National Liberal Party (Romania)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal
PresidentNicolae Ciucă
Secretary-GeneralLucian Bode
SpokesmanIonuț-Marian Stroe
First-Vice PresidentsRareș Bogdan
Lucian Bode
Dan Motreanu
Gheorghe Flutur
Iulian Dumitrescu
Leader in the SenateCătălin-Daniel Fenechiu
Leader in the Chamber of DeputiesFlorin Roman
Leader in the European ParliamentRareș Bogdan
Founded15 January 1990 (re-established after the Romanian Revolution)[1][2]
Preceded byNational Liberal Party
HeadquartersModrogan nr 1, Sector 1, Bucharest
Student wingLiberal Student Clubs (CSL)
Youth wingNational Liberal Youth (TNL)
Women's wingLiberal Women National Organisation (ONFL)
Membership (2023)c. 182,000[5]
Political positionCentre-right[27]
National affiliationRomanian Democratic Convention
(1991–1992; 1993–1999)[28]
Justice and Truth Alliance
Centre Right Alliance
Social Liberal Union
Christian Liberal Alliance (2014)
National Coalition for Romania (2021–present)
European affiliationEuropean People's Party (EPP)[b]
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International (CDI)
International Democracy Union (IDU)[29]
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party (EPP)
Colours  Yellow
SloganPrin noi înșine!
("Through Ourselves!")
"Dewy Green"
36 / 136
Chamber of Deputies
79 / 330
European Parliament
10 / 33
1,248 / 3,176
County Presidents
17 / 41
County Councilors
489 / 1,340
Local Council Councilors
15,043 / 39,900
9 / 18
Party flag

a. ^ + a Deputy Prime Minister


b. Previously a member of the Alliance for Europe of the Nations (until 2006) and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (for the period 2007–2014)

The National Liberal Party (Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) is a social-conservative political party in Romania (and the second largest overall political party in the country as of mid 2023). Re-founded in mid January 1990, shortly after the Revolution of 1989 which culminated in the fall of communism in Romania, it claims the legacy of the major political party of the same name, active between 1875 and 1947 in the Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României). Based on this historical legacy, it often presents itself as the first formally constituted political party in the country and the oldest of its kind from the family of European liberal parties as well.[36]

Recent historical overview[edit]

Until 2014, the PNL was a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE).[37] The party statutes adopted in June 2014 dropped any reference to international affiliation, consequently most of its MEPs joined the European People's Party Group (EPP) in the European Parliament.

On 12 September 2014, it was admitted as a full member of the European People's Party (EPP),[38] and subsequently merged with the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL). The party was also a member of the Liberal International (LI)[39] before switching to Centrist Democrat International (CDI).[40] Currently, it is the second-largest party in the Romanian Parliament, with 79 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 36 in the Senate, behind the Social Democratic Party (PSD). Additionally, the party currently has the largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament on behalf of Romania (more specifically 10 out of 33).

At local political level, the PNL has been very closely associated with either the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR), more specifically in parts of Banat and Transylvania, or, formerly, with the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (PNȚCD), in southern Romania.[41]

After it won the 2020 local elections, the PNL became the first political party in Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina, establishing new political alliances at national level with, most notably, USR PLUS shortly thereafter. Moreover, as of mid 2023, the PNL also holds the largest amount of incumbent county councillors and local councillors nationwide, making it, in these regards, the most influential political party in Romania at local level. Nonetheless, concerning the total amount of mayors, the PNL comes second behind the PSD.

During late 2021, the PNL broke the alliance with USR PLUS (now simply legally known as USR) and continued under former party president Cîțu a minority government alongside the Hungarian minority-oriented UDMR/RMDSZ (with the support of President Klaus Iohannis), consequently causing the three month-long 2021 Romanian political crisis, until successfully negotiating with their historical nominal adversaries PSD in early November 2021 a grand coalition government between themselves and the UDMR/RMDSZ (known as the National Coalition for Romania or CNR for short), thereby leading to the formation of the Ciucă cabinet led by Prime Minister Nicolae Ciucă (current leader of the PNL since April 2022 onwards).

In mid June 2023, Ciucă resigned as part of the coalition protocol previously agreed between the PNL and PSD and let Marcel Ciolacu (current PSD leader) become the incumbent Prime Minister of Romania. In the meantime, the UDMR/RMDSZ was also taken out of government and thereby rejected from the composition of the current Ciolacu Cabinet in which PNL is still the second party. Furthermore, the share of governmental power between the PSD and PNL is even between the two constituent political parties of the incumbent Ciolacu Cabinet (or the second CNR cabinet).


Re-foundation and first governing experiences after the 1989 Romanian Revolution (1990–2000)[edit]

Flowchart showcasing the liberal political groups which seceded from and were subsequently integrated within the National Liberal Party during the 1990s (all with the exception of PNL-C).

The National Liberal Party of Romania (PNL) was re-founded in January 1990, a few days after the end of the violent Romanian Revolution. During the early 1990s, the party primarily revolved around the presidencies of Radu Câmpeanu and Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, both former members of the historical PNL and liberal youth leaders during the interwar period as well as during and shortly after World War II.

At the 1990 general elections, the PNL became the third largest party in the Parliament of Romania and its then re-founding leader, Radu Câmpeanu, finished second in the same year's presidential elections, with 10.6% of the cast votes, behind Ion Iliescu. In December 1990, the Socialist Liberal Party (PSL) led by Niculae Cerveni established an alliance with the PNL and the latter became vice-president of the PNL led by Câmpeanu at that time.[42]

Shortly afterwards, at the main request and most notably alongside the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (PNȚCD), but to a lesser extent also with other smaller center-right parties and NGOs, the PNL managed to form the Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR) in an effort to assemble a stronger collective opposition and alternative governing body to then ruling National Salvation Front (FSN), which was, in many ways, the heir of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). However, prior to the 1992 general elections, Câmpeanu decided to withdraw the party from the CDR electoral alliance and instead compete as a stand-alone political force. One of the main reasons for doing so was Câmpeanu's reluctance for the PNL to run on common lists with the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ).

Central headquarters of the PNL located on Modrogan Alley, Bucharest (September 2014)

This had ultimately proven to be an eventual major strategic error for the PNL, as the party did not manage to surpass the needed electoral threshold for parliamentary presence and as such was forced to enter extra-parliamentary opposition for the period 1992–1996. Furthermore, this political decision also resulted in several splinter factions leaving the main party, with some PNL deflecting groups opting to remain within the CDR while others still endorsing Câmpeanu's side in a new party which was called PNL-C (Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal-Câmpeanu). Therefore, the factions which deflected from the main PNL and aligned themselves with the CDR were PNL-CD (led by Niculae Cerveni), PNL-AT, and PL '93. Other minor liberal political parties such as PAC and UFD (which later merged into the main PNL) were also part of the CDR throughout the late 1990s.

Nevertheless, after a change of leadership that saw Ionescu-Quintus as the new party leader elected in 1995, the PNL contested the 1996 general election once again as part of the CDR.[43] The 1996 general elections represented the first peaceful transition of power in post-1989 Romania, with the PNL, PNȚCD, Democratic Party (PD), and the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ) forming a grand coalition that pushed the PDSR (formerly the FSN and FDSN) in opposition for the period 1996–2000. Furthermore, the presidency was also won by the CDR's common candidate, more specifically Emil Constantinescu, who received endorsement on behalf of all of the alliance's constituent parties (including the PNL political groups therein).

Opposition and second governing experiences (2000–2010)[edit]

Between 1996 and 2000, because of the lack of political coherence within the parties of the governing CDR coalition and the multiple changes of cabinets that followed throughout this entire period of time, the PNL decided once more to withdraw from the alliance just before the 2000 general election and, consequently, to compete alone instead. This time, the party managed to gain parliamentary presence but failed to form another centre-right government, finishing fourth in the legislative elections and third in the presidential election. However, a splinter group founded by Dan Amedeo Lăzărescu and led by Decebal Traian Remeș which was called PNL-T (Romanian: PNL Tradițional) decided to remain within CDR 2000 and contest that year's general election by endorsing Mugur Isărescu as presidential candidate.

Therefore, during the mid 2000s (more specifically starting in 2003), the PNL joined forces with the PD in order to form the Justice and Truth Alliance (DA)[43] so as to compete in the 2004 general election as an alternative to the then ruling PSD (formerly PDSR) government. The alliance managed to finish second by popular vote in the Parliament, subsequently form a centre-right cabinet, and also win the presidency during the same year.

Until April 2007, the PNL was the largest member of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance (DA), which enjoyed a parliamentary majority due to an alliance between the PNL, PD, the Conservative Party (PC), and the UDMR/RMDSZ.[44] In April 2007, then PNL Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, who was also the party president, formed a minority government solely with the UDMR/RMDSZ and the remainder PD ministers were reshuffled. This caused internal opposition within the party and led to the scission of a splinter group which turned into a political party under Theodor Stolojan, more specifically the Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), eventually merging with the PD to form the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL).

After the 2008 legislative election, the party placed third and entered official opposition, winning 19.74% seats in the Parliament, while the new grand coalition, formed by their former enlarged ally, the Democrat Liberals (PDL) and the Social Democratic Party (PSD), obtained roughly 70% together. At the 2009 presidential election, the National Liberal Party's then newly elected leader, Crin Antonescu, finished third in the first round and the party would still find itself in parliamentary opposition for the three next years to come up until the accession of the Social Liberal Union (USL) to governance in mid 2012.

