List of birds of Sri Lanka

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Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India. The bird life of Sri Lanka is very rich for its size and 505 species have been recorded. In addition to the many resident birds, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.

26 species are confirmed as endemic.[1] The other resident species are also found in the nearby Indian mainland, but over 80 have developed distinct Sri Lankan races. Some of these races are very different in their plumage characteristics from the related forms in India. 26 species are globally threatened.

Bird distribution in Sri Lanka is largely determined by its climatic zones. The dry zone is largest of the three, covering more than half of the island, with a prolonged dry and hot period and only one monsoon (the north east monsoon from October to January).

The wet zone, with two monsoons, is in the south western quarter of the island, where the few remaining rain forests are found and humidity is high.

The central hill zone rises to over 2450 m (8-10,000 ft) and has a cool temperate climate. Most of the 26 endemic species are confined to the wet and the hill zones, with only a few extending into the dry zone as well.

Recent updates and sighting information can be obtained through the Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka website. The following list is prepared according to An Illustrated Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka on 2010 by Sarath Kotagama and Gamini Ratnavira. Supplemental updates follow The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.[2][3]

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sri Lanka
  • (E) Endemic - a species native or restricted to Sri Lanka
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Sri Lanka as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Ducks, geese, and waterfowl[edit]

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.[4]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Fulvous whistling-duck

Fulvous whistling duck.JPG

Dendrocygna bicolor Least concern
Lesser whistling-duck

Dendrocygna javanica - Chiang Mai.jpg

Dendrocygna javanica Resident Least concern
Graylag goose

Greylag Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpg

Anser anser Anser anser rubrirostris Least concern
Knob-billed duck

Sarkidiornis melanotos - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06799.JPG

Sarkidiornis melanotos Least concern
Ruddy shelduck

Ruddy Shelduck or Brahminy Duck .jpg

Tadorna ferruginea Least concern
Cotton pygmy-goose

Cotton pygmy goose Prasanna Mamidala.jpg

Nettapus coromandelianus Resident Least concern

Garganey (Anas querquedula) RWD3.jpg

Spatula querquedula Least concern
Northern shoveler

Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) RWD1.jpg

Spatula clypeata Least concern

male male

Mareca strepera Mareca strepera strepera Least concern
Eurasian wigeon

Mareca penelope kuribo cropped.jpg

Mareca penelope Least concern
Indian spot-billed duck

Anas poecilorhyncha -Assam -India-8.jpg

Anas poecilorhyncha Anas poecilorhyncha poecilorhyncha Least concern

Anas platyrhynchos male female quadrat.jpg

Anas platyrhynchos Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Least concern
Northern pintail

Northern Pintails (Male & Female) I IMG 0911.jpg

Anas acuta Least concern
Green-winged teal

Common Teal (Anas crecca) near Hodal, Haryana W IMG 6512.jpg

Anas crecca Least concern
Marbled teal

Marmaronetta angustirostris, London Wetland Centre, UK - Diliff.jpg

Marmaronetta angustirostris Vulnerable
Red-crested pochard

male female

Netta rufina Least concern
Common pochard

male male

Aythya ferina Vulnerable
Tufted duck


Aythya fuligula Least concern

Pheasants, grouse, and allies[edit]

Order: Galliformes   Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds. In general, they are plump and have broad, relatively short wings.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Indian peafowl

Common Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) RWD2.jpg

Pavo cristatus Pavo cristatus singhalensis Resident Least concern
Sri Lanka spurfowl


Galloperdix bicalcarata Endemic Least concern
Blue-breasted quail

Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg

Coturnix chinensis Coturnix chinensis chinensis Least concern
Common quail

A common quail in Lebanon.jpg

Coturnix coturnix Least concern
Rain quail

Rain Quail Male.jpg

Coturnix coromandelica Francolinus pondicerianus pondicerianus Least concern
Jungle bush-quail

The Jungle Bush Quail.jpg

Perdicula asiatica Least concern
Painted francolin

Painted Francolin (Francolinus pictus) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Francolinus pictus Least concern
Gray francolin

Grey Francolin.jpg

Francolinus pondicerianus Francolinus pondicerianus pondicerianus Least concern
Sri Lanka junglefowl

Flickr - Rainbirder - Ceylon Junglefowl (Gallus lafayetii) Male.jpg

Gallus lafayettii Endemic Least concern


Order: Phoenicopteriformes   Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Greater flamingo

Flamant rose Salines de Thyna.jpg

Phoenicopterus ruber Least concern
Lesser flamingo


Phoenicopterus minor Near threatened


Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-sized diving birds. They breed on fresh water, but often visit the sea whilst migrating and in winter. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers; however, their feet are placed far back on their bodies, making them quite ungainly on land.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Little grebe

Little grebe Zwergtaucher.jpg

Tachybaptus ruficollis Tachybaptus ruficollis capensis Resident Least concern

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Rock pigeon

Rock Pigeon Columba livia.jpg

Columba livia Columba livia intermedia Resident Least concern
Sri Lanka wood-pigeon

Flickr - Rainbirder - Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon (Columba torringtoni) (1).jpg

Columba torringtoniae Endemic Vulnerable
Pale-capped pigeon


Columba punicea Vulnerable
Oriental turtle-dove

Oriental Turtle Dove.jpg

Streptopelia orientalis Least concern
Eurasian collared-dove

Streptopelia decaocto; Szczecin, Poland 3.JPG

Streptopelia decaocto Streptopelia decaocto intercedens Least concern
Red collared-dove

Streptopelia tranquebarica.jpg

Streptopelia tranquebarica Least concern
Spotted dove


Spilopelia chinensis Spilopelia chinensis ceylonensis Least concern
Asian emerald dove

Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica indica).jpg

Chalcophaps indica Chalcophaps indica robinsoni Least concern
Orange-breasted green-pigeon

Treron bicinctus -Yala National Park, Sri Lanka -male-8.jpg

Treron bicincta Treron bicincta leggei Least concern
Sri Lanka green-pigeon

Thimindu 2009 12 31 Kaudulla Pompadour Green Pigeon 1.jpg

Treron pompadora Endemic Least concern
Yellow-footed green-pigeon

Yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicoptera) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Treron phoenicoptera Least concern
Green imperial-pigeon

Green Imperial Pigeon RWD4.jpg

Ducula aenea Least concern


Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Many are brood parasites.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Green-billed coucal


Centropus chlororhynchus Endemic Vulnerable
Greater coucal

Greater Coucal (Centropus sinensis) in Kolkata I IMG 3240.jpg

Centropus sinensis Least concern
Lesser coucal


Centropus bengalensis Least concern
Sirkeer malkoha

Sirkeer Malkoha, Hyderabad, India.jpg

Taccocua leschenaultii Least concern
Red-faced malkoha

Red-faced Malkoha x.jpg

Phaenicophaeus pyffhocephalus Endemic Vulnerable
Blue-faced malkoha

Blue-faced Malkoha.jpg

Phaenicophaeus viridirostris Least concern
Chestnut-winged cuckoo

Chestnut-winged Cuckoo in Singapore, Dec 2012, by William Lee.jpg

Clamator coromandus Least concern
Pied cuckoo

Jacobin Cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Clamator jacobinus Clamator jacobinus jacobinus Least concern
Asian koel

Asian koel.jpg Eudynamys scolopacea - 20080801.jpg

Eudynamys scolopacea Eudynamys scolopacea scolopacea Least concern
Asian emerald cuckoo

Male Asian Emerald Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx maculatus) on branch.jpg

Chrysococcyx maculatus Least concern
Banded bay cuckoo


Cacomantis sonneratii Cacomantis sonneratii waiti Least concern
Gray-bellied cuckoo

Grey bellied cuckoo male.jpg

Cacomantis passerinus Least concern
Fork-tailed drongo-cuckoo

Asian Drongo Cuckoo.jpg

Surniculus dicruroides Least concern
Common hawk-cuckoo

Common Hawk Cuckoo (Hierococcyx varius) at Narendrapur W IMG 4111.jpg

Hierococcyx varius Least concern
Lesser cuckoo

Cuculus poliocephalus.jpg

Cuculus poliocephalus Least concern
Indian cuckoo

Indian Cuckoo (J).jpg

Cuculus micropterus Least concern
Common cuckoo

Cuculus canorus vogelartinfo chris romeiks CHR0791 cropped.jpg

Cuculus canorus Cuculus canorus bakeri Least concern


Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka frogmouth

Sri Lanka frogmouth.jpg

Batrachostomus moniliger Resident Least concern

Nightjars and allies[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Great eared-nightjar

