List of extinct animals of Australia

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Following is a list of Australian animal extinctions from the arrival of the first European colonists in 1788 (before the Aboriginal and prehistory extinctions) until the present. There are 24 birds (one from the mainland), seven frogs, and 27 mammal species or subspecies strongly believed to have become extinct in Australia since European settlement.[when?][citation needed]

Extinctions are recorded under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Several invertebrate species have also been listed as extinct by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN); however, this list is less exhaustive, as invertebrates are more difficult to survey and are less well studied.

Extinct Australian animals: 1788 to present[edit]

Birds[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Aplonis fusca Tasman starling Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, NSW Last recorded in 1923. Competition from the introduced common starling, common blackbird and song thrush, clearance for agriculture and predation from introduced black rats. Among these dangerous predators, the Tasman starling always kept its distance.[1] Aplonis fuscus hullianus.jpg
Columba vitiensis godmanae White-throated pigeon (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe pigeon Lord Howe Island Last recorded 1853. Believed due to hunting. LordHoweIslandPigeonByGeorgeRaper.jpg
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens Red-crowned parakeet (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe parakeet Lord Howe Island Last recorded in 1869. Due to persecution because of predation on gardens and crops. CyanorhamphusSubflavescensKeulemans.jpg
Dasyornis broadbenti litoralis Western rufous bristlebird, rufous bristlebird (western), southwestern rufous bristlebird, lesser rufous bristebird WA
Dromaius novaehollandiae minor King Island emu, dwarf emu King Island 1822. Extinction due to hunting and, apparently, human-started brush fires. Two captive birds that died in 1822 were the last of their kind. Dromaius parvulus.jpg
Dromaius novaehollandiae baudinianus Kangaroo Island emu, black emu Kangaroo Island 1827. Extinction has been attributed to hunting and human-started brush fires. Extinctbirds1907 P40 Dromaius peroni0371.png
Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmanian emu Tasmania 1850. Extinction due to hunting and human-started brush fires; its status as a distinct subspecies is not universally accepted. Tasmanian Emu.jpg
Drymodes superciliaris colcloughi Roper River scrub-robin NT Last recorded in 1910. This subspecies may be invalid. It is known from only two specimens of doubtful provenance.[2]
Gallicolumba norfolciensis Norfolk ground dove Norfolk Island the 1850s Gallicolumba norfolciensis.JPG
Gerygone insularis Lord Howe gerygone, Lord Howe warbler Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1928. Believed to be a result of the introduction of black rats following the grounding of the SS Makambo in June 1918. Gerygone insularis.jpg
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea New Zealand pigeon (Norfolk Island subspecies) Norfolk Island NorfolkIlslandPigeonByJohnHunter.jpg
Lalage leucopyga leucopyga Norfolk Island long-tailed triller Norfolk Island Lalage leucopyga leucopyga.jpg
Nestor productus Norfolk Island kaka Norfolk Island 1851 John-Gould-001.jpg
Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria Morepork (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe boobook, Lowe Howe morepork Lord Howe Island the 1950s Lord Howe Boobook.JPG
Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Morepork (Norfolk Island), Norfolk boobook, Norfolk Island boobook, Norfolk Island morepork Norfolk Island 1996 Norfolk Boobook.jpg
Porphyrio albus White gallinule Lord Howe Island Extinctbirds1907 P33 Notornis alba0357.png
Psephotus pulcherrimus Paradise parrot NSW, Qld Date uncertain but around 1927; more recent sightings are sometimes claimed, but have never been confirmed. Cause uncertain, most hypotheses centre on starvation from lack of grass seed after drought, overgrazing, more frequent fires, and introduction of the prickly pear. Paradise Parrot.jpg
Rallus pectoralis clelandi Western Lewin's rail, Lewin's rail (western), Lewin water rail, Cleland's rail WA Last recorded in 1932.
Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis Macquarie Island rail Macquarie Island
Rhipidura cervina Lord Howe fantail Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1924. Believed to be a result of the introduction of black rats following the grounding of the SS Makambo in June 1918. Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina.jpg
Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus Norfolk Island thrush, grey-headed blackbird Norfolk Island Turdus.p.poliocephalus.jpg
Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus Lord Howe Island thrush Lord Howe Island Not recorded since c. 1924. Believed to be a result of the introduction of black rats following the grounding of the SS Makambo in June 1918. Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus.jpg
Zosterops albogularis White-chested white-eye, Norfolk Island silvereye Norfolk Island The IUCN considers this species endangered; it is listed as extinct under the EPBC act since it has not been officially documented for over 20 years. Zosteropsalboguralis.jpg
Zosterops strenuus Robust white-eye Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1923. Believed to be a result of the introduction of black rats following the grounding of the SS Makambo in June 1918. Robust White-eye.jpg