At the same time, Klaus Iohannis, at that time solely FDGR/DFDR president, was nominated twice by the PNL (along with their most sturdy and powerful allies, the PSD and the PC) in 2009, but was rejected by then state president Traian Băsescu.[45][46]

Transition from USL to ACL and third governing experiences (2010–2020)[edit]

On 5 February 2011, the PNL formed the Social Liberal Union (USL) political alliance with the PSD, the National Union for the Progress of Romania (UNPR), and the Conservative Party (PC).[47][48] The PNL subsequently exited the USL on 25 February 2014, disbanding the alliance and returning to opposition.[49] On 26 May 2014, following the 2014 European elections, then PNL party president Crin Antonescu announced he was seeking membership within the European People's Party (EPP).[50][51] At the beginning of the 8th European Parliament, 5 of the PNL MEPs sat with the EPP Group, and 1 with the ALDE Group,[52] who later became an independent MEP within ALDE. In late May 2014, the party agreed to a future merger with the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL), with the two parties main short-time goal being to submit a joint candidate for the upcoming presidential election.[53] The PNL-PDL presidential candidate was agreed to run under an electoral banner called the Christian Liberal Alliance (ACL).[54][55]

On 27 June 2014, former PNL chairman Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu announced his intention to found a separate liberal party to run for president, stating opposition to the upcoming merger with the PDL.[56] The breakaway party, called the Liberal Reformist Party (PLR), was founded by Popescu-Tăriceanu on 3 July 2014.[57] On 17 July 2014, it was announced that the future merger of the PNL and PDL would retain the National Liberal Party name, while being situated in the PDL's existing headquarters in Bucharest, and would be legally registered by the end of 2014.[58] On 26 July 2014, a joint party congress of the PNL and PDL approved the merger.[59]

In the first round of the 2014 presidential election on 2 November 2014, ACL presidential candidate Klaus Iohannis, PNL party president and Mayor of Sibiu was the runner-up.[60] Iohannis won the runoff election held on 16 November 2014 with 54.5% of the total number of votes.[61][62] At the 2016 local elections and legislative elections, the PNL managed to finish second, behind the PSD, and consequently in continuous opposition until 2019 when it regained executive power.

Regarding the 2019 presidential election, the party previously announced its formal endorsement for a second term of incumbent state president Klaus Iohannis in March 2018 along with an official designation of Ludovic Orban, former party president, for the position of Prime Minister should the PNL win the 2020 legislative elections.[63][64] In June 2018, at an open air press conference in his native Sibiu, Iohannis publicly announced his intention to run for a second presidential term.[65]

The year 2019 saw two minor parties adhering to the PNL, namely the PND (led by Daniel Fenechiu) and PACT (led by Sebastian Burduja), thereby increasing its total number of members. In late 2019, the National Liberal Party acceded to governance under a minority stand-alone government led by Orban which was voted twice by the Parliament (under, most notably, a confidence and supply agreement with USR and PMP as well as most ethnic minority parties, including most importantly the FDGR/DFDR). At national level, the greatest two challenges that the Orban cabinet tried to monitor, control, and solve were the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its affiliated recession.

Brief alliance with USR PLUS and fourth governing experiences (2020–present)[edit]

Electoral banner of the PNL (bottom) for the 2020 Romanian legislative election displayed in Bucharest (November 2020). The Romanian caption translates to: 'We develop Romania #Succeeding! Together'.

The PNL ran in several electoral alliances with the 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance for the 2020 Romanian local elections, winning the mayor of Bucharest (along with several of the capital's sectors) as well as many other municipalities throughout the countryside. Shortly thereafter, the PNL decided to form local alliances with, most notably, USR PLUS, PMP, and FDGR/DFDR (as well as with two local branches of the PNȚCD and UDMR/RMDSZ in Hunedoara County). After the 2020 Romanian legislative election, the party agreed to form a coalition government alongside USR PLUS and UDMR/RMDSZ in order to reportedly provide a stable governance for the next 4 years in Romania.

Furthermore, incumbent party president Ludovic Orban decided to step down as prime minister in early December 2020, letting Nicolae Ciucă acting until the new coalition received the confidence vote in the Parliament after the 2020 legislative elections concluded with concrete, positive results on behalf of a future center-right government. Subsequently, the newly proposed prime minister on behalf of the PNL was Florin Cîțu, who previously served as the Minister of Public Finance in both Orban cabinets between 2019 and 2020. Therefore, Cîțu took office on 23 December 2020, after an overwhelming confidence vote in the Parliament (260 for in counterpart to 186 against).[66]

In the meantime, it has been announced that a new party congress will take place on 25 September 2021 with 5,000 delegates.[67] At the forthcoming congress, incumbent party president Ludovic Orban will face incumbent Prime Minister Florin Cîțu for the leadership of the party during the upcoming years (although it has been rumoured that Dan Motreanu, former Minister for Agriculture in the First Tăriceanu Cabinet between 2006 and 2007, would also announce his candidacy at a later point during 2021 but the latter eventually declined it).[68] Furthermore, this new congress will also determine the leadership of PNL at each and every level within the party nationwide. Nonetheless, up until the date of the congress, Orban will still remain party president. At the same time, the struggle for power within the PNL between Cîțu and Orban (each one along with their respective teams of supporters) considerably bogged down the pace of reforms applied by the government.

Major involvement in the 2021 Romanian political crisis[edit]

During early September 2021, several weeks prior to the new congress of the party, USR-PLUS decided to exit the Cîțu Cabinet in protest to Cîțu's dismissal of the Minister of Justice; the initial coalition consisting of three centre-right parties was thereby disbanded and reduced to two, with the USR-PLUS officially entering opposition and even publicly declaring that they will endorse any motion of no confidence against Cîțu in the future, deeming him responsible for creating a major governmental crisis in the process.

Moreover, according to USR PLUS, Cîțu is also responsible for legalizing massive theft from public procurement money with the approval of PNDL 3 (overtaking, in this regard, even convicted former PSD leader Liviu Dragnea) in the prospect of bribing PNL mayors (referred to as "local barons" in a press report by USR PLUS) to side with him for the then upcoming party congress which was held on 25 September 2021.[69][70]

In response, Cîțu stated: "only this [three-party] coalition is feasible for Romania. It's that political setup that can handle European Union's recovery plan, our local development, and make use of EU money," after an emergency meeting of the party. He also stated that "this is my message for the coalition talks later today, we have all promised Romania's investments".[71]

Additionally, in response to sacking the Justice Minister, Cîțu mentioned in a late night news briefing the following: "I will not accept ministers in the Romanian government who oppose the modernisation of Romania. Blocking the activity of the government only because you do not agree to develop the communities, means violating the mandate given to you by the parliament through the governing programme.", referring to a 50 billion lei ($12 billion) allegedly local development financing scheme aimed at modernizing decrepit infrastructure in the countryside and the plan which needed the justice ministry's seal of approval.[72]

Eventually, the PNL was helped to maintain a minority cabinet along with the UDMR/RMDSZ after they boycotted the no confidence motion initiated by the USR PLUS and AUR, with the help of both PSD and UDMR/RMDSZ parliamentary groups. In the meantime, Cîțu posted a video portraying himself as Superman on Instagram.[73] In response, the Romanian internet community made a video in which he was portrayed as the psychopathic supervillain Joker.[74] Moreover, Ludovic Orban hinted a psychiatric consultation for Cîțu, in reaction to the Instagram videoclip.[75]

In addition, it was also in 2021 that, at local political level, the PNL lost other former allies, more specifically the PMP, who veered towards PSD and PRO Romania, establishing new political alliances in some counties (most notably Caraș-Severin) with the two centre-left political parties.[76] In the meantime, former deputy prime minister Dan Barna said that "if USR PLUS will remain in opposition, it will win the electorate of the right [in 2024]".[77] Additionally, Marcel Ciolacu, the incumbent president of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and thereby the leader of the then largest opposition party, stated on 20 September 2021 that PSD will vote for the no confidence motion initiated by the USR PLUS and AUR. In the meantime, PNL president Ludovic Orban clearly stated that "Cîțu could only remain Prime Minister with PSD's endorsement which would be a catastrophe for both Romania and the PNL". In stark contrast to Orban's statement, Iohannis declared that he still endorses Cîțu and that he has no reasons whatsoever for resigning or for being ousted. Nonetheless, in late September 2021, DNA officially started the criminal investigation in Florin Cîțu's case on the grounds of abuse of office and incitement to abuse of office as prime minister.[78]

Several noteworthy Romanian journalists such as Cristian Tudor Popescu, Lucian Mîndruță, and Ramona Ursu have also criticized Cîțu and his actions as prime minister and have described themselves totally revolted with respect to why would he still be left to serve as prime minister.[79][80]

All throughout this period of time, the political crisis had severe results in the economy of the country, with the euro rising consistently above the leu, as reported by the National Bank of Romania (BNR) in the beginning of the autumn of 2021.[81] Furthermore, during late September 2021, the USD had also risen consistently above the RON, as the political crisis kept on lingering. In addition, the finance department of Bloomberg also noted the record inflation levels which rose to the highest charting positions in the last three years in Romania in early September 2021.[82]

As of 12 September 2021, most of the initial PNL-USR PLUS local alliances established after the 2020 local elections have been disbanded, with the USR PLUS entering official opposition at all local levels towards the PNL. The PNL also has a local governing alliance with the PSD in Ialomița.

