List of oldest buildings in Canada

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This is a list of the oldest surviving buildings and structures of significance in each province and territory of Canada.

Alberta[edit]

First Nations peoples in Alberta were generally nomadic and did not create permanent structures, however they did often occupy the same site annually for many generations, and created permanent markers in the form of tipi rings and medicine wheels. The first Europeans to build in Alberta were the fur traders of the North West Company who constructed the first trading posts in Alberta at Fort Chipewyan and Fort Vermilion in 1788. Few buildings from the fur trade era remain.

There is said to be 25 buildings built prior to 1882 still surviving in Alberta. Most buildings considered "historic" in Alberta are from the post-railway era (e.g. after 1885 in Calgary, after 1891 in Edmonton, etc.)

Building or Complex Built Location Architect
Father Lacombe Chapel 1861[1] St. Albert Fr. Albert Lacombe
Clerk's Quarters 1865[2] Fort Victoria George Flett
Rocky Mountain House Chimneys 1868[3] Rocky Mountain House Hudson's Bay Company
Hunt House 1876[4] Calgary Hudson's Bay Company
C.O. Card House 1887[5] Cardston
Banff Springs Hotel 1888 Banff Canadian Pacific Railway
Lougheed House 1891 Calgary James & Isabella Lougheed
Ralph Connor Church 1891[6] Canmore
Strathcona Hotel 1891 Edmonton Calgary & Edmonton Railway Co.
Lac La Biche Convent 1894[7] Lac La Biche Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Roland Michener House 1894[8] Lacombe
Union Bank 1899[9] Fort Macleod David Grier

British Columbia[edit]

Building Height
[m]
Floors Built City Architect
Fort Langley storehouse[10] 1 1840s[11] Fort Langley
Fort Kamloops log cabin 1840s Kamloops
St. Ann’s schoolhouse 1844 Victoria
Tod House 1851 Oak Bay
Helmcken House 1852 Victoria
Craigflower Manor[12] 2 1853 Victoria Hudson's Bay Company
The Bastion 3 1853-55 Nanaimo Hudson's Bay Company
St. John the Divine Church 1859 Maple Ridge[13][14]
Father Pandosy Mission[15] 1859 Kelowna
Dodd House 1859 Saanich
Fisgard Lighthouse 1860 Victoria
Race Rocks Lighthouse 1860 Great Race Rock
Naramata Heritage Inn & Spa 1909 Naramata
City Hall Museum 1912 Chilliwack
Brigadier Murphy Chilliwack
Building 24 Chilliwack

Manitoba[edit]

Building Height
[m]
Floors Built City Architect
Prince of Wales Fort 1731-41 near Churchill Royal Engineers
Lower Fort Gary 1831 to 1848 near Selkirk, Manitoba Hudson Bay Co.
St Andrews on the Red[16] 1 1849 RM of St Andrews
Vaughan Street Gaol[17] 1881 Winnipeg
Holy Trinity Anglican Church[18] 1 1884 Winnipeg Charles Wheeler
Neepawa County Courthouse 3 1884 Neepawa C. Osborn Wikenden
Saint-Léon Roman Catholic Church 2 1894 Saint-Léon
H. P. Tergesen General Store 1 1898 Gimli
Vendome Hotel 4 1898 Winnipeg Henry S. Griffiths
Eaton's Department Store* 46 9 1904 Winnipeg John Woodman
Royal Tower 48 10 1904 Winnipeg Frank Darling & John A. Pearson
228 Notre Dame 44 11 1911 Winnipeg
Confederation Building 46 12 1911 Winnipeg J. Wilson Gray
National Bank Building 50 13 1911 Winnipeg John D. Atchison
Electric Railway Chambers 45 12 1912 Winnipeg Pratt, Ross/Frost
Hotel Fort Garry 59 14 1913 Winnipeg Ross and MacFarlane
Marlbourgh Hotel 42 10 1913 Winnipeg J. Chisholm & Son
Paris Building 42 11 1915 Winnipeg Woodman & Carey
Bank of Hamilton Building 45 10 1916 Winnipeg John D. Atchison
Brant-Argyle School 2 1914 Argyle Frank R. Evans

New Brunswick[edit]

Before 1784, New Brunswick was part of the colony of Nova Scotia and the majority of the population was aboriginal. The native populations of the land that is now New Brunswick were a nomadic peoples and thus there are few remains of their settlements. However, in 1784 New Brunswick became its own colony due to an increasingly non-aboriginal population. Mostly forest until United Empire Loyalists started to arrive, the amount of European-style buildings were not constructed for the most part until after their arrival. Many Acadian homes and settlements were destroyed by the British during the expulsion of the Acadians known as the Great Expulsion from 1755 to 1763. The Acadians were a people of French descent that lived in New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia for over a century before the British took over the lands that were New France.