Amphibians[edit]

The reason for the decline and extinction of these frog species is unclear, decline in frog populations is an international phenomenon. 14 species are listed as critically endangered, and some of these may already be extinct.

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Rheobatrachus silus[3] Gastric-brooding frog Qld The last wild specimen was recorded in 1981.
Rheobatrachus vitellinus[4] Eungella gastric-brooding frog Qld The last wild specimen was recorded in 1985.
Taudactylus acutirostris[5] Sharp-snouted day frog, sharp-snouted torrent frog Qld The last wild specimen was recorded in 1997.
Taudactylus diurnus[6] Mt. Glorious day frog, Mt. Glorious torrent frog, southern day frog Qld The last wild specimen was recorded in 1979.

Reptiles[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Emoia nativitatis Christmas Island forest skink Christmas Island The last captive specimen died on May 31, 2014[7]
Tympanocryptis pinguicolla Victorian grassland earless dragon VIC Possibly extinct; the last known wild specimen was recorded in 1969. If it is extinct, it may be the first recorded reptile extinction on mainland Australia.[8] TympanocryptisPinguicolla.png

Mammals[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Bettongia penicillata penicillata Brush-tailed bettong (southeastern mainland) NSW, NT, SA, VIC, WA
Caloprymnus campestris[9] Desert rat-kangaroo Qld, SA, NT 1935 Caloprymnus.jpg
Chaeropus ecaudatus[10] Pig-footed bandicoot NSW, NT, SA, VIC, WA the 1950s PigFootedBandicoot.jpg
Conilurus albipes[11] White-footed rabbit-rat NSW, Qld, SA, VIC 1857 Conilurus albipes - Gould.jpg
Lagorchestes asomatus[12] Central hare-wallaby NT 1935
Lagorchestes hirsutus hirsutus Rufous hare-wallaby (southwestern mainland) NT, SA, WA Rufous hare wallaby.jpg
Lagorchestes leporides[13] Eastern hare-wallaby NSW, Qld, SA, VIC 1890 Lagorchestes leporides Gould.jpg
Lagostrophus fasciatus albipilis[14] Banded hare-wallaby (mainland) WA
Leporillus apicalis[15] Lesser stick-nest rat NSW, NT, SA, VIC, WA 1933 Leporillus apicalis - Gould.jpg
Macropus eugenii eugenii[16] Tammar wallaby (South Australia) SA A surviving population was rediscovered in New Zealand. Macropus eugenii.jpg
Macropus greyi[17] Toolache wallaby SA, VIC 1932 Macropus greyi - Gould.jpg
Macrotis leucura[18] Lesser bilby NT, Qld, SA 1931 Lesserbilby.jpg
Melomys rubicola[19] Bramble Cay melomys Bramble Cay, QLD 2016
Notomys longicaudatus Long-tailed hopping-mouse NT, SA, WA 1901
Notomys macrotis[20] Big-eared hopping-mouse WA 1843
Notomys mordax[21] Darling Downs hopping-mouse NSW, Qld 1846
Onychogalea lunata[22] Crescent nailtail wallaby SA, WA 1956 Onychogalea lunata.jpg
Perameles bougainville fasciata[23] Western barred bandicoot (mainland) NSW, VIC
Perameles eremiana[24] Desert bandicoot NT, SA, WA <1960
Pipistrellus murrayi[25] Christmas Island pipistrelle Christmas Island 2009
Potorous platyops[26] Broad-faced potoroo WA 1865 BroadFacedPotoroo.jpg
Pseudomys glaucus[27] Blue-grey mouse NSW, Qld 1956
Pseudomys gouldii[28] Gould's mouse NSW, Qld, SA, VIC, WA 1857 Pseudomys gouldii - Gould.jpg
Pteropus brunneus[29] Dusky flying fox Qld the late 1800s Pteropus.jpg
Rattus macleari[30] Maclear's rat Christmas Island 1908 MaclearsRatSkull.png
Rattus nativitatis[31] Bulldog rat Christmas Island last recorded in 1903. Rattus nativitatis.jpg
Thylacinus cynocephalus[32] Thylacine, Tasmanian wolf, Tasmanian tiger Tasmania 1936 Thylacinus.jpg