Cîțu's leadership (September 2021–April 2022)[edit]

On 25 September 2021, at the PNL congress held at Romexpo in Bucharest, Florin Cîțu was elected the 10th post-1989 president of the PNL with 2,878 votes out of 4,848 total delegates, being congratulated, most notably, by congress organiser Theodor Stolojan, amidst significant heavy fraud allegations claimed, most importantly, by previous PNL president Ludovic Orban and subsequently by Adrian Veștea.[83] Nonetheless, Orban congratulated Cîțu but also said that he no longer has a partnership with Iohannis. Furthermore, he also stated that he resigns from the office of the President of the Chamber of Deputies. The Romanian press had also cited Cîțu's triumph as a Pyrrhic victory given the fact that, on the one hand, PSD announced that they will vote the no confidence motion initiated by USR PLUS and AUR and, on the other hand, USR PLUS also stated that they will no longer want to govern under Cîțu.[84]

On 26 September 2021, the party's new leadership team under Cîțu was voted, validated, and consequently established as well.[85] Shortly after the congress, on 27 September, former president Ludovic Orban stated that Cîțu became persona non grata for a huge number of Romanian citizens and that he doesn't understand he will no longer be PM for too long, only with the mercy of PSD.[86] In the meantime, the PNRR (part of the Next Generation EU package and short for Romanian: Planul Național de Redresare și Reziliență) was signed and adopted in Bucharest on the occasion of Ursula von der Leyen's visit, mandated by the European Commission.[87] The Romanian PNRR is the 5th Next Generation EU plan adopted by volume of funds and most of the work and successful negotiations on it were carried out by USR PLUS ministers, in particular Cristian Ghinea. Most opinion polls conducted throughout 2021 registered a significant drop of trust both in Cîțu as PM and in the PNL in the perspective of the next Romanian legislative elections which are most likely going to take place in 2024. In the meantime, PSD initiated its own motion of no confidence which is scheduled to be debated on 30 September and voted on 5 October.[88] In addition, former party president Valeriu Stoica accused the recent political behaviour of PNL in the following manner: "PNL acts like PSD", further stating that the party is operating on a catch all ideology and consistent party switching as well as currently defying and breaching the constitution.[89]

On 5 October 2021, the Cîțu cabinet was ousted by an overwhelming vote on behalf of the PSD, AUR, and USR parliamentary groups at the no confidence motion debated and voted during that day. The no confidence motion was voted by 281 MPs, the largest number of votes to dismiss a government in Romania's post-1989 history.[90] Nevertheless, Cîțu still served as acting/ad interim prime minister until a new government will be validated by vote in the Parliament and then subsequently sworn in (i.e. for at least one week from October 5 until still incumbent President Klaus Iohannis will call for party consultations).[91] In the meantime, former PNL president Valeriu Stoica heavily criticized Iohannis for allowing "mediocre people at the leadership of the party" since 2014 onwards.[92] He previously also stated that the PNL would demonstrate gross political immaturity if they will still propose Cîțu as prime minister at subsequent party consultations scheduled to take place at the Cotroceni Palace.[93] At the same time, he mentioned that Iohannis should have that the political status quo imposed Cîțu's resignation, avoiding as such the motion of no confidence.[94]

On 11 October, still incumbent President Klaus Iohannis nominated USR leader and former prime minister Dacian Cioloș to form a new government.[95] Cioloș was subsequently rejected by the parliament and Iohannis appointed previous acting PM Nicolae Ciucă instead on 21 October 2021.[96] In late October, relatively shortly after his dismissal, Cîțu's approval rate hit 7% nationwide, a negative record for him. Given the matter, Cîțu resorted to buying Facebook likes from countries such as Vietnam, the ones from the ex-Soviet Union and from the Arab world, partly according to an analysis by former Health minister Vlad Voiculescu of Save Romania Union (USR).[97][98] In early November 2021, journalist Lucian Mîndruță heavily criticized Iohannis and PNL for making an alliance with PSD, also stating that PSD is the only political party in post-1989 Romania which acceded to governance by "walking on corpses", a reference to the dreadful demographic effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Romania.[99][100]

In mid-early November 2021, several noteworthy political sources hinted a very probable merger of PMP with PNL sometime in the near future (although previous PMP president Cristian Diaconescu publicly dismissed this scenario on his Facebook page) and even a possible, hypothetical absorption of ALDE afterwards (paradoxically enough, thereby subsequently producing the return of Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu in the party he had previously left in 2014), just after the exclusion of Ludovic Orban from the party on 12 November 2021, who stated that "he is [now] free to build a new political force".[101][102] At an official level however, Cristian Diaconescu later stated that there are indeed negotiations between the delegations of the two parties for a "common political project".[103] Shortly afterwards, incumbent party president Cîțu stated, in the context of the ongoing negotiations with the PSD, that "it is a major compromise that PNL does" (i.e. to make a government with PSD).[104] In stark contrast, former PNL president Orban stated that "a monster is being built" (in reference to the subsequent hypothetical longtime alliance between PSD and PNL) and that he has the obligation to the people who voted for PNL to represent them, as such siding with USR in the process.[105] Subsequently, Diaconescu totally dismissed the possibility of a hypothetical merger between PMP and PNL during his term as PMP president, instead expecting a future invitation to governance, even though PMP is currently extra-parliamentary.[106] On 22 November 2021, Nicolae Ciucă was officially designated PM by Klaus Iohannis, being in charge of a grand coalition government known as the National Coalition for Romania (CNR for short).[107][108] Shortly afterwards, on 23 November 2021, former PNL president Ludovic Orban had officially resigned from the party along with 16 others PNL MPs.[109] In December 2021, Orban officially founded his party which is called "Force of the Right" (or FD for short).

In early 2022, incumbent PNL spokesman Ionuț-Marian Stroe announced that the PNL has just started negotiations for a very probable near future merger with ALDE, but without former ALDE president Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, who is no longer even a member of the latter party.[110] In addition, it was confirmed that PNL is also currently negotiating with PMP for a future merger as well.[111] On 2 April 2022, Florin Cîțu resigned from the position of PNL president and prior to this decision Dan Vîlceanu also announced his resignation as secretary-general of the party.[112] Gheorghe Flutur, president of the Suceava County council, became acting/ad interim president of the PNL on 2 April 2022 until a new congress was held on 10 April 2022.[113]

Ciucă's leadership (April 2022–present)[edit]

At an extraordinary party congress held on 10 April 2022, Nicolae Ciucă was elected the 11th post-1989 president of the PNL with 1,060 valid votes out of 1,120 total ones (60 were nullified and 159 were abstentions).[114] Thus, Nicolae Ciucă became the first military leader in the history of the party. Additionally, Ciucă's primary objective as PNL president was to maintain the cohesion of the CNR grand coalition until the end of his term as prime minister which took place in mid June 2023. Afterwards, the PNL maintained the CNR grand coalition only with PSD, removing UDMR/RMDSZ from government, but retaining the confidence and supply agreement with the political group of the national minorities in the Parliament, thereby still having a solid majority needed for endorsing the incumbent Ciolacu Cabinet.

In terms of external politics, the CNR government led by former prime minister Nicolae Ciucă expressed serious concern over the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War. Internally, the PNL chose their new secretary-general on 27 May 2022, when the party's national council re-united to vote for this position in front of 1,000 national delegates.[115]

Under Ciucă's premiership, Romania experienced democratic backsliding,[116] with The Economist ranking it last in the European Union in the world terms of democracy,[117] even behind Viktor Orbán's Hungary.[118]

Furthermore, since both Cîțu and Ciucă's leaderships, more and more PNL MPs and local politicians had departed from the party, some of which founded splinter political parties in the meantime. The party has also lost at least several electoral points for the forthcoming electoral year of 2024 (most notably for the next Romanian parliamentary election) according to most opinion polls.

Scissions and mergers[edit]

Diagram showcasing the political evolution of the National Liberal Party (PNL), from 1990 until 2016.