Building Height [m] Floors Built City Architect Notes
Treitz Haus 1769 Moncton The Eastern section of the building was completed in 1769 with the second addition completed in the 1820s.
John Dunn House 3 1784 St. Andrews John Dunn Significant in that it was possibly the first house built in Saint Andrews taller than two floors. A United Empire Loyalist, Dunn brought most of the materials to build the house with him from New York in 1784.
Odell House, Fredericton 3 1785 Fredericton The oldest house in Fredericton.
Smyth House 1787 Fredericton This house is an excellent example of loyalist construction in late 18th Century New Brunswick. Building out of necessity and with the materials one had to build with: Wood.
Reverend Samuel Andrews House 1790 Ministers Island
Steeves House Museum[19] 2 1812 Hillsborough
St. Andrews Blockhouse 1813 St. Andrews One of three that once guarded St. Andrews. However, it never saw battle.
Carleton Martello Tower 2 1815 Saint John
Loyalist House 1810-1817 Saint John David Daniel Merrit
Free Meeting House 1 1821 Moncton Constructed as a meeting place for all denominations as a place of worship until a church could be built for their respected use.
Williston House 2 1824 Miramichi Andrew Currie The oldest building in the Miramichi area.
St. John's Anglican (Stone) Church 1825 Saint John
Government House, Fredericton 1826-1828 Fredericton James Woolford Built after the former Lieutenant-Governors mansion burned to the ground in 1825.
Sir Howard Douglas Hall, University of New Brunswick 1826-27 Fredericton James Woolford Also known as "The Old Arts Building", it is the oldest building still officially in use by a university in Canada. It was designed by the same architect as Government House. The third floor was added to accommodate more staff and students in 1876-77.
Saint John County Court House 3 1829 Saint John John Cunningham Inside the courthouse is a free-standing spiral stairway, one of the largest in the country.
Charles Connell House 1839 Woodstock
Christ Church Cathedral 60 1853 Fredericton Frank Wills
Fredericton City Hall 47 4 1875-76 Fredericton McKean & Fairweather
Bank of New Brunswick (building) 2 1879 Saint John Henry F. Starbuck This building is intended to represent not only itself but the dozens of other buildings destroyed overnight by The Great Fire of Saint John, New Brunswick in 1877. Built on Prince William Street, the Bank of New Brunswick building is encompassed by blocks of other buildings constructed by several other architects between 1877 and 1881 in the area known today as the Trinity Royal Heritage Conservation Area.
New Brunswick Legislature 41 4 1882 Fredericton J.C. Dumaresq Constructed with stone after the first, built of wood, was destroyed by fire in 1880. Also of note on the Parliament Square site is the Old Education Building constructed in 1816 of stone with two more floors added in 1869. Also, the Departmental building, which was completed in 1888.
Marysville Cotton Mill 4 1883-85 Fredericton Greene and Company Mill Architects and Engineers The imposing, four-storey, red-brick cotton mill building features a flat-roofed central tower, and numerous multi-pane mullion window. It was Canada's second largest Cotton Mill at the time. The Cotton Mill opened in the spring of 1885, with full production being reached in November 1889. It now sits rehabilitated to serve as government offices.[20]

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit]

Building Height
[m]
Floors Built City Architect
Anderson House  ? 1805 St. John's James Anderson
Government House  ? 1831 St. John's
Hebron Moravian Mission  ? 1830s Hebron
Alexander House  ? 1835 Bonavista
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist 24 1847 St. John's George Gilbert Scott
Bank of British North America Building  ? 1849 St. John's William Howe Greene
Colonial Building  ? 1850 St. John's James Purcell
Church of St. James the Apostle  ? 1852 Battle Harbour William Grey
Basilica of St. John The Baptist 48 1855 St. John's J.P. Jones
Viking Houses ca. 1000 L'Anse aux Meadows
Point Amour lighthouse 32 1854-57 Point Amour Charles François Xavier Baby
Saint Bonaventure's College  ? 1858 St. John's

Northwest Territories[edit]

Building Height
[m]
Floors Built City Architect
The Wildcat Cafe  ? 1 1937 Yellowknife  ?

