List of human hormones

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens. Spelling is not uniform for many hormones. For example, current North American and international usage uses [citation needed] estrogen and gonadotropin, while British usage retains the Greek digraph in oestrogen and favours the earlier spelling gonadotrophin.

Hormone listing[edit]

SN Name. Abbr. Type Tissue Cells Receptor Target tissue Effect
1 Adrenaline

(or epinephrine)

EPI Amino acid derivative adrenal gland Adrenal medulla / Tyrosine adrenergic receptor nearly all tissues increase systolic blood pressure, glycogenolysis, lipolysis , increase cardiac output, influence goosebumps, etc.
2 Melatonin MT Amino acid derivative pineal gland Pinealocyte / Tryptophan melatonin receptor CNS and peripheral tissue sleep–wake cycle
3 Noradrenaline

(or norepinephrine)

NE Amino acid derivative adrenal gland Adrenal medulla / Tyrosine noradrenergic receptor nearly all tissues increases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycogenolysis, lipolysis increases metabolism, etc.
4 Triiodothyronine T3 Amino acid derivative peripheral tissue of thyroid gland Thyroid follicular cell / Tyrosine thyroid hormone receptor nearly every cell in the body increased metabolism
5 Thyroxine T4 Amino acid derivative thyroid gland Thyroid follicular cell / Tyrosine thyroid hormone receptor nearly every cell in the body Control carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism and control physical, mental growth of body
6 Dopamine DA Amino acid derivative substantia nigra (mainly) Phenylalanine / Tyrosine D1 and D2 system-wide regulation of cellular cAMP levels, prolactin antagonist
7 Prostaglandins PG Eicosanoid All nucleated cells prostaglandin receptor vasodilation
8 Leukotrienes LT Eicosanoid Blood white blood cells G protein-coupled receptors increase vascular permeability
9 Prostacyclin PGI2 Eicosanoid prostacyclin receptor vasodilation, platelet activation inhibitor
10 Thromboxane TXA2 Eicosanoid Blood platelets thromboxane receptor vasoconstriction, Platelet Aggregation
11 Amylin

(or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide)

IAPP Peptide pancreas pancreatic β-cells amylin receptor slowing down gastric emptying, inhibition of digestive secretion, in order to reduce food intake
12 Anti-Müllerian hormone

(or Müllerian-inhibiting factor/hormone)

AMH (or MIF or MIH) Peptide testes Sertoli cell AMHR2 Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary
13 Adiponectin Acrp30 Peptide adipose tissue adiponectin receptors regulating glucose levels
14 Adrenocorticotropic hormone

(or corticotropin)

ACTH Peptide anterior pituitary corticotrope ACTH receptor → cAMP synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells
15 Angiotensinogen and


AGT Peptide liver angiotensin receptor → IP3 vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

16 Antidiuretic hormone

(or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin)

ADH Peptide posterior pituitary Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in posterior pituitary
AVPRs, VACM-1 Renal tubules of nephrons of Kidneys (mainly) reabsorption of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
increase permeability of diastal tubule of nephrons (in Kidneys) to water
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary
17 Atrial natriuretic peptide

(or atriopeptin)

ANP Peptide heart ANP receptorcGMP increase sodium and GFR excretion, antagonize venal constriction, inhibit renin secretion
18 Brain natriuretic peptide BNP Peptide heart[dubious ] Cardiac myocytes NPR (To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

19 Calcitonin CT Peptide thyroid gland parafollicular cell CT receptor → cAMP Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+
20 Cholecystokinin CCK Peptide duodenum CCK receptor Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas
Release of bile from gallbladder
Hunger suppressant
21 Corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH Peptide hypothalamus CRF1 → cAMP Release ACTH from anterior pituitary
22 Cortistatin CORT Peptide cerebral cortex inhibitory neurons Somatostatin receptor depression of neuronal activity; induction of slow-wave sleep; reduction of locomotor activity; activation of cation selective currents not responsive to somatostatin
23 Enkephalin Peptide Kidney Chromaffin cells Opioid receptor Regulate pain
24 Endothelin Peptide Vascular endothelium Endothelial cells ET receptor Smooth muscle contraction of medium-sized vessels
25 Erythropoietin EPO Peptide kidney Extraglomerular mesangial cells EpoR Stimulate erythrocyte production
26 Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH Peptide anterior pituitary gonadotrope FSH receptor → cAMP In female: stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles in ovary.