Great Eared-Nightjar, Tangkoko, Sulawesi (5799113025) (2).jpg

Lyncornis macrotis Least concern
Jungle nightjar

Jungle nigthjar Chikmagalur.jpg

Caprimulgus indicus Caprimulgus indicus kelaarti Resident Least concern
Jerdon's nightjar

JerdonsNightjar DSC 0351.jpg

Caprimulgus atripennis Caprimulgus atripennis aequabilis Resident Least concern
Indian nightjar

Common Indian Nightjar joby.JPG

Caprimulgus asiaticus Resident Least concern


Order: Apodiformes/Caprimulgiformes   Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
White-throated needletail

White-throated needletail Hunting over Wolotschajewka Perwaja (cropped).jpg

Hirundapus caudacutus Least concern
Brown-backed needletail


Hirundapus giganteus Least concern
Indian swiftlet


Aerodramus unicolor Least concern
Himalayan swiftlet Aerodramus brevirostris Least concern
Alpine swift

Tachymarptis melba -Barcelona, Spain -flying-8.jpg

Apus melba Least concern
Common swift

Apus apus -Barcelona, Spain-8 (1).jpg

Apus apus Least concern
Pallid swift

Apus pallidus -Greece-8.jpg

Apus pallidus Least concern
Blyth's swift Apus leuconyx Least concern
Dark-rumped swift Apus acuticauda Vulnerable
Little swift

Apus affinis flying.jpg

Apus affinis Least concern
Asian palm-swift

Asian Palm Swift (Cypsiurus balasiensis) Pondicherry India Apr 2011.jpg

Cypsiurus balasiensis Least concern


Order: Apodiformes/Caprimulgiformes    Family: Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts, or crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Crested treeswift


Hemiprocne coronata Resident Least concern

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Water rail


Rallus aquaticus Rallus aquaticus korejewi Least concern
Brown-cheeked rail


Rallus indicus Least concern
Corn crake

Crex crex, Beachy Head 1.jpg

Crex crex Least concern
Slaty-breasted rail

Slaty-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus photographed in Malaysia in 2013 by Devon Pike.jpg

Lewinia striata Least concern
Eurasian moorhen

Moorhen 1c (5370646255).jpg

Gallinula chloropus Eurasian common moorhen Gallinula chloropus chloropus Least concern
Eurasian coot

Fulica atra, Blässhuhn am Adenauer-Weiher.jpg

Fulica atra Least concern
Gray-headed swamphen

Grey-headed swamphen (Porphyrio poliocephalus) female.jpg

Porphyrio poliocephalus Least concern

Gallicrex cinerea -Basai Wetlands, near Gurgaon, Haryana, India-8.jpg

Gallicrex cinerea Least concern
White-breasted waterhen

White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus).jpg

Amaurornis phoenicurus Amaurornis phoenicurus phoenicurus Least concern
Slaty-legged crake

Slaty-legged Crake ( Rallina eurizonoides).jpg

Rallina eurizonoides Least concern
Ruddy-breasted crake

Ruddy-breasted Crake (Porzana fusca) in Kolkata I IMG 2675.jpg

Zapornia fusca Least concern
Baillon's crake

Almost! (6165018831).jpg

Zapornia pusilla Least concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

Thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Indian thick-knee

Burhinus indicus, central India.jpg

Burhinus indicus Resident Least concern
Great thick-knee

Great thick-knee (Esacus recurvirostris).jpg

Esacus recurvirostris Resident Least concern

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-winged stilt

Black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus).jpg

Himantopus himantopus Himantopus himantopus meridionalis Resident Least concern
Pied stilt

Himantopus leucocephalus - Hexham.jpg

Himantopus leucocephalus Least concern
Pied avocet

Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta.jpg

Recurvirostra avosetta Resident Least concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Eurasian oystercatcher

Haematopus ostralegus -Scotland -nesting-8.jpg

Haematopus ostralegus Near threatened

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-bellied plover

Pluvialis squatarola.jpg

Pluvialis squatarola Least concern
Pacific golden-plover

Pluvialis fulva -Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska, USA-8.jpg

Pluvialis fulva Least concern
Yellow-wattled lapwing

Vanellus malabaricus.jpg

Vanellus malabaricus Least concern
Gray-headed lapwing

Vanellus cinereus.JPG

Vanellus cinereus Least concern
Red-wattled lapwing

Red wattled Lapwing I IMG 0596.jpg

Vanellus indicus Vanellus indicus lankae Least concern
Sociable lapwing


Chettusia gregarius Critically endangered
Lesser sand-plover

Charadrius mongolus - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Charadrius mongolus Least concern
Greater sand-plover

Greater Sand Plover.jpg

Charadrius leschenaultii Least concern
Caspian plover

Caspian Plover.jpg

Charadrius asiaticus Least concern
Kentish plover

Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus, India.jpg

Charadrius alexandrinus Least concern
Common ringed plover

Charadrius hiaticula tundrae Varanger.jpg

Charadrius hiaticula Charadrius hiaticula tundrae Least concern
Long-billed plover

Charadrius placidus japonicus.JPG

Charadrius placidus Least concern
Little ringed plover

Little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Charadrius dubius Least concern
Oriental plover

Charadrius veredus West Timor 0.jpg

Charadrius veredus Least concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Rostratulidae

Painted-snipes are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Greater painted-snipe

Greater Painted-snipe (Female) I2 IMG 9477.jpg

Rostratula benghalensis Least concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Pheasant-tailed jacana

Pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus).jpg

Hydrophasianus chirurgus Least concern

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus.jpg

Numenius phaeopus Least Concern
Little curlew

Numenius minutus 1.jpg

Numenius minutus Least Concern
Slender-billed curlew

Numenius tenuirostris.jpg

Numenius tenuirostris Critically Endangered
Eurasian curlew

Eurasian Curlew.jpg

Numenius arquata Near Threatened
Bar-tailed godwit

Bar-tailed Godwit.jpg

Limosa lapponica Near Threatened
Black-tailed godwit

Black-tailed Godwit Uferschnepfe.jpg

Limosa limosa Near Threatened
Ruddy turnstone

Arenaria interpres (habitus).jpg

Arenaria interpres Least Concern
Great knot

Calidris tenuirostris - Great Knot.jpg

Calidris tenuirostris Endangered
Red knot


Calidris canutus Near Threatened

Philomachus pugnax -Diergaarde Blijdorp-8c.jpg

Calidris pugnax Least Concern
Broad-billed sandpiper

Broad billed sandpiper by Sreedev Puthur.jpg

Calidris falcinellus Least Concern
Sharp-tailed sandpiper

Calidris acuminata - Hexham Swamp.jpg

Calidris acuminata Least Concern
Curlew sandpiper

Calidris ferruginea, winter adult, Pak Thale.jpg

Calidris ferruginea Near Threatened
Temminck's stint

Temmincks Stint.jpg

Calidris temminckii Least Concern
Long-toed stint

Calidris subminuta - Pak Thale.jpg

Calidris subminuta Least Concern
Spoon-billed sandpiper

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 2 - Pak Thale.jpg

Calidris pygmeus Critically Endangered
Red-necked stint

Calidris ruficollis - Pak Thale.jpg

Calidris ruficollis Near Threatened

Sanderling (Calidris alba) breeding plumage.jpg

Calidris alba Least Concern


Calidris alpina Least Concern
Little stint

Little Stint (Calidris minuta) (1).jpg

Calidris minuta Least Concern
White-rumped sandpiper

Calidris fuscicollis PLAYERO RABADILLA BLANCA.jpg

Calidris fuscicollis Least Concern
Buff-breasted sandpiper

Tryngites subruficollis -USA-8.jpg

Calidris subruficollis Near Threatened
Pectoral sandpiper

Pectoral Sandpiper3.jpg

Calidris melanotos Least Concern
Asian dowitcher

Asian Dowitcher 6436.jpg

Limnodramus semipalmatus Near Threatened
Jack snipe

Lymnocryptes minimus (Marek Szczepanek).jpg

Lymnocryptes minimus Least Concern
Eurasian woodcock

Woodcock earthworm.jpg

Scolopax rusticola Least Concern
Wood snipe

Scolopax Nemoricola Wood Snipe Birds of India.jpg

Gallinago nemoricola Vulnerable
Great snipe

Greatsnipe 1000.jpg

Gallinago media Near Threatened
Common snipe


Gallinago gallinago Least Concern
Pin-tailed snipe

Gallinago stenura - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Gallinago stenura Least Concern
Swinhoe's snipe