Parties seceded from PNL[edit]

Parties absorbed by PNL[edit]


The party officially adheres to the doctrine of liberalism in the form of conservative liberalism[7] and liberal conservatism,[6] advocating both economic and social liberalization.[126] The party also takes a pro-European stance.[127] In recent years, it has focused more on economic liberalism and a shift to a more catch all platform. The National Liberal Party (PNL) also advocates for conservative initiatives and policies and the state in moral and religious issues, as well as the privatization and denationalization of the economy, a trend which is currently[when?] taking place quite rapidly in Romania, as in other post-communist economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Unlike its Western counterparts, the party is more nationalist[128] and traditionalist on social issues, such as LGBT rights.[129][130][131]

The party has factions of adherence to Christian democracy, national liberalism, ethnic nationalism,[132] neoliberalism, and social conservatism.[133][134][135][136][137][138][139][140] The party has also been described as populist,[141][142][143] while former president Florin Cîțu rejects this qualification.[144] However, after joining the European People's Party (EPP) and especially under Cîțu and Ciucă's leadership, the party became more conservative,[145][146][147] Radio Free Europe calling it "liberal only in the name".[148] PNL opposes same-sex marriage as well as civil unions.[149]

In economic regards, it deems significant the fact that taxes must be lowered and that the private sector of the national economy must be expanded and helped by a series of new laws in order to generate more value.[150] It also advocates a decentralization of Romania's political structure, with greater autonomy given to the eight development regions. However, under Ciucă's rule, the party also shifted more from a liberal-oriented economy towards economic patriotism.[151] [152][153][154] Opposition leader Cătălin Drulă, the incumbent president of the Save Romania Union (USR), accused the party of being statist.[155]


According to the statute, the leading organs of the party are the following:[156]


The Congress, or The General Assembly of the delegates of the party's members (Romanian: Congresul; Adunarea Generală a delegaţilor membrilor partidului) is the supreme authority in the party. It leads the party and takes decisions at national level. Its members are elected by the local (territorial) organizations, and The National Consillium. The Congress meets every four years, after the parliamentary elections, or at any time needed. The Congress is convoked either by the Permanent Delegation (see below), at the request of the Central Political Bureau, or at the request of at least half of the Territorial Permanent Delegations. The Congress elects the President of the National Liberal Party, the 15 vice-presidents of the Central Standing Bureau (7 with specific attributions and 8 responsible for the development regions), 23 judges of The Honor and Referee Court (Romanian: Curtea de Onoare şi Arbitraj), 7 members of The Central Committee of Censors (Romanian: Comisia Centrală de Cenzori).

The last congress took place at Romexpo in Bucharest on 25 September 2021, when the 10th post-1989 president of the party was elected being Florin Cîțu.

Permanent Delegation[edit]

The Permanent Delegation (Romanian: Delegaţia Permanentă – DP) is the structure that leads the party between two Congresses. It meets monthly, or at any time needed. Its members are the following; the President of the National Liberal Party, the members of the Central Political Bureau, the President of the Senate of the party, the Secretary General of the National Liberal Party, the presidents of the two Chambers of the Parliament (if the officeholders are members of the PNL), the leaders of the National liberal Party's parliamentary groups, the Senators and Deputies, the MEPs, the Ministers, the President of the National Liberal Youth (TNL), the President of the Liberal Women Organisation (OFL), the President of the Liberal Student Clubs (CSL), the President of the League of the Local Elected Officeholders of the National Liberal Party (LAL PNL), the President of the Coordinating Council of the Municipality of Bucharest, the European Commissioner (if the officeholder is member of the PNL).

National Political Bureau[edit]

The National Political Bureau (Romanian: Biroul Politic Național – BPN) of the National Liberal Party (PNL) proposes the party's politics and coordinates its application. It ensures the party's day-to-day leadership, and it is composed by the following: the President of the party, the 15 vice-presidents (7 with specific charges, and 8 responsible for the development regions). At the BPC's meetings can assist, with consultative vote, the president of the Senate of the PNL, the Secretary-General of the PNL, the Presidents of the two Chambers of the Parliament (if the officeholders are members of the PNL), the leaders of the National liberal Party's parliamentary groups, the President of the TNL, the President of the OFL, the President of the CSL, the President of the League of the LAL, and the Ministers. The BPC meets weekly, or at any time needed, convoked by the president of the PNL.

According to Article 70 of the PNL Statute, the BPN coordinates and evaluates the objectives of the territorial branches, of the parliamentary groups; it negotiates political agreements (within the limits established by the DP); it coordinates the elections campaign; proposes sanctions according to the Statute; proposes to the DP the political strategy of the party; proposes the candidates for the central executive or public offices; for certain territorial units, proposes to the DP the candidates for the parliamentary elections; proposes to the DP the candidates for the European Parliament elections; proposes the DP to dissolve or dismiss, for exceptional reasons, the territorial branch, or the branch's president; convokes the DP; coordinates the activity of the permanent committees of the National Council, validates or invalidates the results of the elections for the territorial branches; appoints the Secretary-Executive, the Foreign Secretary, and Deputy-Secretaries-General.

The BPN is assisted, in the organizing activity by the Secretary General of the PNL. This office ensures the communication between the central organisms and the territorial branches, ensures the management of the party's assets, is responsible for the informational system. The Secretary-General is assisted by the Deputy-Secretaries-General, appointed by the BPC at the suggestion of the Secretary-General.

As of 2018, the National Political Bureau was composed of the following members:[157]

In normal conditions, the term of the BPN members ends during the Party's Congress, when the president leaves the presidium of the Congress. The president of the Standing Bureau of the Congress is, formally, the acting president of the party until the new president is elected. The last acting president of the National Liberal Party (PNL) was Mircea Ionescu-Quintus on 20 March 2009, when Crin Antonescu succeeded Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu.

National Council[edit]

The National Council (Romanian: Consiliul Naţional – CN) is the debate forum of the National Liberal Party between two Congresses. It reunites twice a year, or at any time necessary, convoked by the president, by the BPC, or at the request of at least half of its members. Its members are: DP, including the members with consultative vote; the Secretaries of State and the equivalent officeholders; the Prefects and Deputy-Prefects; Presidents and vice-presidents of the County Councils; Mayors and Deputy-Mayors of the county capitals, of the sectors of Bucharest, the General Mayor and General Deputy-Mayors of Bucharest; the vice-presidents and Secretaries-General of TNL, OFL, CSL, the Senate of the Party, LAL; honorary members of the party; the President of the structures that deal with specific issues; the Presidents of the CN.

The CN has the following competences: acts to fulfill the decisions of the Congress; adopts the Governing Program; adopts the programs and sectorial politics of the party; approves the reports of the specialty committees; names the candidate of the National Liberal Party for the Romanian Presidency; gives and retracts the quality of honorary member of the party.

According to Article 65 of the Statute, the CN is organized and functions through its permanent specialty committees, constituted on social and professional criteria. The committees constituted on social criteria promote the interests of the correspondent social category. The committees constituted on professional criteria state the sectorial politics and the public politics in major fields, to express the options and solutions proposed by the National Liberal Party.


The President of the National Liberal Party (PNL) is the guardian of the political programme of the party, of the respect of the statute, and the keeper of the unity and prestige of the party.


The Secretary-General ensures the communication between the central leading structures and the territorial ones, ensures the management of the assets of the party, is responsible for the informational system. The Secretary-General is helped in its activity by Deputy-Secretaries-General appointed by the BPC, upon the suggestion of the Secretary-General.

Other national structures[edit]

  • The Senate of the party – consulting organism for the president regarding the continuity and development of the liberal traditions and concepts;
  • Court of Honor and Arbitration – the supreme court of the party;
  • Central Committee of Censors – checks the management of the party;
  • Ethics Commission – analyzes the candidates proposed for the legislative elections and for the offices in the Government as well as other central offices;
  • National Liberal Youth – coordinates the activity specific to the youth structures in the territory;
  • League of the Local Elected Officeholders – coordinates the activity of the PNL members in the local public administration (mayors and deputy-mayors, local councilors, county councilors, county council presidents, and deputy-presidents);
  • Liberal Women Organisation – coordinates the activity of the territorial women organizations;
  • Liberal Student Clubs – promotes the liberal ideas and political program of the PNL through the students.

Local leading structures[edit]

The local leading structures of the National Liberal Party (PNL) are the following:

  • the General Assembly of the Members (Romanian: Adunarea Generală a membrilor – AG) – applies at local level the necessary measures for fulfilling the Program and Strategy.
  • the Standing Bureau of the organization (Romanian: Biroul Permanent – BP) – leads the organization between two General Assemblies.


Romanian law requires all parties to present a permanent sign and a permanent electoral sign. The former is used to identify the party's buildings and press releases, and the latter to identify the party's electoral materials and the candidates on the elections ballot. Usually they differ slightly.

The main element of the party is a blue arrow pointing to the upper right corner of a yellow square, and the letters P, N, and L in blue, tilted to the right. The position of the PNL with respect to the arrow depends on the type of symbol, as shown below.


Florin CîțuLudovic OrbanRaluca TurcanAlina GorghiuKlaus IohannisCrin AntonescuCălin Popescu-TăriceanuTheodor StolojanValeriu StoicaMircea Ionescu QuintusRadu CâmpeanuCommunist RomaniaDinu BrătianuIon DucaVintilă BrătianuIon I. C. BrătianuDimitrie SturdzaDumitru BrătianuIon Brătianu
  Also served as state vice president in the Provisional Council of National Unity (Romanian: Consiliul Provizoriu de Uniune Națională) during the early 1990s[158]
  Also served as ad interim (i.e. acting) President
  Also served as President
  Also served as Prime Minister
  Also served as Senate President[a]
  Also served (and currently serving) as County council President[b]
Born - Died
Portrait Term start Term end Duration
1 Radu Câmpeanu1
15 January 1990 28 February 1993 3 years, 1 month and 13 days
2 Mircea Ionescu-Quintus2
28 February 1993 18 February 2001 7 years, 11 months and 21 days
3 Valeriu Stoica
18 February 2001 24 August 2002 1 year, 6 months and 6 days
4 Theodor Stolojan
24 August 2002 2 October 2004 2 years, 1 month and 8 days
5 Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu3
2 October 2004 20 March 2009 4 years, 5 months and 18 days
6 Crin Antonescu4
20 March 2009 2 June 2014 5 years, 2 months and 13 days
7 Klaus Iohannis
28 June 2014 18 December 2014 6 months and 16 days
8 Vasile Blaga5
18 December 2014 28 September 2016 1 year, 9 months and 10 days
Alina Gorghiu6
18 December 2014 12 December 2016 1 year, 11 months and 24 days
Raluca Turcan
13 December 2016 17 June 2017 6 months and 4 days
9 Ludovic Orban7
17 June 2017 25 September 2021 4 years, 3 months and 8 days
10 Florin Cîțu8
25 September 2021 2 April 2022 6 months and 8 days
Gheorghe Flutur
2 April 2022 10 April 2022 8 days
11 Nicolae Ciucă9
10 April 2022 Incumbent 1 year, 10 months and 20 days


