Germans of Romania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Germans in Romania
Rumäniendeutsche
Herta Müller 2007.JPG
Klaus Iohannis Senate of Poland 2015 02.JPG
Hermann Oberth 1950s.jpg
Richard Wagner 2010.JPG
Karl Storck - 2007.10.28 - Cimitirul Evanghelic Bucuresti.jpg
Michael Klein.jpg
Johannes Honterus Bildnis.jpg
Stefan W Hell.jpg
Peter Maffay.jpg
Stephan Ludwig Roth.jpg
Koehlerhorst08032007.jpg
Christian Tell.jpg
Johny Weissmuller-publicity.JPG
Nikolaus Lenau.jpg
Shantel Bukovina-Orkestar Wien2008a.jpg
Michael Weiss.jpg
Carl Filtsch.jpg
Timbru A.Flechtenmacher.jpg
Fotothek df roe-neg 0006453 029 Porträt des Schriftstellers Georg Maurer.jpg
Josef Posipal 1953.jpg
Oskar Cisek1.jpg
Brukenthal.jpg
Breban1.jpg
Arthur Coulin - Portretul pictoritei Edith Soterius von Sachsenheim.jpg
Willi Schneider (2014-03-24).jpg
Hagen Rether Wangen.jpg
Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu.jpg
Hans Otto Roth.jpg
Johannes Kelpius.jpg
Francisc Rainer 1914.png
Total population
36,884 (2011 census) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Central and North East Romania (Eastern carpathians)
Languages
mainly German, Swabian German, Transylvanian Saxon dialect
also Romanian, Hungarian etc.
Religion
Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism
Germans in Romania (2002 census)

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. They were of a number of 786,000 of Germans in interwar Romania in 1939,[1][2] a number that had fallen to 36,884 by 2011 in modern Romania. They are not a single group; thus, to understand their language, culture, and history, one must view them as independent groups:

See Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania for their official representation.

House of Hohenzollern in Romania[edit]

Members of the German family of Hohenzollern who ruled over Romania for a period:

Notable communities for the German minority (at least 1%)[edit]

Notable German-Romanians[edit]

War crimes in Second World War[edit]

After Romania acquired parts of Soviet Ukraine, the Germans there came under the authority of the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, which deployed SS personnel to several settlements. They eventually contained German mayors, farms, schools and ethnic German paramilitary groups functioning as police called Selbstschutz ("Self-protection").

German colonists and Selbstschutz forces engaged in extensive acts of ethnic cleansing, massacring Jewish and Roma populations.

In the German colony of Shonfeld, Romas were burned in farms. During the winter of 1941/1942, German Selbstschutz units participated in the shooting, together with Ukrainian militia and Romanian gendarmes, of some 18,000 Jews. In the camp of Bogdanovka, tens of thousands of Jews were subject to mass shootings, barn burnings and killing by hand grenades.

Heinrich Himmler was sufficiently impressed by the Volksdeutsche communities and the work of the Selbstschutz to order that these methods be copied in Ukraine.[5]

Expulsion of Germans from Romania after World War II[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1887 50,000 —    
1930 745,421 +1390.8%
1948 343,913 −53.9%
1956 384,708 +11.9%
1966 382,595 −0.5%
1977 359,109 −6.1%
1992 119,462 −66.7%
2002 59,764 −50.0%
2011 36,042 −39.7%
Starting with the 1930 figures, the reference is to all German-speaking groups in Romania.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17
  2. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 Page 46
  3. ^ Peter Kosta (Hrsg.): Eine russische Kosmographie aus dem 17. Jahrhundert: sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse mit Textedition und Faksimile, Otto Sagner, 1982. ISBN 3-87690-200-2
  4. ^ http://exonyme.bplaced.net/Board/Thread-Deutsche-ON-in-Nordrumänien-Bukowina-Maramuresch-Wassertal-Nösnerland-n-C-Stephani
  5. ^ Moses, Dirk A. (editor) Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation and Subaltern Resistance in World History, Berghahn Books, December 2009, ISBN 978-1-84545-719-8, p. 389