Gallinago megala.jpg

Gallinago megala Least Concern
Terek sandpiper

Xenus cinereus Lapland.JPG

Xenus cinereus Least Concern
Wilson's phalarope

Phalaropus tricolor - breeding female.jpg

Phalaropus tricolor Least Concern
Red-necked phalarope

Red-necked Phalarope.jpg

Phalaropus lobatus Least Concern
Red phalarope

Phalaropus fulicarius 10.jpg

Phalaropus fulicarius Least Concern
Common sandpiper

Common sandpiper lake geneva-4.jpg

Actitis hypoleucos Least Concern
Spotted sandpiper


Actitis macularius Least Concern
Green sandpiper

Green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus).jpg

Tringa ochropus Least Concern
Solitary sandpiper


Tringa solitaria Least Concern
Spotted redshank

Spotted Redshank Breeding Plumage.jpg

Tringa erythropus Least Concern
Common greenshank

Greenshank (Tringa nebularia).jpg

Tringa nebularia Least Concern
Nordmann's greenshank


Tringa guttifer Endangered
Marsh sandpiper

Tringa stagnatilis 2 - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Tringa stagnatilis Least Concern
Wood sandpiper

Wood Sandpiper Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Tringa glareola Least Concern
Common redshank

Common Redshank Tringa totanus.jpg

Tringa totanus Least Concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Turnicidae

The buttonquail are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Small buttonquail

Small Buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus Amravati (3). Maharashtra, India.jpg

Turnix sylvaticus Least concern
Barred buttonquail

Barred Button quail or Common Bustard-Quail (Turnix suscitatior) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Turnix sylvatica Least concern


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Dromadidae

The crab-plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN


Dromas ardeola Least concern

Pratincoles and coursers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Indian courser

Indian Courser (8364073710).jpg

Cursorius coromandelicus Least concern
Collared pratincole

Collared pratincole (Glareola pratincola).jpg

Glareola pratincola Least concern
Oriental pratincole

Glareola maldivarum - Beung Borapet.jpg

Glareola maldivarum Least concern
Small pratincole

Small pranticole.jpg

Glareola lactea Least concern

Skuas and jaegers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
South polar skua

South polar skua.jpg

Catharacta maccormicki Least concern
Brown skua

Stercorarius antarcticus -Godthul, South Georgia, British Overseas Territories, UK -landing-8.jpg

Catharacta antarctica Least concern
Pomarine jaeger

Stercorarius pomarinusPCCA20070623-3985B.jpg

Stercorarius pomarinus Least concern
Parasitic jaeger

Parasitic Jaeger.jpg

Stercorarius parasiticus Least concern

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and terns. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.


Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.[5]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
White-tailed tropicbird

Phaethon lepturus -Midway Atoll, USA -flying-8.jpg

Phaethon lepturus Phaethon lepturus lepturus Least concern
Red-billed tropicbird

Red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus mesonauta) with chick.jpg

Phaethon aethereus Least concern

Southern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

Southern storm-petrels are small birds which spend most of their lives at sea, coming ashore only to breed. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering or pattering across the water. Their flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.[6]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Wilson's storm-petrel

Oceanites oceanicus - SE Tasmania.jpg

Oceanites oceanicus Least concern
White-faced storm-petrel

Pelagodroma marina - SE Tasmania.jpg

Pelagodroma marina Least concern
Black-bellied storm-petrel

Fregetta tropica, Kaapse waters, Birding Weto, a.jpg

Fregetta tropica Least concern

Northern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Northern storm-petrels are small birds which spend most of their lives at sea, coming ashore only to breed. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering or pattering across the water. Their flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.[6]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Swinhoe's storm-petrel


Oceanodroma monorhis Near threatened

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.[6]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Cape petrel

Daption capense in flight - SE Tasmania.jpg

Daption capense Daption capense capense Migrant Least concern
Soft-plumaged petrel

Pterodroma mollis light morph - SE Tasmania 2019.jpg

Pterodroma mollis Least concern
Barau's petrel

Pterodroma baraui, Durban, Birding Weto, b.jpg

Pterodroma baraui Endangered
White-headed petrel

File-Pterodroma lessonii in flight 1 - SE Tasmania 2019.jpg

Pterodroma lessonii Least concern
Bulwer's petrel

Pétrel de Bulwer.jpg

Bulweria bulwerii Least concern
Jouanin's petrel

Jouanin's Petrel.jpg

Bulweria fallax Near threatened
Streaked shearwater

Streaked shearwater sitting.jpg

Calonectris leucomelas Near threatened
Flesh-footed shearwater

Puffinus carneipes.jpg

Ardenna cameipes Near threatened
Wedge-tailed shearwater

Wedge tailed shearwater2.jpg

Ardenna pacificus Least concern
Sooty shearwater

Sooty shearwater kaikoura.jpg

Ardenna griseus Near threatened
Short-tailed shearwater

Puffinus tenuirostris - SE Tasmania.jpg

Ardenna tenuirostris Least concern
Tropical shearwater

Pétrel de Barau.jpg

Puffinus bailloni Least concern
Persian shearwater


Puffinus persicus Least concern


Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are virtually mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.[7]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Asian openbill

Asian openbill stork (Anastomus oscitans).jpg

Anastomus oscitans Resident Least concern
Black stork

Ciconia nigra 1 (Marek Szczepanek).jpg

Ciconia nigra Least concern
Woolly-necked stork

Woolly-necked stork.JPG

Ciconia episcopus Ciconia episcopus episcopus Resident Vulnerable
White stork

Ringed white stork.jpg

Ciconia ciconia Ciconia ciconia asiatica Least concern
Black-necked stork

Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus -India-8.jpg

Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus Resident[8] Near threatened
Lesser adjutant

Lesser Adjutant ,Yala National Park .jpg

Leptoptilos javanicus Resident Vulnerable
Painted stork

Mycteria leucocephala - Pak Thale.jpg

Mycteria leucocephala Resident Near threatened


Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.[5] None are resident.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Lesser frigatebird

Lesser Frigatebird from Indonesia.jpg

Fregata ariel Fregata ariel ariel Least concern
Christmas Island frigatebird

Christmas Island Frigatebird male - Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.jpg

Fregata andrewsi Critically endangered
Great frigatebird

Male greater frigate bird displaying.jpg

Fregata minor Fregata minor minor Least concern

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

The gannets and boobies in the family Sulidae are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.[5]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Masked booby

Masked booby with chick.JPG

Sula dactylatra Sula dactylatra melanops Least concern
Brown booby

Brown boobytern.JPG

Sula leucogaster Sula leucogaster plotus Least concern
Red-footed booby

Sula sula by Gregg Yan 01.jpg

Sula sula Sula sula rubripes Least concern


Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Anhingas or darters are often called "snake-birds" because they have long thin necks, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage, especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.[5]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Oriental darter

Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) 21-Mar-2007 6-10-09 AM.JPG

Anhinga melanogaster Resident[9] Near threatened

Cormorants and shags[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies; the majority of species have mainly dark plumage, but some are pied black and white, and a few are more colourful.[5]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Little cormorant

Microcarbo niger - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Microcarbo niger Resident Least concern
Great cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo Vic.jpg

Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocorax carbo carbo Resident Least concern
Indian cormorant

Phalacrocorax fuscicollis - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Resident Least concern


Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.[5]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Great white pelican

Whitepelican edit shadowlift.jpg

Pelecanus onocrotalus Least concern
Spot-billed pelican

Pelecanus Philippensis.JPG

Pelecanus philippensis Resident.[10] Near threatened
Dalmatian pelican

ComputerHotline - Pelecanus crispus (by) (1).jpg

Pelecanus crispus Near threatened

Herons, egrets, and bitterns[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of this family fly with their necks retracted.[7]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Great bittern