1 Câmpeanu had also subsequently served as Honorary Founding President of the party until his death.
2 Ionescu-Quintus had also subsequently served as Honorary President of the party, after the death of Câmpeanu in 2016.
3 Popescu-Tăriceanu had also subsequently served as Senate President between 2014 and 2019, firstly as independent (shortly after he left the PNL with a group of followers), then on behalf of the Liberal Reformist Party (PLR), and finally from the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE), both political parties being PNL splinters (either in their entirety or in part).
4 Antonescu had also served as Senate President between 2012 and 2014.
5 Co-president along with Alina Gorghiu until 28 September 2016 when he resigned from this position.
6 Co-president along with Vasile Blaga until 28 September 2016. Afterwards, sole party leader until the end of her term.
Additionally, she had served as acting/ad interim Senate President from 29 June 2022 to 13 June 2023.

7 Orban had also served as Chamber President between December 2020 and October 2021, until he resigned.
8 Cîțu had also served as Senate President between 23 November 2021 and 29 June 2022, until he resigned.
9 Ciucă is the first military leader of the party in the entire history of the PNL. Additionally, he has been serving as President of the Senate since 13 June 2023.

Presidency span (1990–present)[edit]

Nicolae CiucăGheorghe FluturFlorin CîțuLudovic OrbanRaluca TurcanAlina GorghiuVasile BlagaKlaus IohannisCrin AntonescuCălin Popescu-TăriceanuTheodor StolojanValeriu StoicaMircea Ionescu-QuintusRadu Câmpeanu

Notable members[edit]

Current notable members[edit]

Former notable members[edit]

Electoral history[edit]

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Election Chamber Senate Position Aftermath
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
1990 879,290 6.41
29 / 395
985,094 7.06
10 / 119
 3rd  Opposition to FSN government (1990–1991)
FSN-PNL-MER-PDAR government (1991–1992)
1992 284,678 2.62
0 / 341
290,866 2.66
0 / 143
 9th  Extra-parliamentary opposition to PDSR-PUNR-PRM-PSM government (1992–1996)
1996 3,692,321 30.17
28 / 343
3,772,084 30.70
22 / 143
(within CDR)1
CDR-USD-UDMR government (1996–2000)
2000 747,263 6.89
30 / 345
814,381 7.48
13 / 140
 4th  Opposition to PDSR minority government (2000–2004)
2004 3,191,546 31.33
64 / 332
3,250,663 31.77
28 / 137
(within DA)2
DA-PUR-UDMR government (2004–2007)
PNL-UDMR minority government (2007–2008)[c]
2008 1,279,063 18.60
65 / 334
1,291,029 18.74
28 / 137
 3rd  Opposition to PDL-PSD government (2008–2009)
Opposition to PDL-UNPR-UDMR government (2009–2012)
USL government (2012)
2012 4,344,288 58.63
100 / 412
4,457,526 60.10
50 / 176
(within USL)3
USL government (2012–2014)
Opposition to PSD-UNPR-UDMR-PC government (2014)
Opposition to PSD-UNPR-ALDE government (2014–2015)
Endorsing the technocratic Cioloș Cabinet (2015–2017)
2016 1,412,377 20.04
69 / 329
1,440,193 20.42
30 / 136
 2nd  Opposition to PSD-ALDE government (2017–2019)
Opposition to PSD minority government (2019)
PNL minority government (2019–2020)
2020 1,486,401 25.19
93 / 330
1,511,225 25.58
41 / 136
 2nd  PNL-USR PLUS-UDMR government (2020–2021)
PNL-UDMR minority government (2021)
CNR government (2021–present)


1 The members of the CDR were the PNȚCD (with 25 senators and 81 deputies), the PNL, the PNL-CD (with 1 senator and 4 deputies), the PAR (with 3 senators and 3 deputies), the PER (with 1 senator and 5 deputies), and the Ecologist Federation of Romania (FER - with 1 senator and 1 deputy).
2 The members of the Justice and Truth Alliance (DA) alliance were the PNL and the PD (with 21 senators and 48 deputies).
3 The Social Liberal Union (USL) was a larger political alliance comprising two other smaller political alliances as follows: the Centre Left Alliance (ACS) and the Centre Right Alliance (ACD). The Centre Left Alliance (ACS) members were the PSD and the UNPR (with 5 senators and 10 deputies). The members of the Centre Right Alliance (ACD) were the PNL (with 51 senators and 101 deputies) and the PC (with 8 senators and 13 deputies). Furthermore, de facto, the PNL became the 2nd largest political party in the Romanian Parliament in the wake of the 2012 Romanian legislative election.

Local elections[edit]

National results[edit]

Election County Councilors (CJ) Mayors Local Councilors (CL) Popular vote % Position
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
2008 1,521,191 18.20
297 / 1,393
1,721,834 19.50
706 / 3,179
1,576,214 19.80
8,529 / 40,297
1,537,840 18.08  3rd 
2012 4,203,007 49.68
723 / 1,338
2,782,792 33.99
1,292 / 3,121
2,630,123 32.74
12,668 / 39,121
(as USL)
2016 2,529,986 30.64
504 / 1,434
2,686,099 31.50
1,081 / 3,186
2,478,549 29.60
13,198 / 40,067
2,529,986 30.64  2nd 
2020 2,212,904 30.76
474 / 1,340
2,578,820 34.58
1,232 / 3,176
2,420,413 32.88
14,182 / 39,900
2,334,039 29.78  1st 
Election County Presidents (PCJ) Position
Votes % Seats
2000 596,017 6.96
1 / 41
2004 1,445,674 15.99
6 / 41
2008 1,537,840 18.08
5 / 41
2012 4,260,709 49.71
15 / 41
(as USL)
2016 2,529,986 30.64
8 / 41
2020 2,261,157 31.07
17 / 41

Mayor of Bucharest (PGMB)[edit]

Election Candidate First round Second round
Votes Percentage Position Votes Percentage Position
1992 Crin Halaicu
1996 Victor Ciorbea1
2000 George Pădure 45,861
 4th  not qualified
2004 Traian Băsescu2 417,153
2008 Ludovic Orban 64,636
 4th  not qualified
2012 Sorin Oprescu3 430,512
2016 Cătălin Predoiu 64,186
2020 Nicușor Dan4 282,631

1 PNȚCD candidate (endorsed by PNL as part of CDR)

2 PD candidate (endorsed by PNL as part of DA)

3 Independent candidate endorsed by USL

4 Independent candidate endorsed by PNL and USR PLUS

County Council[edit]

Election County % Councilors +/- Aftermath
2020 Alba 51.04
19 / 32
Steady PNL majority
2020 Arad 48.11
17 / 32
Increase 1 PNL majority
2020 Argeș 28.32
11 / 34
Increase 3 Opposition
2020 Bacău 27.00
8 / 36
Decrease 3 Opposition
2020 Bihor 56.86
22 / 34
Increase 5 PNL majority
2020 Bistrița-Năsăud 33.36
12 / 30
Increase 3 Opposition
2020 Botoșani 34.15
12 / 32
Decrease 3 Opposition
2020 Brăila 26.53
10 / 32
Decrease 2 Opposition
2020 Brașov 36.97
16 / 34
2020 Bucharest 19.31
12 / 55
Increase 5 USR PLUS–PNL
2020 Buzău 18.79
7 / 32
Decrease 2 Opposition
2020 Călărași 37.26
9 / 30
Decrease 8 Opposition
2020 Caraș-Severin 44.90
16 / 34
Increase 3 Opposition
2020 Cluj 46.54
19 / 36
Increase 1 PNL majority
2020 Constanța
15 / 36
2020 Covasna
3 / 31
2020 Dâmbovița
13 / 34
2020 Dolj
13 / 36
2020 Galați
12 / 34
2020 Giurgiu
18 / 30
0 PNL majority
2020 Gorj
11 / 32
2020 Harghita
2 / 30
2020 Hunedoara
6 / 32
2020 Ialomița 29.0
10 / 31
Steady PSD–PNL
2020 Iași
17 / 36
2020 Ilfov 50.0
16 / 32
5 PNL majority
2020 Maramureș
13 / 34
2020 Mehedinți
11 / 30
2020 Mureș
9 / 34
2020 Neamț
11 / 34
2020 Olt
11 / 32
2020 Prahova
8 / 36
2020 Sălaj
11 / 30
2020 Satu Mare
10 / 32
2020 Sibiu
18 / 31
4 PNL majority
2020 Suceava 50.0
18 / 36
Decrease 3 PNL majority
2020 Teleorman
17 / 32
0 PNL majority
2020 Timiș
16 / 36
10 PNL majority
2020 Tulcea
13 / 30
2020 Vâlcea
13 / 32
2020 Vaslui
12 / 34
2020 Vrancea
15 / 32

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate First round Second round
Votes Percentage Position Votes Percentage Position
1990 Radu Câmpeanu 1,529,188
1992 Emil Constantinescu1 3,717,006
 2nd  4,641,207
1996 Emil Constantinescu1 3,569,941
 2nd  7,057,906
2000 Theodor Stolojan 1,321,420
 3rd  not qualified
2004 Traian Băsescu2 3,545,236
 2nd  5,126,794
2009 Crin Antonescu 1,945,831
 3rd  not qualified
2014 Klaus Iohannis3 2,881,406
 2nd  6,288,769
2019 Klaus Iohannis 3,485,292
 1st  6,509,135


1 Emil Constantinescu was the common centre-right candidate that was endorsed by the PNL in both 1992 and 1996 as part of the larger Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR).
2 Traian Băsescu was the common centre-right candidate that was endorsed by the PNL in 2004 as part of the Justice and Truth Alliance (DA) alongside the now defunct Democratic Party (PD).
3 Although Klaus Iohannis was a member of the PNL, he was the common centre-right candidate that was endorsed by the party in 2014 as part of the Christian Liberal Alliance (ACL) alongside the now longtime defunct Democratic Liberal Party (PDL).

