturnicops exquisitus (A)
- Water rail, Rallus aquaticus
- Brown-cheeked rail, Rallus indicus
- Corn crake, Crex crex
- Baillon's crake, Porzana pusilla
- Spotted crake, Porzana porzana
- Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
- Eurasian coot, Fulica atra
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.
- Great bustard, Otis tarda
- Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata
- Macqueen's bustard, Chlamydotis macqueenii
- Little bustard, Tetrax tetrax
Painted-snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Greater painted-snipe, Rostratula benghalensis
The ibisbill is related to the waders, but is sufficiently distinctive to be a family unto itself. The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs, a long down curved bill, and a black face and breast band.
- Ibisbill, Ibidorhyncha struthersii
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mongolia.
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Oriental pratincole, Glareola maldivarum
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus
- Grey-headed lapwing, Vanellus cinereus
- Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva
- American golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica (A)
- European golden-plover, Pluvialis apricaria
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula
- Little ringed plover, Charadrius dubius
- Snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
- Lesser sandplover, Charadrius mongolus
- Greater sandplover, Charadrius leschenaultii
- Oriental plover, Charadrius veredus
- Eurasian dotterel, Charadrius morinellus
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola
- Jack snipe, Lymnocryptes minimus
- Solitary snipe, Gallinago solitaria
- Pintail snipe, Gallinago stenura
- Swinhoe's snipe, Gallinago megala
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago
- Asian dowitcher, Limnodromus semipalmatus
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica
- Little curlew, Numenius minutus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata
- Far Eastern curlew, Numenius madagascariensis
- Spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus
- Marsh sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia
- Green sandpiper, Tringa ochropus
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola
- Grey-tailed tattler, Tringa brevipes
- Terek sandpiper, Xenus cinereus
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis
- Little stint, Calidris minuta
- Temminck's stint, Calidris temminckii
- Long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Broad-billed sandpiper, Limicola falcinellus
- Ruff, Philomachus pugnax
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Common gull, Larus canus
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- Vega gull, Larus vegae
- Caspian gull, Larus cachinnans
- Pallas's gull, Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
- Relict gull, Ichthyaetus relictus
- Brown-headed gull, Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Saunders's gull, Chroicocephalus saundersi
- Little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica
- Caspian tern, Sterna caspia
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Little tern, Sternula albifrons
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybrida
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Pallas's sandgrouse, Syrrhaptes paradoxus
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia
- Hill pigeon, Columba rupestris
- Yellow-eyed pigeon, Columba eversmanni (A)
- Common wood pigeon, Columba palumbus
- European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur
- Oriental turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis
- Eurasian collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto
- Red collared-dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica
Cuckoos and anis
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- European scops owl, Otus scops
- Oriental scops owl, Otus sunia
- Eurasian eagle-owl, Bubo bubo
- Snowy owl, Bubo scandiacus
- Ural owl, Strix uralensis
- Great grey owl, Strix nebulosa
- Northern hawk-owl, Surnia ulula
- Eurasian pygmy owl, Glaucidium passerinum
- Little owl, Athene noctua
- Boreal owl, Aegolius funereus
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Mongolia.
- White-throated needletail, Hirundapus caudacutus
- Common swift, Apus apus
- Fork-tailed swift, Apus pacificus
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mongolia.
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- European roller, Coracias garrulus
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Hoopoe, Upupa epops
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Eurasian wryneck, Jynx torquilla
- Lesser spotted woodpecker, Dryobates minor
- White-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos
- Great spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos major
- Eurasian three-toed woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus
- Black woodpecker, Dryocopus martius
- Grey-faced woodpecker, Picus canus
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra
- Mongolian lark, Melanocorypha mongolica
- White-winged lark, Melanocorypha leucoptera
- Black lark, Melanocorypha yeltoniensis
- Greater short-toed lark, Calandrella brachydactyla
- Lesser short-toed lark, Calandrella rufescens
- Crested lark, Galerida cristata
- Eurasian skylark, Alauda arvensis
- Horned lark, Eremophila alpestris
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Sand martin, Riparia riparia
- Pale martin, Riparia diluta
- Eurasian crag martin, Ptyonoprogne rupestris
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Red-rumped swallow, Cecropis daurica
- Common house martin, Delichon urbicum
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Mongolia.