Bittern - Botaurus stellaris.jpg

Botaurus stellaris Botaurus stellaris stellaris Least concern
Yellow bittern

Ixobrychus sinensis - Bueng Boraphet.jpg

Ixobrychus sinensis Resident Least concern
Schrenck's bittern

Ixobrychus eurhythmus by OpenCage.jpg

Ixobrychus eurhythmus Least concern
Cinnamon bittern

Cinnamon bittern or chestnut bittern (Ixobrychus cinnamomeus) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Ixobrychus cinnamomeus Resident Least concern
Black bittern

Black bittern (Ixobrychus flavicollis).jpg

Ixobrychus flavicollis Resident Least concern
Gray heron

Graureiher Grey Heron.jpg

Ardea cinerea Ardea cinerea cinerea Resident Least concern
Goliath heron

Ardea goliath.jpg

Ardea goliath Least concern
Purple heron


Ardea purpurea Ardea purpurea manilensis Resident Least concern
Great egret

Ardea modesta.jpg

Ardea alba Eastern great egret
Ardea alba modesta
Resident Least concern
Intermediate egret

Intermediate Egret in breeding plumage.1 - Fogg Dam - Middle Point - Northern Territory - Australia.jpg

Ardea intermedia Resident Least concern
Little egret

Little Egret.6.jpg

Egretta garzetta Egretta garzetta garzetta Resident Least concern
Western reef-heron

Western reef heron.jpg

Egretta gularis Resident.[11] Least concern
Cattle egret

Bubulcus ibis -Gambia -frog in beak-8.jpg

Bubulcus ibis Bubulcus ibis coromandus Resident Least concern
Indian pond-heron

Indian pond heron (Ardeola grayii) India.jpg

Ardeola grayii Resident Least concern
Chinese pond-heron

Ardeola bacchus winter plumage - Laem Phak Bia.jpg

Ardeola bacchus Least concern
Striated heron

Butorides striata - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Butorides striata Resident Least concern
Black-crowned night-heron

Black-crowned Night Heron RWD7.jpg

Nycticorax nycticorax Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax Resident Least concern
Malayan night-heron

Malayan Night-Heron - Taiwan S4E8695 (17320173361).jpg

Gorsachius melanolophus Least concern

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which comprises the ibises and spoonbills. Its members have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary flight feathers. They are strong fliers and, despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.[7]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Glossy ibis

Plegadis falcinellus (aka) background blurred.jpg

Plegadis falcinellus Least concern
Black-headed ibis

Black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus).jpg

Threskiornis melanocephalus Resident.[12] Near threatened
Red-naped ibis

Pair of Red-naped ibis (Pseudibis papillosa).jpg

Pseudibis papillosa Least concern
Eurasian spoonbill

Eurasian Spoonbill-2.jpg

Platalea leucorodia Platalea leucorodia leucorodia Resident.[13] Least concern


Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN


Pandion haliaetus Resident Least concern

Hawks, eagles, and kites[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-winged kite


Elanus caeruleus Elanus caeruleus vociferus Least concern
Egyptian vulture

Egyptian vulture.jpg

Neophron percnopterus Neophron percnopterus ginginiatus Endangered
Crested honey buzzard

Oriental Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhynchus) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Pernis ptilorhynchus Least concern
Jerdon's baza

Adult Jerdon's Baza.jpg

Aviceda jerdoni Aviceda jerdoni ceylonensis Least concern
Black baza

Black Baza.jpg

Aviceda leuphotes Least concern
Crested serpent-eagle

Spilornis cheela (Bandipur, 2008).jpg

Spilornis cheela Spilornis cheela spilogaster Least concern
Changeable hawk-eagle

Crested hawk eagle SOP.jpg

Nisaetus cirrhatus Nisaetus cirrhatus ceylanensis Least concern
Legge's hawk-eagle

Nisaetus nipalense (Thattekad).jpg

Nisaetus kelaarti Not Evaluated
Rufous-bellied eagle


Lophotriorchis kieneri Least concern
Black eagle

Black eagle.jpg

Ictinaetus malaiensis Least concern
Greater spotted eagle

Aquila clanga from Tal Chapar Wildlife Sanctuary.jpg

Clanga clanga Vulnerable
Booted eagle

MH Booted.jpg

Hieraaetus pennatus Least concern
Bonelli's eagle

Bonelli's Eagle - Montsonis - Spain S4E8373 (24849913309).jpg

Aquila fasciata Least concern
Eurasian marsh-harrier

Western Marsh Harrier- Bangalore, India.jpg

Circus aeruginosus Least concern
Pallid harrier

Pallid Harrier Male.jpg

Circus macrourus Near threatened
Pied harrier

Pied Harrier (Female).jpg

Circus melanoleucos Least concern
Montagu's harrier

Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus) grounded.jpg

Circus pygargus Least concern
Crested goshawk

Accipiter trivirgatus PA273291.jpg

Accipiter trivirgatus Least concern

Shikra - Male.jpg

Accipiter badius Least concern

Accipiter virgatus.jpg

Accipiter virgatus Least concern
Eurasian sparrowhawk

Accnis edit.jpg

Accipiter nisus Least concern
Black kite

Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Jalpaiguri.jpg

Milvus migrans Milvus migrans govinda Least concern
Brahminy kite

Haliastur indus -Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia-8 (1).jpg

Haliastur indus Haliastur indus indus Least concern
White-bellied sea-eagle

Haliaeetus leucogaster -Arignar Anna Zoo, Vandalur, Chennai, India-8a.jpg

Haliaeetus leucogaster Least concern
Gray-headed fish-eagle

Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus -Kazaringa, Assam, India-8.jpg

Haliaeetus ichthyaetus Least concern
Common buzzard

Buteo buteo -Netherlands-8.jpg

Buteo buteo Buteo buteo buteo Least concern
Himalayan buzzard

Himalayan Buzzard Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary East Sikkim India 12.05.2016.jpg

Buteo refectus Least concern
Eastern buzzard

Buteo japonicus1.jpg

Buteo japonicus Least concern
Long-legged buzzard


Buteo rufinus Buteo rufinus rufinus Least concern

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Barn owl

Barn Owl by N.A. Nazeer.jpg

Tyto alba Tyto alba stertens Resident Least concern
Sri Lanka bay-owl

Ceylon Bay Owl Abhilash Arjunan.jpg

Phodilus assimilis Phodilus assimilis assimilis Resident Least concern


Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Serendib scops-owl

Serendib Scops-owl.jpg

Otus thilohoffmanni Endemic Endangered
Indian scops-owl

Otus bakkamoena.jpg

Otus bakkamoena Resident Least concern
Oriental scops-owl

Oriental Scops Owl, Garbhanga, Assam, 5 june 2017.jpg

Otus sunia Resident Least concern
Spot-bellied eagle-owl

Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl by N.A. Nazeer.jpg

Bubo nipalensis Resident Least concern
Brown fish-owl

Brown Fish-Owl (Ketupa zeylonensis zeylonensis) - Flickr - Lip Kee.jpg

Ketupa zeylonensis Sri Lankan brown fish owl
Ketupa zeylonensis zeylonensis
Resident Least concern
Jungle owlet


Glaucidium radiatum Resident Least concern
Chestnut-backed owlet


Glaucidium castanotum Endemic Least concern
Brown wood-owl

Brown Wood Owl1.jpg

Strix leptogrammica Resident Least concern
Brown hawk-owl

Brown Hawk-Owl - Ninox scutulata.jpg

Ninox scutulata Resident Least concern
Short-eared owl

Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Asio flammeus Asio flammeus flammeus Vagrant Least concern


Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Malabar trogon

Male Malabar Trogon (crop).jpg

Harpactes fasciatus Resident Least concern


Order: Bucerotiformes   Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Eurasian hoopoe

Hoopoe at Rajaji NP.jpg

Upupa epops Upupa epops ceylonensis Resident Least concern


Order: Bucerotiformes   Family: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka gray hornbill

Ceylon Grey Hornbill.jpg

Ocyceros gingalensis Endemic Least concern
Malabar pied hornbill

Female malabar pied hornbill in Sri Lanka.jpg

Anthracoceros coronatus Resident Least concern


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Common kingfisher

♂ Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar, Mangaon, Maharashtra, India.jpg

Alcedo atthis Alcedo atthis taprobana Resident Least concern
Blue-eared kingfisher