European Parliament elections[edit]

Election Votes Percentage MEPs Position EU Party EP Group
Jan. 2007 20.0% Steady
7 / 35
 2nd  Steady ALDE ALDE Group1
Nov. 2007 688,859 Steady 13.4% Decrease
6 / 35
 3rd  Decrease ALDE ALDE Group
2009 702,974 Increase 14.5% Increase
5 / 33
 3rd  Steady ALDE ALDE Group
2014 835,531 Increase 15.0% Increase
6 / 32
 2nd  Increase ALDE2 EPP Group
2019 2,449,068 Increase 27.0% Increase
10 / 32
 1st  Increase EPP EPP Group


1 During the 2004–09 EU parliament session, the Parliament of Romania sent 7 delegates on behalf of the PNL to Brussels, Belgium.
2 Subsequently, sought permission to adhere to the European People's Party (EPP) as well as to its affiliated EU Parliament group and had been successfully accepted within it as a full member in the meantime.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vasile Blaga served as Senate President when he was still in the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL), closely to the end of his term also its leader/president. In the particular case of Alina Gorghiu, she has just been serving as acting/ad interim Senate President since 29 June onwards.
  2. ^ More specifically of Suceava County in Bukovina, northeastern Romania
  3. ^ With Social Democratic Party (PSD) endorsement/confidence and supply