- White wagtail, Motacilla alba
- Black-backed wagtail, Motacilla lugens
- Citrine wagtail, Motacilla citreola
- Yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava
- Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea
- Oriental pipit, Anthus rufulus
- Richard's pipit, Anthus richardi
- Tawny pipit, Anthus campestris
- Blyth's pipit, Anthus godlewskii
- Tree pipit, Anthus trivialis
- Olive-backed pipit, Anthus hodgsoni
- Pechora pipit, Anthus gustavi
- Red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus
- Water pipit, Anthus spinoletta
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Goldcrest, Regulus regulus
The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Bohemian waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus
Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- White-throated dipper, Cinclus cinclus
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Eurasian wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Alpine accentor, Prunella collaris
- Himalayan accentor, Prunella himalayana
- Siberian accentor, Prunella montanella
- Brown accentor, Prunella fulvescens
- Black-throated accentor, Prunella atrogularis
- Mongolian accentor, Prunella koslowi
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Siberian thrush, Geokichla sibirica
- Scaly thrush, Zoothera dauma
- Eyebrowed thrush, Turdus obscurus
- Dark-throated thrush, Turdus ruficollis
- Dusky thrush, Turdus naumanni
- Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris
- Redwing, Turdus iliacus
- Song thrush, Turdus philomelos
- Mistle thrush, Turdus viscivorus
- Spotted bush warbler, Locustella thoracica
- Chinese bush warbler, Locustella tacsanowskia
- Lanceolated warbler, Locustella lanceolata
- Common grasshopper warbler, Locustella naevia
- Pallas's grasshopper warbler, Locustella certhiola
- Savi's warbler, Locustella luscinioides
- Gray's warbler, Locustella fasciolata
- Marsh grassbird, Locustella pryeri
- Black-browed reed-warbler, Acrocephalus bistrigiceps
- Paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola
- Blyth's reed-warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum
- Great reed-warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus
- Oriental reed-warbler, Acrocephalus orientalis
- Clamorous reed-warbler, Acrocephalus stentoreus
- Thick-billed warbler, Acrocephalus aedon
- Booted warbler, Iduna caligata
- Sykes's warbler, Iduna rama
- Common chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita
- Mountain chiffchaff, Phylloscopus sindianus
- Dusky warbler, Phylloscopus fuscatus
- Sulphur-bellied warbler, Phylloscopus griseolus
- Radde's warbler, Phylloscopus schwarzi
- Pallas's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus
- Yellow-browed warbler, Phylloscopus inornatus
- Hume's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus humei
- Arctic warbler, Phylloscopus borealis
- Greenish warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides
- Pale-legged leaf warbler, Phylloscopus tenellipes
Old World warblers
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.
- Greater whitethroat, Sylvia communis
- Lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca
- Small whitethroat, Sylvia minula
- Asian desert warbler, Sylvia nana
- Barred warbler, Sylvia nisoria
- Vinous-throated parrotbill, Sinosuthura webbiana
- Reed parrotbill, Paradoxornis heudei
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- Common rock thrush, Monticola saxatilis
- Spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata
- Siberian flycatcher, Muscicapa sibirica
- Asian brown flycatcher, Muscicapa dauurica
- Korean flycatcher, Ficedula zanthopygia
- Mugimaki flycatcher, Ficedula mugimaki
- Taiga flycatcher, Ficedula albicilla
- Rufous-tailed robin, Luscinia sibilans
- Common nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos
- Siberian rubythroat, Luscinia calliope
- Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica
- Siberian blue robin, Luscinia cyane
- Red-flanked bluetail, Tarsiger cyanurus
- Rufous-backed redstart, Phoenicurus erythronota
- Black redstart, Phoenicurus ochruros
- Common redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus
- Daurian redstart, Phoenicurus auroreus
- White-winged redstart, Phoenicurus erythrogaster
- Siberian stonechat, Saxicola maurus
- Whinchat, Saxicola rubetra
- White-throated bushchat, Saxicola insignis
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe
- Pied wheatear, Oenanthe pleschanka
- Desert wheatear, Oenanthe deserti
- Isabelline wheatear, Oenanthe isabellina
- Pere David's laughingthrush, Garrulax davidi
- Bearded reedling, Panurus biarmicus
Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
- Marsh tit, Poecile palustris
- Willow tit, Poecile montana
- Grey-headed chickadee, Poecile cincta
- Coal tit, Periparus ater
- Great tit, Parus major
- Azure tit, Cyanistes cyanus
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Eurasian nuthatch, Sitta europaea
The wallcreeper is a small bird related to the nuthatch family, which has stunning crimson, grey and black plumage.