GJSheppard-Blue-eared Kingfisher.jpg

Alcedo meninting Alcedo meninting phillipsi Resident Least concern
Black-backed dwarf-kingfisher

Oriental dwarf kingfisher (Ceyx erithaca) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Ceyx erithaca Resident Least concern
Stork-billed kingfisher

Stork-billed Kingfisher I IMG 7407.jpg

Pelargopsis capensis Pelargopsis capensis capensis Resident Least concern
White-throated kingfisher

White-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Halcyon smyrnensis Halcyon smyrnensis fusca Resident Least concern
Black-capped kingfisher

Black-capped Kingfisher Sundarbans West Bengal India 30.12.2014.jpg

Halcyon pileata Resident Least concern
Pied kingfisher

Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis rudis) male.jpg

Ceryle rudis Ceryle rudis leucomelanura Resident Least concern


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Green bee-eater

Green bee-eater (Merops orientalis) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Merops orientalis Merops orientalis orientalis

Merops orientalis ceylonicus

Resident Least concern
Blue-tailed bee-eater

Blue-tailed bee-eater (Merops philippinus).jpg

Merops philippinus Resident Least concern
European bee-eater

Pair of Merops apiaster feeding.jpg

Merops apiaster Resident Least concern
Chestnut-headed bee-eater

Merops leschenaulti - Kaeng Krachan.jpg

Merops leschenaulti Resident Least concern


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
European roller

Arrival (47961559816).jpg

Coracias garrulus Least concern
Indian roller

Blue Jay or The Indian Roller.JPG

Coracias benghalensis Coracias benghalensis indicus Resident Least concern

Dollarbird Samcem Dec02.JPG

Eurystomus orientalis Eurystomus orientalis irisi Resident Least concern

Asian barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Megalaimidae

The Asian barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Crimson-fronted barbet


Psilopogon rubricapillus Endemic Least concern
Coppersmith barbet

Coppersmith Barbet (Megalaima haemacephala) in Kolkata I IMG 7583.jpg

Psilopogon haemacephalus Psilopogon haemacephalus indica Resident Least concern
Brown-headed barbet

Brown head barbet.JPG

Psilopogon zeylanicus Resident Least concern
Yellow-fronted barbet

Megalaima flavifrons 1.jpg

Psilopogon flavilfrons Endemic Least concern


Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Eurasian Wryneck

Northern wryneck by David Raju (cropped).jpg

Jynx torquilla Least concern
Brown-capped woodpecker

Dendrocopos nanus.jpg

Yungipicus nanus Least concern
Yellow-crowned woodpecker

Yellow crowned woodpecker.jpg

Leiopicus mahrattensis Least concern
Crimson-backed flameback


Chrysocolaptes stricklandi Endemic. Least concern
White-naped woodpecker

White-naped Woodpecker (Chrysocolaptes festivus) in Hyderabad W IMG 7547.jpg

Chrysocolaptes festivus Least concern
Rufous woodpecker

Celeus brachyurus.jpg

Micropternus brachyurus Least concern
Black-rumped flameback

Flameback Woodpecker.jpg

Dinopium benghalense

Dinopium benghalense jaffnense

Resident. Least concern
Red-backed flameback

Red-backed flameback Sri Lanka - 01.jpg

Dinopium psarodes Endemic. Least concern
Lesser yellownape

Lesser yellownape Ghatgarh, Uttarakhand, India 06.10.2014.jpg

Picus chlorolophus Picus chlorolophus wellsi Least concern
Streak-throated woodpecker

Streak Throated Woodpecker (7554092814).jpg

Picus xanthopygaeus Least concern

Falcons and caracaras[edit]

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-thighed falconet

Black-thighed Falconet.jpg

Microhierax fringillarius Least concern
Lesser kestrel

Male and female Lesser Kestrels.jpg

Falco naumanni Least concern
Eurasian kestrel

Common kestrel falco tinnunculus.jpg Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Tal Chappar Rajasthan India 14.02.2013.jpg

Falco tinnunculus Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus Resident Least concern
Red-necked falcon

Red-Necked Falcon.JPG

Falco chicquera Near threatened
Amur falcon

Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis) male (16794543415).jpg Amur Falcon (F).jpg

Falco amurensis Least concern
Eurasian hobby

Eurasian Hobby (14574008925) (cropped).jpg

Falco subbuteo Least concern
Oriental hobby

Oriental Hobby - Falco severus - Falco (2526569907).jpg

Falco severus Least concern
Peregrine falcon

Shaheen falcon.jpg

Falco peregrinus Shaheen falcon
Falco peregrinus peregrinator[14]

Eastern peregrine falcon
Falco peregrinus calidus

Least concern

Old World parrots[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittaculidae

Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Old World parrots are found from Africa east across south and southeast Asia and Oceania to Australia and New Zealand.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Alexandrine parakeet

Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) pair -2pc.jpg

Psittacula eupatria Psittacula eupatria eupatria Resident Near threatened
Rose-ringed parakeet

Rose-ringed Parakeet (Male) I IMG 9141.jpg

Psittacula krameri Psittacula krameri manillensis Resident Least concern
Plum-headed parakeet

Pair of Plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Psittacula cyanocephala Psittacula cyanocephala cyanocephala Resident Least concern
Layard's parakeet

Psittacula calthropae -Sri Lanka -eating fruit-8.jpg

Psittacula calthrapae Endemic Least concern
Sri Lanka hanging-parrot

Loriculus beryllinus -Sri Lanka -adult-8.jpg

Loriculus beryllinus Endemic Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards and are stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Indian pitta

Indian pitta (Pitta brachyura) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Pitta brachyura Migrant Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Campephagidae

The cuckooshrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Small minivet

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus (male) -Sri Lanka-8.jpg Small Minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus)-Female W IMG 4573.jpg

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus Pericrocotus cinnamomeus malabaricus Least concern
Orange minivet

Orange Minivet, Ganeshgudi, 28 FEB 2016, Vimal Rajyaguru.jpg Pericrocotus flammeus -Sri Lanka -female-8a.jpg

Pericrocotus flammeus Least concern
Large cuckooshrike

BN GHC.jpg

Coracina macei Least concern
Black-headed cuckooshrike

Black-headed Cuckooshrike (Coracina melanoptera) at Sindhrot near Vadodara, Gujrat Pix 107.jpg

Lalage melanoptera Least concern
Indochinese cuckooshrike


Lalage polioptera Least concern

Old World orioles[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oriolidae

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Eurasian golden oriole

Loriot d'Europe by Michel Idre.jpg

Oriolus oriolus Least concern
Indian golden oriole

IndianGoldenOriole M.jpg

Oriolus kundoo Least concern
Black-naped oriole

Black-naped Oriole eyeing on Lannea coromandelica fruits W IMG 7449.jpg

Oriolus chinensis Oriolus chinensis diffusus Least concern
Slender-billed oriole

Slender-billed Oriole Oriolus tenuirostris by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSC 4258 (3).jpg

Oriolus tenuirostris Least concern
Black-hooded oriole

Black-hooded Oriole (Oriolus xanthornus) in Kolkata I IMG 7603.jpg

Oriolus xanthornus Oriolus xanthornus ceylonensis Resident Least concern

Woodswallows, bellmagpies, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Artamidae

The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Ashy woodswallow

Ashy Woodswallow (Artamus fuscus) at Jayanti, Duars, West Bengal W IMG 5285.jpg

Artamus fuscus Resident Least concern

Vangas, helmetshrikes, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vangidae

The Vangidae comprises a group of often shrike-like medium-sized birds distributed from Asia to Africa. Many species in this family were previously classified elsewhere in other families.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka woodshrike

Sri Lanka Woodshrike.jpg

Tephrodornis affinis Endemic Least concern
Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike

Bar-winged Flycatcher Shrike Sattal Uttarakhand India 01.02.2015.jpg

Hemipus picatus Hemipus picatus leggei Resident Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Aegithinidae

The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Common iora

Common Iora.jpg

Aegithina tiphia Resident Least concern
White-tailed iora

Aegithina nigrolutea.jpg

Aegithina nigrolutea Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhipiduridae

The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
White-browed fantail

Rhipidura aureola 1.jpg

Rhipidura aureola Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black drongo

Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) IMG 7702 (1)..JPG

Dicrurus macrocercus Least concern
Ashy drongo

Ashy Drongo 0420 GarimaBhatia.jpg

Dicrurus leucophaeus Least concern
White-bellied drongo

Thimindu White belied Drongo 1.JPG

Dicrurus caerulescens Dicrurus caerulescens leucopygialis Least concern
Greater racket-tailed drongo

Dicrurus paradiseus -Kerala -India-6-3c.jpg

Dicrurus paradiseus Dicrurus paradiseus ceylonicus Least concern
Sri Lanka drongo

Sri Lanka drongo - Sri Lanka - 01.jpg

Dicrurus lophorinus Endemic Least concern

Monarch flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-naped monarch

Mother's Care - Black-naped monarch.jpg

Hypothymis azurea Hypothymis azurea ceylonensis Least concern
Indian paradise flycatcher

Terpsiphone paradisi -near Amaya Lake, Dambulla, Sri Lanka-8.jpg Asian Paradise-flycatcher (Female).jpg AsianParadiseFlycatcher White.JPG

Terpsiphone paradisi • Ceylon paradise flycatcher
Terpsiphone paradisi ceylonensis

• Indian paradise flycatcher
Terpsiphone paradisi paradisi

• Himalayan paradise flycatcher
Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster

Resident, Migrant Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Brown shrike

Lanius cristatus - Surin.jpg

Lanius cristatus Lanius cristatus cristatus Least concern
Bay-backed shrike

Bay-backed shrike (Lanius vittatus).jpg

Lanius vittatus Least concern
Long-tailed shrike

Long-tailed Shrike (Lanius schach- race tricolor) in Kolkata W IMG 3434.jpg

Lanius schach Lanius schach caniceps Least concern
Great gray shrike

Lanius excubitor 1 (Marek Szczepanek).jpg

Lanius excubitor Least concern

Crows, jays, and magpies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka blue-magpie

Thimindu 2010 02 20 Sinharaja Sri Lanka Blue Magpie 1.jpg

Urocissa ornata Endemic Vulnerable
House crow

House crow Bangalore India.jpg

Corvus splendens Corvus splendens protegatus Resident Least concern
Large-billed crow

Corvus macrorhynchos Resident Least concern

Fairy flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Stenostiridae

Most of the species of this small family are found in Africa, though a few inhabit tropical Asia. They are not closely related to other birds called "flycatchers".

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Gray-headed canary-flycatcher

Culicicapa ceylonensis - Mae Wong.jpg

Culicicapa ceylonensis Culicicapa ceylonensis ceylonensis Least concern

Tits, chickadees, and titmice[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Cinereous tit

Cinereous Tit DSC9994.jpg

Parus cinereus Parus cinereus mahrattarum Resident Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Ashy-crowned sparrow-lark

Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN1991 (3).jpg

Eremopterix griseus Eremopterix griseus ceylonensis Least concern
Jerdon's bushlark

Mirafra affinis sal.jpg

Mirafra affinis Least concern
Greater short-toed lark

Greater short-toed lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Calandrella brachydactyla Least concern
Sykes's short-toed lark

Calandrella dukhunensis.jpg

Calandrella dukhunensis Least concern
Oriental skylark

Oriental Skylark (Alauda gulgula) in AP W IMG 4084.jpg

Alauda gulgula Alauda gulgula gulgula Least concern

Cisticolas and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Common tailorbird


Orthotomus sutorius • Highland common tailorbird
Orthotomus sutorius fernandonis

• Lowland common tailorbird
Orthotomus sutorius sutorius

Resident Least concern
Rufescent prinia

Rufescent Prinia.jpg

Prinia rufescens Least concern
Gray-breasted prinia

Prinia hodgsonii (cropped).jpg

Prinia hodgsonii Prinia hodgsonii pectoralis Least concern
Jungle prinia

Jungle Prinia (Prinia sylvatica) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 1329.jpg

Prinia sylvatica Least concern
Ashy prinia

Ashy Prinia (Prinia socialis), Mangaon, Maharashtra, India, by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Prinia socialis Prinia socialis brevicauda Least concern
Plain prinia

Plain Prinia Prinia inornata Chambal Uttar Pradesh by Dr. Raju Kasambe (2).jpg

Prinia inornata Least concern
Zitting cisticola

Zitting Cisticola - Cisticola juncidis.JPG

Cisticola juncidis Cisticola juncidis cursitans Least concern

Reed warblers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Acrocephalidae

The members of this family are usually rather large for "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but it also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Booted warbler

Booted Warbler - Kazakistan S4E0786 (17330623545).jpg

Iduna caligata Least concern
Sykes's warbler

Syke's Warbler (Hippolais rama) on Vilaiti Siris (Samanea saman) in Kolkata W IMG 4659.jpg

Iduna rama Least concern
Black-browed reed warbler

Black-browed Reed Warbler by Jason Thompson (Cropped).jpg

Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Least concern
Blyth's reed warbler

Blyth's Reed Warbler I2 IMG 9417.jpg

Acrocephalus dumetorum Resident Least concern
Clamorous reed warbler

Clamorous reed warbler.jpg

Acrocephalus stentoreus Acrocephalus stentoreus meridionalis Least concern

Grassbirds and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Locustellidae

Locustellidae are a family of small insectivorous songbirds found mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. They are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed, and tend to be drab brownish or buffy all over.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Broad-tailed grassbird

Broad-tailed Grassbird.jpg

Schoenicola platyura Vulnerable
Pallas's grasshopper-warbler

Rusty-rumped Warbler (Locustella certhiola) I IMG 2750.jpg

Locustella certhiola Least concern
Lanceolated warbler

Locustella lanceolata.jpg

Locustella lanceolata Least concern
Common grasshopper-warbler

Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia by Dr. Raju Kasambe.jpg

Locustella naevia Least concern
Sri Lanka bush warbler

Flickr - Rainbirder - Ceylon bush warbler (Bradypterus palliseri) (cropped).jpg

Elaphrornis palliseri Endemic Near threatened


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Bank swallow

Riparia riparia -Markinch, Fife, Scotland -flying-8-4c.jpg

Riparia riparia Least concern
Pale sand martin

Riparia diluta.JPG

Riparia diluta Least concern
Rock martin

Rock Martin (Hirundo fuligula) (32682255041).jpg

Ptyonoprogne fuligula Least concern
Dusky crag-martin

Ptyonoprogne concolor by Anis Shaikh 15.jpg

Ptyonoprogne concolor Least concern
Barn swallow


Hirundo rustica Hirundo rustica rustica Least concern
Wire-tailed swallow

Wiretailed swallowed ,Chandigarh, India.JPG

Hirundo smithii Hirundo smithii filifera Least concern
Hill swallow

Hill Swallow (Hirundo domicola) by Dharani Prakash.jpg

Hirundo domicola Least concern
Red-rumped swallow

Golondrina dáurica Cecropis daurica 1.jpg

Cecropis daurica Least concern
Sri Lanka swallow

Cecropis hyperythra 1894.jpg

Cecropis hyperythra Endemic Least concern
Streak-throated swallow

Streaked-throated Swallow (Hirundo fluvicola) building nest W2 IMG 2372.jpg

Petrochelidon fluvicola Least concern
Common house-martin

Mehlschwalbe Delichon urbicum.jpg

Delichon urbicum Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-capped bulbul

Black-capped bulbul, (Pycnonotus melanicterus).jpg

Rubigula melanicterus Endemic Least concern
Red-vented bulbul

Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) feeding at Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) at Kolkata I IMG 2535.jpg

Pycnonotus cafer Pycnonotus cafer haemorrhousus Resident Least concern
Yellow-eared bulbul

Pycnonotus penicillatus.jpg

Pycnonotus pennicilitatus Endemic Near threatened
White-browed bulbul

White-browed Bulbul ( Pycnonotus luteolus).JPG

Pycnonotus luteolus Pycnonotus luteolus insulae Least concern
Yellow-browed bulbul

Yellow browed bulbul.jpg

Iole indica Iole indica guglielmi Least concern
Square-tailed bulbul

Black Bulbul by N.A. Nazeer.jpg

Hypsipetes ganeesa Sri Lanka black bulbul
Hypsipetes ganeesa humii
Least concern

Leaf warblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Phylloscopidae

Leaf warblers are a family of small insectivorous birds found mostly in Eurasia and ranging into Wallacea and Africa. The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with greyish-green to greyish-brown colours.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Dusky warbler

