List of heads of state of Romania

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Coat of arms of Romania
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.

Heads of State of Romania (1859 – present)[edit]

United Principalities (1859–1881)[edit]

House of Cuza (1859–1866)[edit]

Domnitor Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
1 1 Alexandru Ioan Cuza - Photo by Carol Popp de Szathmáry.jpg Alexandru Ioan Cuza
(1820–1873)
24 January 1859 22 February 1866
(Abdicated)
7 years, 29 days Previously ruled as Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia
(in a personal union from 1859 until official unification in 1862)

Princely Lieutenancy (1866)[edit]

  Denotes Regency
Regent Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
Lascarcatargiu.jpg Lascăr Catargiu
(1823–1899)
22 February 1866 20 April 1866 57 days Princely Lieutenancy
Nicolae Golescu desen.png General Nicolae Golescu
(1810–1877)
No image.png Colonel Nicolae Haralambie
(1835–1908)

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1866–1881)[edit]

Domnitor Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
2 1 Carol I King of Romania.jpg Carol I
(1839–1914)
20 April 1866 15 March 1881 14 years, 329 days 1866 Referendum

Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)[edit]

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1881–1947)[edit]

  Denotes Regent
  Denotes Conducător
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
(2) 1 Carol I King of Romania.jpg Carol I
(1839–1914)
15 March 1881 10 October 1914 33 years, 209 days Previously ruled as Domnitor
3 2 King Ferdinand of Romania.jpg Ferdinand I
(1865–1927)
10 October 1914 20 July 1927 12 years, 283 days Nephew of Carol I
4 3 Michael I of Romania (1927).jpg Michael I
(1921– )
20 July 1927 8 June 1930 2 years, 323 days Grandson of Ferdinand I
1903Nicholas-09.jpg Prince Nicholas
(1903–1978)
20 July 1927 8 June 1930 2 years, 323 days Regency Council
For Michael I
Miron Cristia patriach of Romania.JPG Patriarch Miron Cristea
(1868–1939)
1929 - Gheorghe Buzdugan - Regent.PNG Gheorghe Buzdugan
(1867–1929)
7 October 1929
(Died in Office)
2 years, 79 days
1929 - Constantin Sarateanu - Regent.PNG Constantin Sărăţeanu
(1862–1935)
9 October 1929 8 June 1930 242 days
5 4 King Carol II of Romania young.jpg Carol II
(1893–1953)
8 June 1930 6 September 1940
(Abdicated)
10 years, 90 days Son of Ferdinand I
(4) (3) Mihai.jpg Michael I
(1921– )
6 September 1940 30 December 1947
(Abdicated)
7 years, 115 days Son of Carol II
Ion antonescu.png Marshal Ion Antonescu
(1882–1946)
6 September 1940 23 August 1944
(Deposed)
3 years, 352 days Conducător
With Michael I

Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania (1947–1989)[edit]

Status
  Denotes Acting Head of State
Head of State Term of office Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
6 CI Parhon.jpg Constantin Ion Parhon
(1874–1969)
30 December 1947 13 April 1948 105 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the Provisional Presidium of the Republic
1 13 April 1948 12 June 1952 4 years, 60 days President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
7 2 Petru Groza Anefo.jpg Petru Groza
(1884–1958)
12 June 1952 7 January 1958
(Died in Office)
5 years, 209 days Ploughmen's Front (1952–1953)
Independent (1953–1958)
President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
Mihail Sadoveanu.jpg Mihail Sadoveanu
(1880–1961)
7 January 1958 11 January 1958 4 days Romanian Workers' Party Acting Presidents of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
No image.png Anton Moisescu
(1913–1997)
Romanian Workers' Party
8 3 Ion Gheorghe Maurer1.jpg Ion Gheorghe Maurer
(1902–2000)
11 January 1958 21 March 1961 3 years, 69 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
9 1 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej1.jpg Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
(1901–1965)
21 March 1961 19 March 1965
(Died in Office)
3 years, 363 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the State Council
Ion Gheorghe Maurer1.jpg Ion Gheorghe Maurer
(1902–2000)
19 March 1965 24 March 1965 5 days Romanian Workers' Party Acting Presidents of the State Council
Stefan Voitec1.jpg Ştefan Voitec
(1900–1984)
Romanian Workers' Party
Avram Bunaciu.jpg Avram Bunaciu
(1909–1983)
Romanian Workers' Party
10 2 Chivu Stoica 1957.jpg Chivu Stoica
(1908–1975)
24 March 1965 9 December 1967 2 years, 260 days Romanian Workers' Party
renamed in 1965 to
Romanian Communist Party
President of the State Council
11 3 Nicolae Ceausescu.jpg Nicolae Ceaușescu
(1918–1989)
9 December 1967 22 December 1989
(Deposed)
22 years, 13 days Romanian Communist Party President of the State Council
1 28 March 1974 22 December 1989
(Deposed)
15 years, 269 days President of Romania