- Wallcreeper, Tichodroma muraria
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Eurasian treecreeper, Certhia familiaris
The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mongolia.
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mongolia.
- Eurasian golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
- Red-backed shrike, Lanius collurio
- Isabelline shrike, Lanius isabellinus
- Red-tailed shrike, Lanius phoenicuroides
- Brown shrike, Lanius cristatus
- Northern shrike, Lanius excubitor
- Chinese grey shrike, Lanius sphenocercus
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus
- Eurasian jay, Garrulus glandarius
- Azure-winged magpie, Cyanopica cyana
- Eurasian magpie, Pica pica
- Mongolian ground-jay, Podoces hendersoni
- Eurasian nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes
- Red-billed chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
- Eurasian jackdaw, Corvus monedula
- Daurian jackdaw, Corvus dauuricus
- Rook, Corvus frugilegus
- Carrion crow, Corvus corone
- Common raven, Corvus corax
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- Daurian starling, Agropsar sturninus
- Rosy starling, Pastor roseus
- White-cheeked starling, Spodiopsar cineraceus
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris
Longspurs and arctic buntings
Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella
- Pine bunting, Emberiza leucocephalos
- Rock bunting, Emberiza cia
- Godlewski's bunting, Emberiza godlewskii
- Meadow bunting, Emberiza cioides
- Grey-hooded bunting, Emberiza buchanani
- Ortolan bunting, Emberiza hortulana
- Chestnut-eared bunting, Emberiza fucata
- Little bunting, Emberiza pusilla
- Yellow-browed bunting, Emberiza chrysophrys
- Rustic bunting, Emberiza rustica
- Yellow-breasted bunting, Emberiza aureola
- Chestnut bunting, Emberiza rutila
- Red-headed bunting, Emberiza bruniceps
- Black-faced bunting, Emberiza spodocephala
- Pallas's bunting, Emberiza pallasi
- Reed bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus
Siskins, crossbills and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Common chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs
- Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla
- Plain mountain finch, Leucosticte nemoricola
- Black-headed mountain finch, Leucosticte brandti
- Asian rosy finch, Leucosticte arctoa
- Pine grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator
- Common rosefinch, Carpodacus erythrinus
- Beautiful rosefinch, Carpodacus pulcherrimus
- Pallas's rosefinch, Carpodacus roseus
- Red-mantled rosefinch, Carpodacus rhodochlamys
- Caucasian great rosefinch, Carpodacus rubicilla
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
- White-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera
- Common redpoll, Acanthis flammea
- Hoary redpoll, Acanthis hornemanni
- Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus
- European goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis
- Oriental greenfinch, Chloris sinica
- Twite, Linaria flavirostris
- Common linnet, Linaria cannabina
- Eurasian bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
- Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
- Yellow-billed grosbeak, Eophona migratoria
- Mongolian finch, Rhodopechys mongolica
- Desert finch, Rhodospiza obsoleta
- Long-tailed rosefinch, Uragus sibiricus
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Mongolia.
- Saxaul sparrow, Passer ammodendri
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus
- Eurasian tree sparrow, Passer montanus
- Rock petronia, Petronia petronia
- White-winged snowfinch, Montifringilla nivalis
- Pere David's snowfinch, Montifringilla davidiana
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Mongolia". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Multingual list of birds of Mongolia More accurate and up-to-date list, with equivalents in Mongolian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Kazakh