Dusky Warbler.jpg

Phylloscopus fuscatus Least concern
Green-crowned warbler

Green-crowned Warbler Neora Valley National Park West Bengal India 01.05.2016.jpg

Phylloscopus burkii Least concern
Green warbler

Green warbler.jpg

Phylloscopus nitidus Least concern
Greenish warbler

Greenish Warbler Sikkim India 11.05.2014.jpg

Phylloscopus trochiloides Least concern
Large-billed leaf warbler

Large-billed Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus magnirostris).jpg

Phylloscopus magnirostris Least concern
Western crowned warbler

Western Crowned Warbler.jpg

Phylloscopus occipitalis Least concern

Bush warblers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Scotocercidae

The members of this family are found throughout Africa, Asia, and Polynesia. Their taxonomy is in flux, and some authorities place some genera in other families.[15]

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Pale-footed bush warbler Urosphena pallidipes Least concern

Sylviid warblers, parrotbills, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Many species are difficult to identify by appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Lesser whitethroat

Lesser Whitethroat at Rajkot.jpg

Sylvia curruca Sylvia curruca blythi Resident Least concern
Yellow-eyed babbler

Yello-eyed Babbler (8177616472).jpg

Chrysomma sinense Resident Least concern

White-eyes, yuhinas, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka white-eye

Sri Lanka Hill White-Eye.jpg

Zosterops ceylonensis Endemic Least concern
Indian white-eye

Oriental White Eye- Bhopal I IMG 0656.jpg

Zosterops palpebrosa Resident Least concern

Tree-babblers, scimitar-babblers, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Timaliidae

The babblers, or timaliids, are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Tawny-bellied babbler

Tawny bellied warbler 2 by David Raju (cropped).jpg

Dumetia hyperythra Dumetia hyperythra phillipsi Endemic Least concern
Dark-fronted babbler

Dark-fronted Babbler.jpg

Rhopocichla atriceps • Dryzone dark-fronted babbler
Rhopocichla atriceps siccata

• Wetzone dark-fronted babbler
Rhopocichla atriceps nigrifrons

Least concern
Sri Lanka scimitar-babbler

Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler (cropped).jpg

Pomatorhinus melanurus Endemic Least concern

Ground babblers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pellorneidae

These small to medium-sized songbirds have soft fluffy plumage but are otherwise rather diverse. Members of the genus Illadopsis are found in forests, but some other genera are birds of scrublands.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Brown-capped babbler

Flickr - Rainbirder - Brown-capped Babbler (Pellorneum fuscocapillum) (cropped).jpg

Pellorneum fuscocapillum Endemic Least concern

Laughingthrushes and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Leiothrichidae

The members of this family are diverse in size and colouration, though those of genus Turdoides tend to be brown or greyish. The family is found in Africa, India, and southeast Asia.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Orange-billed babbler

Orange-billed babbler (18909680320).jpg

Turdoides rufescens Endemic Near threatened
Yellow-billed babbler

Yellow-billed Babbler (Turdoides affinis) by Dharani Prakash.jpg

Turdoides affinis Turdoides affinis taprobanus Resident Least concern
Ashy-headed laughingthrush

Ashy-headed Laughingthrush (Garrulax cinereifrons).jpg

Garrulax cinereifrons Endemic Vulnerable


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Velvet-fronted nuthatch

Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, Ganeshgudi, 26 FEB 2016, Vimal Rajyaguru,1 (cropped).jpg

Sitta frontalis Resident Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka myna

Gracula ptilogenys Knuckles Reserve, Sri Lanka 3.jpg

Gracula ptilogenys Endemic Near threatened
Southern hill myna

KG SHM.jpg

Gracula indica Resident Least concern
European starling

Toulouse - Sturnus vulgaris - 2012-02-26 - 3.jpg

Sturnus vulgaris Least concern
Rosy starling

Pastor roseus.jpg

Pastor roseus Least concern
Daurian starling

Agropsar sturninus - Kent Ridge Park.jpg

Agropsar sturninus Least concern
Asian pied starling

Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra).jpg

Gracupica contra Least concern
White-faced starling


Sturnornis albofrontatus Endemic Vulnerable
Brahminy starling

Brahminy starling (Sturnia pagodarum) female.jpg

Sturnia pagodarum Least concern
Chestnut-tailed starling

Chestnut-tailed Starling on twig.JPG

Sturnia malabarica Sturnia malabarica malabarica Least concern
Common myna

Acridotheres tristis -Sydney, Australia-8.jpg

Acridotheres tristis Acridotheres tristis tristis

Acridotheres tristis melanosternus

Resident Least concern

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Sri Lanka thrush

Zoothera imbricata, Sinharaja, Sri Lanka 1.jpg

Zoothera imbricata Endemic Near threatened
Pied thrush

Geokichla wardii -Nandi Hills, Karnataka, India -male-8.jpg

Geokichla wardii Least concern
Spot-winged thrush

Spot-winged Thrush (5320522326).jpg

Geokichla spiloptera Endemic Near threatened
Orange-headed thrush

Geokichla citrina, orange-headed thrush.jpg

Geokichla citrina Geokichla citrina citrina Least concern
Indian blackbird

Indian Blackbird.jpg

Turdus simillimus Turdus simillimus kinnisii Resident Least concern
Eyebrowed thrush

Eyebrowed Thrush.jpg

Turdus obscurus Least concern

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Asian brown flycatcher

Asian Brown Flycatcher (Muscicapa dauurica) at Periyar National Park.jpg

Muscicapa dauurica Least concern
Brown-breasted flycatcher

Brown breasted flycatcher.jpg

Muscicapa muttui Least concern
Spotted flycatcher

Muscicapa striata 1 (Martin Mecnarowski).jpg

Muscicapa striata Least concern
Rufous-tailed scrub-robin

Agrobate roux au Parc National de l'Ichkeul (Tunisia), crop.jpg

Cercotrichas galactotes Least concern
Indian robin

Indian Robin (Saxicoloides fulicata) in Kawal, AP W IMG 2031.jpg Indian Robin (F) I-Haryana IMG 8045.jpg

Copsychus fulicatus Copsychus fulicatus leucopterus Resident Least concern
Oriental magpie-robin

Male Female Oriental Magpie Robin Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Copsychus saularis Copsychus saularis saularis Resident Least concern
White-rumped shama

Copsychus malabaricus male - Khao Yai.jpg Copsychus malabaricus - Khao Yai.jpg

Copsychus malabaricus Copsychus malabaricus leggei Resident Least concern
White-bellied blue flycatcher

White-bellied blue flycatcher OMH.jpg White-bellied blue flycatcher female, Ganeshgudi, Karnataka, India.jpg

Cyornis pallipes Least concern
Blue-throated flycatcher

Blue-throated Blue Flycatcher Khangchendzonga National Park West Sikkim India 31.03.2016.jpg

Cyomis rubeculoides Least concern
Hill blue flycatcher

Cyornis banyumas female - Mae Wong.jpg

Cyornis banyumas Least concern
Tickell's blue flycatcher

Cyornis tickelliae male 1 - Kaeng Krachan.jpg

Cyornis tickelliae Least concern
Blue-and-white flycatcher

Blue and white flycatcher.jpg

Cyanoptila cyanomelana Least concern
Dull-blue flycatcher

Eumyias sordida.jpg

Eumyias sordidus Endemic Near threatened
Indian blue robin

Luscinia brunnea.jpg

Larvivora brunnea Migrant Least concern

Luscinia svecica volgae.jpg

Luscinia svecica Least concern
Sri Lanka whistling-thrush

Myophonus blighi male.JPG Myophonus blighi female.JPG

Myophonus blighi Endemic Endangered
Yellow-rumped flycatcher

Male Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) Korea May 2012.jpg

Ficedula zanthopygia Least concern
Black-and-orange flycatcher

Black and Orange Flycatcher.jpg

Ficedula nigrorufa Near threatened
Slaty-blue flycatcher

Slaty-backed Flycatcher male.jpg Slaty-blue Flycatcher (Female).jpg

Ficedula tricolor Least concern
Kashmir flycatcher

Bhargav Dwaraki KASHMIRI FLYCATCHER2.jpg

Ficedula subrubra Vulnerable
Red-breasted flycatcher

Red brested flycatcher by David Raju (cropped).jpg

Ficedula parva Least concern
Rufous-tailed rock-thrush


Monticola saxatilis Least concern
Blue rock-thrush

Monticola solitarius, Spain 1.jpg

Monticola solitarius Least concern

Saxicola rubetra -Belgium -male-8.jpg

Saxicola rubetra Least concern
Siberian stonechat

Siberian stonechat Male.jpg

Saxicola maurus Not evaluated
Pied bushchat

Pied bush chat (Saxicola caprata)male from nilgiris DSC 1123.jpg Pied bushchat (Saxicola caprata bicolor) female.jpg