In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes

27 Galanin GAL Peptide central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3 modulation and inhibition of action potentials in neurons
28 Gastric inhibitory polypeptide GIP Peptide mucosa of the duodenum and the jejunum K cell GIPR Induces insulin secretion
29 Gastrin GAS Peptide stomach, duodenum G cell CCK2 Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells
30 Ghrelin Peptide stomach P/D1 cell ghrelin receptor Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland

31 Glucagon GCG Peptide pancreas alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans Glucagon receptor → cAMP glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver , activates lipase enzyme in adipose tissue cells , increases blood glucose level , inhibits storage of triglyceride in liver
32 Glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP1 Peptide ileum L cells GLP1R, GLP2R pancreatic beta cells of Islets of Langerhans Stimulates the adenylyl cyclase pathway, resulting in increased synthesis and release of insulin
33 Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone GnRH Peptide hypothalamus GnRH receptor → IP3 pituitary gland Release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary.
34 Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone GHRH Peptide hypothalamus GHRH receptor → IP3 pituitary gland Release GH from anterior pituitary
35 Hepcidin HAMP Peptide liver ferroportin inhibits iron export from cells
36 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin HCG Peptide placenta syncytiotrophoblast cells LH receptor → cAMP promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy,Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo , serves as the basis of early pregnancy test
37 Human placental lactogen HPL Peptide placenta increase production of insulin and IGF-1

increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance

38 Growth hormone GH or hGH Peptide anterior pituitary somatotropes GH receptor stimulates growth and cell reproduction

Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver

39 Inhibin Peptide testes, ovary, fetus Sertoli cells of testes
granulosa cells of ovary
trophoblasts in foetus
anterior pituitary Inhibit production of FSH
40 Insulin

also called hypoglycemic hormone and anti ketogenic hormone ||

Peptide pancreas beta cells of Islets of Langerhans insulin receptor, IGF-1, IGF-2 Intake of glucose, promotes glycogenesis, prevents glycogenolysis and neoglucogenesis,

intake of lipids , synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes , helps in oxidation of sugar through Krebs cycle , inhibits prodiction of ketone bodies, inactivates phosphorylase enzyme , Other anabolic effects

41 Insulin-like growth factor

(or somatomedin)

IGF Peptide liver Hepatocytes insulin receptor, IGF-1 insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development

42 Leptin LEP Peptide adipose tissue LEP-R decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.
43 Lipotropin LPH Peptide anterior pituitary Corticotropes lipolysis and steroidogenesis,
stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin
44 Luteinizing hormone LH Peptide anterior pituitary gonadotropes LHR → cAMP In female: ovulation

In male: stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone

45 Melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH or α-MSH Peptide anterior pituitary/pars intermedia Melanotroph melanocortin receptor → cAMP melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair
46 Motilin MLN Peptide Small intestine Motilin receptor stimulates gastric activity
47 Orexin Peptide hypothalamus OX1, OX2 wakefulness and increased energy expenditure, increased appetite
48 Osteocalcin OCN Peptide Skeleton Osteoblasts Gprc6a Muscle Brain Pancreas Testes Favors muscle function, memory formation, testosterone synthesis and energy expenditure[1]
49 Oxytocin

(or pitocin)

OXT Peptide posterior pituitary Magnocellular neurosecretory cells OXT receptor → IP3 release breast milk

Stimulates contraction of cervix and vagina. Involved in orgasm, trust between people,[2] and circadian homeostasis (body temperature, activity level, wakefulness).[3]

50 Pancreatic polypeptide Peptide Pancreas PP cells pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 Self-regulation of pancreatic secretions (endocrine and exocrine). It also affects hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions.
51 Parathyroid hormone PTH Peptide parathyroid gland parathyroid chief cell PTH receptor → cAMP increase blood Ca2+:

(Slightly) decrease blood phosphate:

  • (decreased reuptake in kidney but increased uptake from bones
  • activate vitamin D )
52 Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide PACAP Peptide multiple ADCYAP1R1, VIPR1, VIPR2 Stimulates enterochromaffin-like cells
53 Prolactin

(or leuteotropic hormone)

PRL Peptide anterior pituitary, uterus lactotrophs of anterior pituitary
Decidual cells of uterus
PRL receptor milk production in mammary glands
sexual gratification after sexual acts
54 Prolactin-releasing hormone PRLH Peptide hypothalamus Release prolactin from anterior pituitary
55 Relaxin RLN Peptide Corpus luteum, Uterus, placenta, and Mammary gland Decidual cells RLN receptor Relaxation of muscle and ligament tissues in female humans as preparation for menstruation. Anticipatory release for ductus deferens in males. Cardiac vasodilator.
56 Renin Peptide Kidney Juxtaglomerular cells Activates the renin–angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen
57 Secretin SCT Peptide duodenum S cell SCT receptor Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands

Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice

58 Somatostatin

(or growth hormone–inhibiting hormone or

growth hormone release–inhibiting hormone or

somatotropin release–inhibiting factor or somatotropin release–inhibiting hormone)

GHIH or GHRIH or SRIF or SRIH Peptide hypothalamus, islets of Langerhans, gastrointestinal system delta cells in islets
Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus in hypothalamus
Somatostatin receptor Inhibit release of GH and TRH from anterior pituitary
Suppress release of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), enteroglucagon in gastrointestinal system
Lowers rate of gastric emptying

Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine[4]
Inhibit release of insulin from beta cells[5]
Inhibit release of glucagon from alpha cells[5]
Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas.

59 Thrombopoietin TPO Peptide liver, kidney, striated muscle Myocytes TPO receptor megakaryocytes produce platelets[6]
60 Thyroid-stimulating hormone

(or thyrotropin)

TSH Peptide anterior pituitary thyrotropes Thyrotropin receptor → cAMP thyroid gland secrete thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
61 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH Peptide hypothalamus Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons TRHR → IP3 anterior pituitary Release thyroid-stimulating hormone (primarily)
Stimulate prolactin release
62 Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP Peptide gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder
63 Guanylin GN Peptide gut guanylate cyclase 2C (heat stable enterotoxin receptor) regulates electrolyte and water transport in intestinal epithelia.
64 Uroguanylin UGN Peptide renal tissues guanylate cyclase 2C (heat stable enterotoxin receptor) regulates electrolyte and water transport in renal epithelia.


Name Chemical Class Abbreviation Tissue Cells Receptor Target Tissue Effect
Testosterone androgen testes, ovary Leydig cells AR libido, Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,

Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair.

Dehydroepiandrosterone androgen DHEA testes, ovary, kidney Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney
theca cells of ovary
Leydig cells of testes
AR Virilization, anabolic
Androstenedione androgen adrenal glands, gonads AR Substrate for estrogen
Dihydrotestosterone androgen DHT multiple AR 5-DHT or DHT is a male reproductive hormone that targets the prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, penis and scrotum and promotes growth/mitosis/cell maturation and differentiation. Testosterone is converted to 5-DHT by 5alpha-reductase, usually with in the target tissues of 5-DHT because of the need for high concentrations of 5-dht to produce the physiological effects.
Aldosterone mineralocorticoid adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa) MR Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney.

Estradiol estrogen E2 females: ovary, males testes females: granulosa cells, males: Sertoli cell ER Females:



Fluid balance:

Gastrointestinal tract:

  • reduce bowel motility
  • increase cholesterol in bile

Lung function:

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[8]

Estrone estrogen ovary granulosa cells, Adipocytes ER
Estriol estrogen E3 placenta syncytiotrophoblast ER
Cortisol glucocorticoid adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells) GR Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive

Progesterone progestogen ovary, adrenal glands, placenta (when pregnant) Granulosa cells theca cells of ovary PR Support pregnancy:[9]


Calcitriol secosteroid (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) skin/proximal tubule of kidneys VDR Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

Calcidiol secosteroid (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) skin/proximal tubule of kidneys VDR Inactive form of vitamin D3


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  2. ^ Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (June 2005). "Oxytocin increases trust in humans". Nature. 435 (7042): 673–6. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..673K. doi:10.1038/nature03701. PMID 15931222.
  3. ^ "Scientific American Mind, "Rhythm and Blues"; June/July 2007; Scientific American Mind; by Ulrich Kraft". Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
  4. ^ Colorado State University - Biomedical Hypertextbooks - Somatostatin
  5. ^ a b Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 5/5ch4/s5ch4_17". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.
  6. ^ Kaushansky K (May 2006). "Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (19): 2034–45. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052706. PMID 16687716.
  7. ^ Massaro D, Massaro GD (December 2004). "Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 287 (6): L1154-9. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00228.2004. PMID 15298854.
  8. ^ Pentikäinen V, Erkkilä K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L (May 2000). "Estradiol acts as a germ cell survival factor in the human testis in vitro". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 85 (5): 2057–67. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.5.6600. PMID 10843196.
  9. ^ a b Placental Hormones
  10. ^ Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.
  11. ^ Hould FS, Fried GM, Fazekas AG, Tremblay S, Mersereau WA (December 1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". The Journal of Surgical Research. 45 (6): 505–12. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(88)90137-0. PMID 3184927.