Possibly extinct mammals[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Crocidura trichura[33] Christmas Island shrew Christmas Island 1985
Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe long-eared bat Lord Howe Island

Invertebrates[edit]

Several Australian Invertebrates have been listed by the World Conservation Union as having become extinct. The first and only Australian invertebrate species officially listed is the Lake Pedder earthworm.[34]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Hypolimnus pedderensis Lake Pedder earthworm Tas Probably extinct in 1972, confirmed in 2000[35]
Advena campbelli Campbell's land snail Norfolk Island
Nancibella quintalia Norfolk snail Norfolk Island
Tornelasmias capricorni Lord Howe snail [36]
Angrobia dulvertonensis Macqaurie slug 1996[37]
Placostylus bivaricosus etheridgei Lord Howe slug [38]

Extinct Australian animals pre-European settlement (1788)[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Bowengriphus perphlegis Bowengriphus Queensland
Ebenaqua ritchei Ebenaqua Queensland
Megalania prisca or Varanus priscus Megalania Australia 30,000 years b.p. Varanus priscus Melbourne Museum.jpg
Diprotodon opatum Diprotodon Australia
Procoptodon goliah Giant short-faced kangaroo Australia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aplonis fusca — Tasman Starling". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  2. ^ Schodde R, Mason IJ (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. A Taxonomic and Zoogeographic Atlas of the Biodiversity of Birds in Australia and its Territories. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. pp. x 851 pp. ISBN 0-643-06456-7.
  3. ^ Ed Meyer; David Newell; Harry Hines; Sarah May; Jean-Marc Hero; John Clarke; Frank Lemckert (2004). "Rheobatrachus silus (Southern Gastric Brooding Frog, Southern Platypus Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  4. ^ Jean-Marc Hero; Keith McDonald; Ross Alford; Michael Cunningham; Richard Retallick (2004). "heobatrachus vitellinus (Eungella Gastric-brooding Frog, Northern Gastric Brooding Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  5. ^ Jean-Marc Hero; Keith McDonald; Michael Cunningham; Ross Alford; Richard Retallick (2004). "Taudactylus acutirostris (Sharp Snouted Day Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  6. ^ Jean-Marc Hero; Sarah May; David Newell; Harry Hines; John Clarke; Ed Meyer (2004). "Taudactylus diurnus (Mount Glorious Day Frog, Mount Glorious Torrent Frog, Southern Day Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  7. ^ John Woinarski, Don Driscoll and Hal Cogger, Vale ‘Gump’, the last known Christmas Island Forest Skink, The Conversation, 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 December, 2015.
  8. ^ Melville Jane; Chaplin Kirilee; Hutchinson Mark; Sumner Joanna; Gruber Bernd; MacDonald Anna J.; Sarre Stephen D. (2019). "Taxonomy and conservation of grassland earless dragons: new species and an assessment of the first possible extinction of a reptile on mainland Australia". Royal Society Open Science. 6 (5): 190233. Bibcode:2019RSOS....690233M. doi:10.1098/rsos.190233. PMC 6549961. PMID 31218062.
  9. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Caloprymnus campestris (Buff-nosed Rat-kangaroo, Desert Rat Kangaroo, Plains Rat-kangaroo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  10. ^ Burbidge, A.; Dickman, C. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Chaeropus ecaudatus (Pig-footed Bandicoot)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  11. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Conilurus albipes (Rabbit-eared Tree-rat, White-footed Rabbit-rat, White-footed Rabbit Rat, White-footed Tree-rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  12. ^ Burbidge, A. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Lagorchestes asomatus (Central Hare-wallaby, Central Hare Wallaby, Least Hare-wallaby, Least Hare Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  13. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Lagorchestes leporides (Eastern Hare-wallaby, Eastern Hare Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  14. ^ "Lagostrophus fasciatus albipilis — Banded Hare-wallaby (mainland)". Environment.gov.au. Australian Government Department of Environment. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  15. ^ Robinson, T. & Burbidge, A. (2016). "Leporillus apicalis (Lesser Stick-nest Rat, White-tipped Stick-nest Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Macropus eugenii eugenii — Tammar Wallaby (South Australia)". Environment.gov.au. Australian Government Department of Environment. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  17. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Macropus greyi (Toolache Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  18. ^ Burbidge, A.; Johnson, K. & Dickman, C. (2008). "Macrotis leucura (Lesser Bilby, Lesser Rabbit-eared Bandicoot, White-tailed Rabbit-eared Bandicoot, Yallara)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  19. ^ Slezak, Michael (14 June 2016). "Revealed: first mammal species wiped out by human-induced climate change". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  20. ^ Morris, K. & Burbidge, A. (2008). "Notomys macrotis (Big-eared Hopping-mouse, Big-eared Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  21. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Notomys mordax (Darling Downs Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  22. ^ Burbidge, A. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Onychogalea lunata (Crescent Nail-tailed Wallaby, Crescent Nailtail Wallaby, Wurrung)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  23. ^ "Perameles bougainville fasciata — Western Barred Bandicoot (mainland)". Environment.gov.au. Australian Government Department of Environment. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  24. ^ Burbidge, A.; Johnson, K. & Aplin, K. (2008). "Perameles eremiana (Desert Bandicoot)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  25. ^ Lumsden, L.; Racey, P.A. & Hutson, A.M. (2017). "Pipistrellus murrayi (Christmas Island Pipistrelle)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  26. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Potorous platyops (Broad-faced Potoroo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  27. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2008). "Pseudomys glaucus (Blue-gray Mouse, Blue-grey Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  28. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  29. ^ Richards, G. & Hall, L. (2008). "Pteropus brunneus (Dusky Flying Fox, Percy Island Flying Fox)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  30. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2009). "Rattus macleari (Maclear's Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  31. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2009). "Rattus nativitatis (Bulldog Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  32. ^ McKnight, M. (2008). "Thylacinus cynocephalus (Tasmanian Tiger, Tasmanian Wolf, Thylacine)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  33. ^ Lumsden, L. & Schulz, M. (2008). "Crocidura trichura (Christmas Island Shrew)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  34. ^ "Hypolimnus pedderensis — Lake Pedder Earthworm". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  35. ^ Blakemore (2003). "Hypolimnus pedderensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2003: 1. Retrieved 14 February 2019.{{cite iucn}}: error: malformed |page= identifier (help)
  36. ^ "Tornelasmias capricorni". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  37. ^ "Fluvidona dulvertonensis". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  38. ^ "Placostylus bivaricosus ssp. etheridgei". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 16 August 2018.