Romania since 1989[edit]

The Constitution of Romania prohibits the President to be a member of any party while in office. The parties listed below represent the political affiliation before the 1991 Constitution was adopted and the party affiliation of the ad interim Presidents, for whom such a restriction is not explicitly stipulated in the law.

Status
  Denotes ad interim President
Head of State Term of office Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
CFSN Revolution Roumaine.jpg Council of the National Salvation Front[1] 22 December 1989 26 December 1989 4 days National Salvation Front Collective Head of State
12 Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg Ion Iliescu
(1930– )
26 December 1989[2] 6 February 1990 42 days National Salvation Front President of Council of the National Salvation Front
6 February 1990 20 June 1990 134 days President of the Provisional National Unity Council
2 20 June 1990 7 April 1992 1 year, 292 days President of Romania
(2) 7 April 1992 11 October 1992 187 days Democratic National Salvation Front
(2) 11 October 1992 29 November 1996 4 years, 49 days Independent
13 3 Emil Constantinescu.jpg Emil Constantinescu
(1939– )
29 November 1996 20 December 2000 4 years, 21 days Independent President of Romania
(12) (2) Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg Ion Iliescu
(1930– )
20 December 2000 20 December 2004 4 years, 0 days Independent President of Romania
14 4 Conventia PD-L 2013 - Traian Basescu (3).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
20 December 2004 20 April 2007
(Suspended)
2 years, 121 days Independent President of Romania
Nicolae Văcăroiu.jpg Nicolae Văcăroiu
(1943– )
20 April 2007 23 May 2007 33 days Social Democratic Party ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
(14) (4) Conventia PD-L 2013 - Traian Basescu (3).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
23 May 2007
(Reinstated)
10 July 2012
(Suspended)
5 years, 48 days Independent President of Romania
Crin Antonescu.jpg Crin Antonescu
(1959– )
10 July 2012 27 August 2012 48 days National Liberal Party ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
(14) (4) Conventia PD-L 2013 - Traian Basescu (3).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
27 August 2012
(Reinstated)
21 December 2014 2 years, 116 days Independent President of Romania
15 5 Klaus Iohannis din interviul cu Dan Tapalagă.tif Klaus Iohannis
(1959– )
21 December 2014 Incumbent 196 days Independent President of Romania

Living former heads of state[edit]

Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
Michael I 1927–1930, 1940–1947 King of the Romanians 25 October 1921
Ion Iliescu 1990–1996, 2000–2004 President of Romania 3 March 1930
Emil Constantinescu 1996–2000 President of Romania 19 November 1939
Traian Băsescu 2004–2014 President of Romania 4 November 1951
Nicolae Văcăroiu 20.04.2007–23.05.2007 Interim President 5 December 1943
Crin Antonescu 10.07.2012–27.08.2012 Interim President 21 September 1959

Timeline[edit]

Klaus Iohannis Crin Antonescu Nicolae Văcăroiu Traian Băsescu Ion Iliescu Emil Constantinescu Ion Iliescu Nicolae Ceauşescu Nicolae Ceauşescu Chivu Stoica Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Ion Gheorghe Maurer Petru Groza Constantin Ion Parhon Mihai I of Romania Carol II of Romania Mihai I of Romania Ferdinand I of Romania Carol I of Romania Carol I of Romania Alexandru Ioan Cuza

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

  • Bulei, Ion, O istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, Bucureşti, 2007, pg. 266-267

External links[edit]