Saxicola caprata Least concern
Northern wheatear

Steinschmaetzer Northern wheatear male.jpg

Oenanthe oenanthe Least concern
Isabelline wheatear

Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) (6786498564).jpg

Oenanthe isabellina Least concern
Desert wheatear

Desert Wheatear Male.jpg

Oenanthe deserti Least concern
Pied wheatear

Pied Wheatear (Oenanthe pleschanka) (8079431820).jpg

Oenanthe pleschanka Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Thick-billed flowerpecker

Dicaeum agile modestum - Kaeng Krachan.jpg

Dicaeum agile Dicaeum agile zeylonense Resident Least concern
White-throated flowerpecker


Dicaeum vincens Endemic Near threatened
Pale-billed flowerpecker

Pale-billed Flowerpecker (Dicaeum erythrorhynchos) preening in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 7326.jpg

Dicaeum erythrorhynchos Dicaeum erythrorhynchos ceylonense Resident Least concern

Sunbirds and spiderhunters[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Purple-rumped sunbird

MG 0800 PRSB INW.jpg Purple-rumped Sunbird (Female) I IMG 7397.jpg

Leptocoma zeylonica Leptocoma zeylonica zeylonica Resident Least concern
Crimson-backed sunbird

Crimson-backed Sunbird (Leptocoma minima)-6.jpg

Leptocoma minima Least concern
Purple sunbird

Purple Sunbird (Nectarinia asiatica)- Male (Breeding) on Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) in Kolkata I IMG 1893.jpg

Cinnyris asiaticus Cinnyris asiaticus asiaticus Resident Least concern
Loten's sunbird

Loten sunbird by arshad ka.jpg Loten'sSunbird(F).jpg

Cinnyris lotenius Resident Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Irenidae

The fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Asian fairy-bluebird

Asian fairy bluebird@ aralam wls (cropped).jpg Asian Fairy Bluebird f MG 0027 GarimaBhatia (cropped).jpg

Irena puella Least concern


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Chloropseidae

The leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Jerdon's leafbird

Jerdon's Leafbird.jpg

Chloropsis jerdoni Resident Least concern
Golden-fronted leafbird

Golden Fronted Leafbird Mukulhinge.jpg

Chloropsis aurifrons Resident Least concern

Weavers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Streaked weaver

Streaked Weaver (Ploceus manyar) W IMG 6847.jpg

Ploceus manyar Least concern
Baya weaver

Baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) Male ♂ Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Ploceus philippinus Least concern

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Red avadavat

A pair of Red avadavat (Amandava amandava) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Amandava amandava Least concern
Indian silverbill

Indian Silverbill Rajarhat KolkataOutskirts 0001.jpg

Euodice malabarica Least concern
White-rumped munia

White-rumped munia 01762g.jpg

Lonchura striata Southwestern white-rumped munia
Lonchura striata striata
Least concern
Black-throated munia


Lonchura kelaarti Lonchura kelaarti kelaarti Least concern
Scaly-breasted munia

Lonchura punctulata (Nagarhole, 2004).jpg

Lonchura punctulata Lonchura punctulata punctulata Least concern
Tricolored munia

Tricoloured munia (cropped).jpg

Lonchura malacca Least concern
Chestnut munia

Lonchura atricapilla jagori -Cebu-8-3c.jpg

Lonchura atricapilla Least concern
Java sparrow

Padda oryzivora -University of Hawaii at Manoa campus, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA-8 (4).jpg

Lonchura oryzivora Endangered

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
House sparrow

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)- Male in Kolkata I IMG 5904.jpg House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)- Female in Kolkata I IMG 3787 (cropped).jpg

Passer domesticus Passer domesticus indicus Resident Least concern
Yellow-throated sparrow

Another pose of Chestnut-shouldered Petronia, Nagpur by Dr. Tejinder Singh Rawal.jpg

Gymnoris xanthocollis Least concern

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Forest wagtail

Forest Wagtail (cropped).jpg

Dendronanthus indicus Least concern
Gray wagtail

Motacilla cinerea 1 Luc Viatour.jpg

Motacilla cinerea Least concern
Western yellow wagtail


Motacilla flava Motacilla flava beema Least concern
Eastern yellow wagtail

Motacilla tschutschensis, Tomohon, North Sulawesi.jpg

Motacilla tschutschensis Least concern
Citrine wagtail

Citrine wagtail I IMG 8326.jpg

Motacilla citreola Least concern
White-browed wagtail

Motacilla maderaspatensis -Pashan Lake, Pune, Maharashtra, India-8.jpg

Motacilla maderaspatensis Least concern
White wagtail

Motacilla alba alba.JPG

Motacilla alba Least concern
Richard's pipit

Anthus richardi - Laem Pak Bia.jpg

Anthus richardi Least concern
Paddyfield pipit

MG 8236 PFP INW 02.jpg

Anthus rufulus Anthus rufulus malayensis Least concern
Blyth's pipit

Blyth's Pipit Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary East Sikkim 05.05.2016.jpg

Anthus godlewskii Least concern
Tawny pipit

AnthusCampestris cropped.jpg

Anthus campestris Least concern
Olive-backed pipit

Olive-backed Pipit- Kolkata I IMG 9911.jpg

Anthus hodgsoni Least concern
Red-throated pipit

Red-throated Pipit.jpg

Anthus cervinus Least concern

Finches, euphonias, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Common rosefinch

Common Rosefinch Neora Valley National Park Darjeeling West Bengal India 30.04.2016.jpg

Carpodacus erythrinus Least concern

Old World buntings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status IUCN
Black-headed bunting


Emberiza melanocephala Least concern
Red-headed bunting

Red-headed bunting (Emberiza bruniceps) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Emberiza bruniceps Least concern
Gray-necked bunting

GreyNeckedBunting PrasadBR.jpg

Emberiza buchanani Least concern

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Manakadan, Ranjit; Khan, Asif N. (March 2020). "Birds of the Indian Subcontinent ─ In a Nutshell". Buceros. BNHS-ENVIS. 24 (2 & 3).
  2. ^ Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Sri Lanka". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Birds of Sri Lanka, the complete checklist". WICE (World Institute for Conservation and Environment). Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  4. ^ Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Wildfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Harrison, Peter; Peterson, Roger Tory (1991). Seabirds: A Complete Guide to the Seabirds of the World (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-3510-X.
  6. ^ a b c Onley, Derek; Scofield, Paul (2007). Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters of the World (Helm Field Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7136-4332-9.
  7. ^ a b c Walters, Michael P. (1980). Complete Birds of the World. David & Charles PLC. ISBN 0-7153-7666-7.
  8. ^ BirdLife International (2006). "Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is Near threatened
  9. ^ BirdLife International (2006). "Anhinga melanogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is Near threatened
  10. ^ BirdLife International (2004). "Pelecanus philippensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2006.
  11. ^ BirdLife International (2004). "Egretta eulophotes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is vulnerable
  12. ^ BirdLife International (2006). "Threskiornis melanocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is near threatened
  13. ^ BirdLife International (2006). "Platalea minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered
  14. ^ de Silva Wijeratne, Gehan; Warakagoda, Deepal; de Zylva, T.S.U. (2007). "Species description". A Photographic Guide to Birds of Sri Lanka. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-85974-511-3.
  15. ^ Gill, F. and D. Donsker (Eds). 2019. IOC World Bird List (v 9.2). Doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.9.2. retrieved 22 June 2019
  • Collinson, Martin (June 2006). "Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists". British Birds. 99: 306-323.

Further reading[edit]

  • A Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka by John Harrison and Tim Worfolk
  • Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka by G. M. Henry