  1. ^ Iván Zoltán Dénes (2006). Liberty and the Search for Identity: Liberal Nationalisms and the Legacy of Empires. Central European University Press. p. 383. ISBN 978-963-7326-44-8.
  2. ^ "Scurt istoric". PNL (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 15 December 2014.
  3. ^ The Brătianu PNL faction was unlawfully dissolved in 1947 by the then communist authorities.
  4. ^ The Tătărescu/Bejan PNL faction was unlawfully dissolved in 1950 by the then communist authorities.
  5. ^ Bogdan Constantinescu (14 March 2023). "Rascoala in PNL, se cere capul lui Bogdan Aurescu. Florin Roman: "Cine nu respecta romanii din Diaspora, nu are ce cauta cocotat intr-un scaun ministerial la externe. Indiferent cat de arogant este"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  6. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2020). "Romania". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  7. ^ a b Caroline Close (2019). "The liberal family ideology: Distinct, but diverse". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-351-24549-4.
  8. ^ "Ciucă, despre decizia CEDO referitoare la parteneriatul civil: PNL va susţine în continuare familia tradiţională, credinţa în Dumnezeu şi patriotismul".
  9. ^ "Nicolae Ciucă cere PNL să susțină "patriotismul economic" și să întărească clasa de mijloc în România". 16 March 2023.
  10. ^ "Patriotismul economic, elementul comun din discursurile lui Ciucă și Ciolacu". 20 March 2023.
  11. ^ "Ciucă lansează un nou curent de gândire în PNL: "Patriotismul economic" - VIDEO - TOMIS NEWS". 16 March 2023.
  12. ^ "Un nou război între PNL şi USR-PLUS, de data aceasta pe tema LGBT: "În frunte cu Cioloş, au votat raportul Matic. Şocant!"". 25 June 2021.
  13. ^ "Războiul cultural Est-Vest: De care parte se află PNL? – DW – 06.07.2021". Deutsche Welle.
  14. ^ "Legea parteneriatului civil a fost respinsă. Deputat PNL: Relațiile homosexuale au dus la declinul Imperiului Roman". 28 September 2021.
  15. ^ "Puiu Hasotti (PNL) despre reglementarea parteneriatului civil intre persoane de acelasi sex: Homosexualii sunt doar niste oameni bolnavi. Homosexualitatea nu este o stare fireasca".
  16. ^ "În România fascismul intră pe sub ușă? – DW – 03.08.2021". Deutsche Welle.
  17. ^ "PNL și Klaus Iohannis luptă împotriva homosexualilor". 5 October 2016.
  18. ^ [12][13][14][15][16][17]
  19. ^ Lavinia Stan; Rodica Zaharia (2012). "Romania". In Donnacha Ó Beacháin; Vera Sheridan; Sabina Stan (eds.). Life in Post-communist Eastern Europe After EU Membership: Happy Ever After?. Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-415-68084-4.
  20. ^ "Graft-tainted Romanian left eyes election comeback". EURACTIV. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  21. ^ "Romania country profile". BBC News. 10 July 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  22. ^ Barberá, Marcel (28 September 2020). "Centre-right Parties Trounce Social Democrats in Romanian local elections". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 27 September 2023. In a dismal day for the Social Democrats, the ruling centre-right PNL [...]
  23. ^ "Romanian MPs approve coalition that will see rotating prime ministers". Euronews. 25 November 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  24. ^ "Romania's PM resigns after opposition party wins more votes in election". Irish Examiner. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  25. ^ "The next Romanian government's weak mandate for fighting corruption". The Economist. Bucharest. 12 December 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  26. ^ Youngs, Richard (2021). Rebuilding European Democracy Resistance and Renewal in an Illiberal Age. United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 9780755639731.
  27. ^ [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]
  28. ^ PNL-CD, PNL-AT, and PL '93 were the PNL splinter groups which were still part of the CDR after Câmpeanu's withdrawal of the main PNL from the convention in 1992, just before that year's general election. Other minor liberal parties such as PAC and UFD (which would later merge in the PNL) were part of the CDR during the late 1990s as well.
  29. ^ "PNL a aderat la cea mai mare alianță de centru-dreapta din lume". 7 December 2023.
  30. ^ "Înțelegere politică pentru noul partid de dreapta. PNL și PDL vor cânta de acum "Verde-nrourat"". Digi24 (in Romanian). 19 August 2014.
  31. ^ Senatul României. "Grupuri parlamentare" (in Romanian). Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  32. ^ Camera deputaților. "Grupuri parlamentare" (in Romanian). Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  33. ^ "Advanced search". European Parliament. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  34. ^ a b c d "Autoritatea electorală permanentă - date finale" (in Romanian).
  35. ^ "Grupurile parlamentare". Chamber of Deputies (in Romanian).
  36. ^ "Antonescu: La 138 de ani de la înființarea sa destinul PNL este strâns legat de evoluția României și de parcursul european". Agerpres (in Romanian). 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  37. ^ Donatella M. Viola (2015). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 665. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
  38. ^ "EPP concerned over actions of radical Islamic militant groups and over latest political developments in Romania; welcomes five new member parties". European People's Party. 12 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Centrist Democrat International - Member parties". Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  41. ^ Cristian Preda (2013). "Partide, voturi și mandate la alegerile din România (1990-2012)" (PDF). SSOAR/GESIS - Leibniz-Institut für Sozialwissenschaften in Mannheim (in Romanian). Retrieved 18 December 2022.
  42. ^ Monitorul de Vrancea (17 January 2004). "Avocatul Niculae Cerveni a încetat din viață". Monitorul de Vrancea (in Romanian). Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  43. ^ a b Richard Rose; Neil Munro (2009). Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. ECPR Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 978-0-9558203-2-8.
  44. ^ Villy Tsakona; Diana Elena Popa, eds. (2011). Studies in Political Humour: In Between Political Critique and Public Entertainment. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 978-90-272-0637-4.
  45. ^ "Romanian opposition demands new PM". Euronews. 21 October 2009. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  46. ^ "National minorities in Romania's Parliament endorse Mircea Geoana's candidacy for runoff presidential election – FINANCIARUL – ultimele stiri din Finante, Banci, Economie, Imobiliare si IT". 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  47. ^ "Romanian Oppositions Form Alliance". Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  48. ^ "FOCUS Information Agency". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  49. ^ "Romania's Liberals to leave ruling coalition, government". The Sofia Globe. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  50. ^ EurActiv (26 May 2014). "Romanian liberals seek EPP affiliation". EurActiv. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  51. ^ "Antonescu: I'll have talks with EPP in June". 28 May 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  52. ^ "ALDE MEP details". Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  53. ^ "Romania's largest rightist parties agree on presidential candidate, fusion | Independent Balkan News Agency". 29 May 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  54. ^ "SIGLA ACL a intrat în producţie". Retrieved 10 June 2015.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ "Ion Dumitrel, Florin Roman, Adrian Teban și Marius Ceteraș, prim-vicepreședinții Alianței Creștin Liberale Alba (ACL)". Ziarul Unirea. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  56. ^ Newsroom (28 June 2014). "Calin Popescu Tariceanu will run for president". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  57. ^ ACTMedia. "Tariceanu: The Liberal Reforming Party is advancing Liberalism". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  58. ^ "Name of new party from PDL-PNL merger is PNL". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  59. ^ "Merger protocol between PNL-PDL, new party statute, approved by joint congress". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  60. ^ "Romania's PM Ponta wins first round of presidential election". Reuters. 3 November 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  61. ^ "Romania election surprise as Klaus Iohannis wins presidency". BBC News. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  62. ^ "Romanians elected Klaus Iohannis their new president for the next five years". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  63. ^ Niculescu, Anghel (18 June 2017). "Ludovic Orban a anunţat pe cine va susţine PNL la alegerile prezidenţiale din 2019! "Mă voi bate cu toată forţa mea să obţinem un nou mandat pentru Klaus Iohannis"". Express de Banat (in Romanian). Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  64. ^ Sebastian Zachmann (11 March 2018). "Decizie PNL. Liberalii îl susţin pe Klaus Iohannis pentru un nou mandat de preşedinte. Ludovic Orban - premierul PNL". Adevărul (in Romanian).
  65. ^ Digi24 (23 June 2018). "Klaus Iohannis va candida pentru un nou mandat de președinte: "Sunt ferm hotărât"". Retrieved 23 June 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  66. ^ "Guvernul Cîțu a fost votat în Parlament. A primit 260 de voturi pentru și 186 împotrivă". Alba24 (in Romanian). 23 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  67. ^ Cristian Matei and Sorina Ionașc (25 May 2021). "Congresul PNL va fi organizat în 25 septembrie. Cîțu evită să spună ce a decis". Știrile PRO TV (in Romanian). Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  68. ^ Bianca Ion (31 May 2021). "Liberalii, intre Florin Citu si Ludovic Orban. Cine a schimbat tabara si cum arata listele de sustinatori". (in Romanian).
  69. ^ Redacția (12 August 2021). "Drula si Nasui blocheaza noul PNDL dorit de PNL: "Risipa banilor publici pe criterii politice. Banii au ajuns in buzunarele baronilor locali"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 26 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  70. ^ Redacția (3 September 2021). "USRPLUS este deja in Opozitie: "Adoptarea PNDL 3, un nou abuz marca OUG 13. Si-au facut cale libera sa fure"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 26 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  71. ^ "Romania PM urges partners to stay united in coalition crisis talks". Reuters. 3 September 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  72. ^ "Romanian PM sacks justice minister over reform response". Reuters. 1 September 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  73. ^ Alexandru Costea (9 September 2021). "VIDEO Florin Cîțu se crede "Superman" într-un clip publicat de acesta pe Instagram". (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  74. ^ Beatrice Ghiciov (10 September 2021). "VIDEO Internauții îi dau replica premierului. Au publicat un video cu Florin Cîțu în rolul lui Joker". (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  75. ^ Bogdan Păcurar (11 September 2021). "Orban, stupefiat de filmul cu Cîțu-Superman: "Cred că este totuși nevoie de o anumită profesie care să rezolve această problemă"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  76. ^ Redacția (21 August 2021). "PMP a semnat un protocol cu PSD si Pro Romania pentru "inlaturarea regimului PNL-USR". PMP face alianta la nivel national cu "ciuma rosie"". Retrieved 26 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  77. ^ " "Dan Barna: USR PLUS va fi partidul care va câștiga dreapta din România dacă rămâne în opoziție". (in Romanian). 12 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  78. ^ Gabriel Tudor (22 September 2021). "DNA a început urmărirea penală în dosarul lui Florin Cîțu. Acuzațiile: abuz în serviciu și instigare la abuz în serviciu". Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  79. ^ Beatrice Ghiciov (21 September 2021). "VIDEO Lucian Mîndruță, mesaj pentru Florin Cîțu, după demiterea lui Octavian Berceanu: "Ce e în mintea ta? Ai înnebunit?"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  80. ^ Bobi Neacșu (22 September 2021). "Cristian Tudor Popescu, reacție dură la adresa lui Klaus Iohannis: "Domnului președinte i se rupe-n paișpe"". Libertatea (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  81. ^ Dorin Oancea (6 September 2021). "Criza politică bagă leul în pământ. Euro decolează luni şi atinge un nou maxim istoric faţă de leu. BNR anunţă un curs de 4,9475 lei/ euro". Ziarul Financiar (in Romanian). Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  82. ^ Andra Timu (10 September 2021). "Romanian Inflation Quickens Further as Political Spat Hurts Leu". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  83. ^ Robert Kiss (27 September 2021). "Acuzații de fraudă, după Congresul PNL. Contracandidatul lui Rareș Bogdan spune că 1.200 de votanți au "furnizat" 1.842 de voturi". (in Romanian). Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  84. ^ Andreea Pavel (25 September 2021). "USR PLUS: Am luat o decizie în unanimitate, nu putem continua guvernarea cu Florin Cîțu premier/ Nu participăm la guvernare de dragul puterii, acceptând orice fel de condiții". G4Media (in Romanian). Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  85. ^ "PNL a stabilit echipa care va conduce partidul alături de Florin Cîțu". Antena 3. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  86. ^ Ioana Coman (27 September 2021). "Orban: Cîțu nu înțelege că nu va mai fi prim-ministru. Dacă va mai fi, va fi din mila PSD". (in Romanian). Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  87. ^ Alexandru Costea (27 September 2021). "Cîțu, după aprobarea PNRR: Altă cale nu există. Nu mai putem sta pe loc, în timp ce întreaga lume se dezvoltă" (in Romanian). Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  88. ^ Robert Kiss (28 September 2021). "Moțiunea de cenzură a PSD va fi votată săptămâna viitoare. Ce se întâmplă cu moțiunea depusă de USR PLUS și AUR". Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  89. ^ Sorina Matei (28 September 2021). "Valeriu Stoica: PNL încalcă grav constituția. Se comportă la fel ca PSD". (in Romanian). Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  90. ^ Robert Kiss (5 October 2021). "Guvernul Cîțu a fost demis. Au votat 281 de parlamentari moțiunea de cenzură" (in Romanian). Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  91. ^ Robert Kiss (5 October 2021). "Klaus Iohannis: "Este o situație complicată, care a fost generată de politicieni cinici". Consultări cu partidele, săptămâna viitoare" (in Romanian). Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  92. ^ Redacția (9 October 2021). "Valeriu Stoica, analiza taioasa: "Iohannis a permis ca la conducerea PNL sa existe oameni mediocri. A fost cu totul evacuata infrastructura intelectuala a PNL"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  93. ^ Victor Gheja (6 October 2021). "Valeriu Stoica, transant: "PNL ar da dovada de imaturitate crasa daca il propune tot pe Citu. Ar insemna agravarea crizei politice"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  94. ^ Redacția (9 October 2021). "Valeriu Stoica: "Presedintele Romaniei trebuia sa-i spuna lui Florin Citu ca situatia impune demisia lui. Nu trebuia sa se ajunga la motiunea de cenzura"". (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  95. ^ "Former PM Dacian Cioloș tasked with forming new Romanian government". euronews. 11 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  96. ^ "Consultări la Cotroceni. Iohannis: "Am decis să-l desemnez drept candidat pentru funcția de prim-ministru pe Nicolae Ciucă"". Bogdan Păcurar (in Romanian). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  97. ^ "Fermă de like-uri la PNL? Cu doar 7% încredere în România, Florin Cîțu primește mii de aprecieri de la conturi cu nume rusești, vietnameze și arabe". HotNews. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  98. ^ Beatrice Ghiciov (6 November 2021). "Florin Cîțu, like-uri cumpărate de la cetățeni din spațiul ex-sovietic și Vietnam". Digi FM (in Romanian). Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  99. ^ Beatrice Ghiciov (5 November 2021). "Lucian Mîndruță, mesaj pentru Klaus Iohannis: Așteptările noastre sunt numai bune să ne ștergem undeva cu ele. Ne-ați livrat hârtie igienică". DigiFM. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  100. ^ Beatrice Ghiciov (9 November 2021). "Lucian Mîndruță: Liderii opoziției ajung acum la putere "călcând pe cadavre"". DigiFM. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  101. ^ Robert Kiss (12 November 2021). "Biroul Executiv al PNL a votat excluderea lui Ludovic Orban din partid. "Sunt liber să construiesc o nouă forță politică"". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  102. ^ Alexandru Costea (12 November 2021). "Surse: PNL negociază fuziunea cu partidul lui Traian Băsescu". Digi24. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  103. ^ Luana Pavaluca (13 November 2021). "PMP a decis să negocieze cu PNL "un proiect politic comun"". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  104. ^ Ioana Coman (15 November 2021). "Cîțu: Avem o alianță cu PSD. Trebuie să formăm acest guvern. E un compromis major pe care îl face PNL". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  105. ^ Monica Bonea (15 November 2021). "Ludovic Orban: Se construiește un monstru. Am obligația față de oamenii care au votat PNL să-i reprezint". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  106. ^ Raul Nețoiu (15 November 2021). "Cristian Diaconescu respinge fuziunea cu PNL: "În mandatul meu, PMP nu dispare!" Partidul lui Băsescu așteaptă o invitație la guvernare". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  107. ^ Bogdan Păcurar (22 November 2021). "Nicolae Ciucă, prima declarație după ce a fost desemnat premier: "Sper ca începând de joi să putem să ne apucăm serios de treabă"". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  108. ^ Bogdan Păcurar (22 November 2021). "Klaus Iohannis: Îl desemnez pe Nicolae Ciucă pentru a forma o echipă guvernamentală". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  109. ^ Mihnea Lazăr (23 November 2021). "Ludovic Orban a demisionat din PNL". Digi24 (in Romanian). Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  110. ^ Cristian Andrei (11 January 2022). "Fuziunea PNL cu ALDE, dar fără Tăriceanu. Bătălie pentru funcții în PNL". Europa Liberă România (in Romanian). Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  111. ^ Sebastian Pricop (11 January 2022). "PNL începe negocierile pentru fuziune cu ALDE. Discuții și cu PMP". Libertatea (in Romanian). Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  112. ^ Alexandru Costea (2 April 2022). "Florin Cîțu și-a dat demisia de la șefia PNL". (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  113. ^ Dana Humoreanu (2 April 2022). "Flutur preia președinția interimară a PNL". Monitorul de Suceava (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  114. ^ Bogdan Păcurar (10 April 2022). "Nicolae Ciucă este noul președinte PNL". (in Romanian). Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  115. ^ "Consiliul Național al PNL se va reuni pe 27 mai. Liberalii își vor alege secretarul general" (in Romanian). 11 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  116. ^ "Romania: Nations in Transit 2022 Country Report".
  117. ^ "Romania, last among EU countries in the Economist's annual Democracy Index". 3 February 2023.
  118. ^ "România, cea mai slabă democrație din Uniunea Europeană. "Societatea noastră este prinsă într-un cerc vicios"". 2 February 2023.
  119. ^ Redacția (16 January 2022). "S-a rupt inca o bucata din PNL. Sute de PNL-isti disidenti din Timisoara au infiintat Platforma Liberal Conservatoare". (in Romanian). Retrieved 16 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  120. ^ C.L.B. (27 September 2023). "Ben Oni Ardelean își anunță plecarea din PNL: Inițiez un nou proiect politic". (in Romanian). Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  121. ^ Alexandru Costea (29 September 2023). "Fostul deputat PNL Ben Oni Ardelean a lansat un nou proiect politic conservator". Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  122. ^ "Tribunalul București dispune fuziunea PNL cu PDL. Noua formațiune, denumită PNL" (in Romanian). 6 October 2014.
  123. ^ "PNL se mărește. Un partid va fi absorbit de formațiunea condusă de Orban" (in Romanian). 18 March 2019.
  124. ^ "Dan Vîlceanu, un apropiat al lui Florin Cîțu, va conduce negocierile de fuziune PNL-ALDE" (in Romanian). 11 January 2022.
  125. ^ Redacția Aktual24 (22 March 2022). "PNL a inghitit oficial ALDE, cele doua partide au fuzionat. Rares Bogdan a fost in comisia PNL de negociere cu ALDE". (in Romanian).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  126. ^ "Partidul Național Liberal, Despre Noi: Principii și valorile liberale". Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  127. ^ "PNL - Afiliere internațională" (in Romanian).
  128. ^[bare URL]
  129. ^ "De ce Partidul Național Liberal nu are nicio treabă cu liberalismul de stânga sau de dreapta". 25 October 2016.
  130. ^ "Cum vede PNL familia traditionala: Casatoria e intre un barbat si o femeie, dar familia nu se intemeiaza exclusiv pe casatorie".
  131. ^ "Războiul cultural Est-Vest: De care parte se află Iohannis și PNL? | DW | 06.07.2021". Deutsche Welle.
  132. ^ "What's behind the sudden rise of a far-right party in Romania?". 8 December 2020.
  133. ^ "Sorin Avram: Mai punem şi noi mâna pe-o carte, domnule Cîţu?".
  134. ^ "Cine îl adoptă pe antreprenorul-erou? Bătălia politică pe guvernarea neoliberală între PNL și USR-PLUS". 30 December 2020.
  135. ^ George Călin (21 March 2021). "Rareş Bogdan: Nu suntem de acord cu înfierea copiilor de către cupluri ale minorităţilor sexuale, pentru că lucrul ăsta e o chestie care schimbă lumea/ Dacă cineva crede că va putea nouă să ne răpească bucuria de a spune "mamă", "tată", se înşală". G4Media (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  136. ^ Alex Miclovan (20 May 2021). "Rareș Bogdan dezvăluie cum poate recupera PNL voturile pe care i le-a luat AUR: "Să nu uităm de valorile conservatoare! Nu ne putem bate în neoprogresism cu USRPLUS și nici în populism cu PSD"". Podul. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  137. ^ "Robert Sighiartău: Dacă ar fi să aleg între a intra la guvernare cu USR sau cu PMP, aș alege PMP" (in Romanian). G4Media. 9 November 2020.
  138. ^ V.M. (4 July 2021). "Ludovic Orban: PNL trebuie să sprijine valorile tradiţionale ale românilor - familia, biserica, satul / Avem nişte parteneri de guvernare care parcă nu s-au născut aici". (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  139. ^ Redacția Radio Europa Liberă Moldova (5 July 2021). "În lupta pentru șefia PNL din România, liderul partidului, Ludovic Orban vrea să întărească aripa conservatoare". Radio Europa Liberă Moldova (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  140. ^ Luana Pavaluca (4 July 2021). "Ovidiu Raețchi (PNL): Ludovic Orban a ajuns să meargă pe drumul toxic al lui Viktor Orban". (in Romanian). Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  141. ^ Andrei, Cristian (29 March 2022). "Concurs de populism între PNL și PSD: Vouchere de 50 sau 100 de euro, plafonare RCA, reducere TVA și CAS". Europa Liberă România.
  142. ^ Adam, Robert (28 November 2018). Doua veacuri de populism romanesc. Humanitas SA. ISBN 9789735063078.
  143. ^ "Ionel Dancă, despre măsurile propuse de PSD și PNL: Parcă ne uităm la desene animate cu Tom și Jerry". 29 March 2022.
  144. ^ "Citu: Government with PSD and UDMR, a compromise. PNL will oppose any populist measure". 26 November 2021.
  145. ^ "Romania's new conservative-socialist government sworn in". 26 November 2021.
  146. ^ Andreea Pora (9 April 2022). "Ciucă ales la al XVI-lea congres. Efectul asupra viitorului PNL". Europa Liberă (in Romanian). Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  147. ^ ""Pe locurile eligibile nu se gasesc persoane precum Presada sau Vlad Alexandrescu, pe cand personaje ca Daniel Gheorghe sau Ben-Oni Ardelean - da"".
  148. ^[bare URL]
  149. ^ "Ciucă, despre decizia CEDO referitoare la parteneriatul civil: PNL va susţine în continuare familia tradiţională, credinţa în Dumnezeu şi patriotismul".
  150. ^ "Partidul Național Liberal, Angajamentul nostru: Programul de Guvernare al Partidului Național Liberal". Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  151. ^[bare URL]
  152. ^ "Nicolae Ciucă cere PNL să susțină "patriotismul economic" și să întărească clasa de mijloc în România". 16 March 2023.
  153. ^ "Patriotismul economic, elementul comun din discursurile lui Ciucă și Ciolacu". 20 March 2023.
  154. ^ "Ciucă lansează un nou curent de gândire în PNL: "Patriotismul economic" - VIDEO - TOMIS NEWS". 16 March 2023.
  155. ^ "CĂTĂLIN DRULĂ: "Coaliţia PSD-PNL ne bagă creşteri de taxe şi impozit progresiv"".
  156. ^ (in Romanian) The structure of the Party Archived 12 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ "Biroul Executiv al PNL". PNL. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  158. ^ Departamentul Politic (19 October 2016). "A murit Radu Câmpeanu, primul președinte al PNL după reînființarea partidului în 1990" (in Romanian). Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  159. ^ Adevărul (4 May 2007). "Intelectualii nu pot face orice doar fiindcă sunt deştepţi". Adevărul (in Romanian). Retrieved 20 June 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • PNL website retrieved 8 September 2012;
  • Câmpeanu, Radu, Cu gândul la țară, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), 1995;
  • Cliveti, Gheorghe, Liberalismul românesc. Eseu istoriografic, Editura Fundației "AXIS", Iași, 1996;
  • Istoricul PNL de la 1848 până astăzi, București, 1923;
  • Rădulescu – Zoner, Șerban (coord.), Cliveti, Gheorghe, Stan, Apostol, Onişoru, Gheorghe, Șandru, Dumitru, Istoria Partidului Național Liberal, Editura All, București, 2000;
  • Stan, Apostol, Iosa, Mircea, Liberalismul politic în România. De la origini până la 1918, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 1996;
  • Naumescu, Valentin, Despre liberalism în România. Realităţi, dileme, perspective, EFES, Cluj-Napoca, 2001;
  • Șomlea, Vasile-Florin, Mișcarea liberală din România post'1989, Editura Ecumenica Press, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.

External links[edit]