Nova Scotia[edit]

Building Built City Architect Notes Image
Fort Anne 1702 -1708[21] Fort Anne Remnants of the French fort were incorporated into the English structure. The Magazine was built in 1708.
deGannes-Cosby House 1708[22] Annapolis Royal Rebuilt following a fire in 1707. Original structure dated to 1693.
Adams-Ritchie House 1712[22] Annapolis Royal
Fort Edward Blockhouse 1750[23] Windsor The Blockhouse was erected in 1750 as part of the Fort Edward complex. An Acadian church was torn down to make way for the Fort. Most of the other buildings (Barracks, etc.) were lost to a fire in 1922.
St. Paul's Church 1750 Halifax St Pauls, Halifax.JPG
Sinclair Inn 1710, 1712 & 1781 [24] Annapolis Royal The main structure known as the Sinclair Inn dates to 1781. The building incorporates within its structure two earlier French period buildings - the Soullard (1710) and Skene (1712) houses. The dates have been verified by dendrochronology.
Halifax Town Clock 1803 Halifax Halifax Town Clock.jpg
Province House 1819 Halifax Province House (Nova Scotia).jpg
St. Mary’s Basilica 1829 Halifax St Marys, Halifax.JPG
All Saints Cathedral 1910 Halifax Cathedral Church All Saints.jpg

Ontario[edit]

Building Height
[m]
Floors Built City Architect Image
Peter Secord Grist Mill 1782-1783 Niagara on the Lake (St. Davids)
Mohawk Chapel 1785 Brantford Mohawk Chapel, Brantford, Ontario.jpg
Hawley House 1785 Bath
Nelles-Fitch House 1791 Grimsby
Lake Lodge 1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake (St. Davids)
Meyer's Mill 1792 Belleville
Old Hay Church[25] 2 1792 Adolphustown
Fairfield House 1793 Amherstview
De Puisaye House 1794 Niagara-on-the-Lake
Scadding Cabin 1794 Toronto ScaddingCabin.png
Brown-Joupien House 1796 back/1802 front St Catharines
Park House Museum 1796 Amherstburg
Whirlpool House 1796 Niagara Falls
Powder Magazine (Fort George) 1796 Niagara-on-the-Lake
Battlefield House 2 1796 Hamilton (Stoney Creek) Battlefield House.JPG
Backus Mill 2 1798 Norfolk County
Nelles Manor 2 1798 Grimsby
Gordon House 2 1798 Amherstburg
Duff Baby House 2 1798 Windsor Duff Baby House.jpg
Buchner House 1 1799 Niagara Falls
Daniel Reynolds House 1 1799 Prince Edward County
Field House 2 1800 Niagara-on-the-Lake
McFarland House 2 1800 Niagara-on-the-Lake
Old Stone Shop 1 1800 Grimsby
St. Andrews Church 1 1802 St. Andrews
Cline House 1 1803 Grimsby
Laura Secord House 1 1803 Queenston
Richard Hatt Building 1 1804 Dundas
Danner House 2 1805 Niagara Falls
McGregor-Cowan House 2 1805 Windsor
Tisdale House 2 1806 Ancaster
John Cox Cottage 1 1807 Toronto
Elm Bank Farm First House 1 1808 Toronto
Hamilton-Kormos House 2 1808 Queenston
Gibraltar Point Lighthouse 1808 Toronto
Rochleau House 3 1808 Kingston
Ball's Grist Mill 2 1809 Jordan
Dalziel Barn 3 1809 Vaughan
St. Mark's Anglican Church 3 1809 (founded 1791) Niagara-on-the-Lake
White Chapel 2 1809 Picton
Upper House 2 1809 Allanburg
Church House 2 1810 Niagara Falls
Corman House 2 1810 Stoney Creek
François Baby House 2 1812 Windsor
Lawson House 2 1812 Fort Erie
Lynde House 1812 Whitby
Pierre Belleperche House 1812 Windsor, Ontario
John Snyder House 1813 Colchester, Ontario
Fort York 1813 (built on site of 1793 garrison) Toronto
The Olde Angel Inn 1815 (Circa 1789) Niagara-on-the-Lake
Woodruff-Rigby House 1815 Niagara-on-the-Lake
Joseph Schneider Haus 2 1816 Kitchener
Belleview 2 1816 Amherstburg
Ham House 2 1816 Bath
Harmony Hall 2 1816 Ancaster
The Grange 3 1817 Toronto D'Arcy Boulton Jr
Christ Church 1819 Amherstburg
Barnum House 2 1819 Grafton, Ontario
Ebenezer Doan House 2 1819 East Gwillimbury
Campbell House 2 1822 Toronto Campbell House.JPG
St Mark's Anglican Church 1822 Port Hope
St. Thomas Anglican Church 1822 St. Thomas
John Moore House 2 1824 Sparta
St. Andrew's Anglican Church 1825 (founded in 1794) Grimsby
St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church 1825 Niagara Falls
St. Mary Magdalene Anglican Church 1825 Picton
Walbridge House 1825 Newcastle
Allan Macpherson House 2 1826 Napanee, Ontario
Bank of Upper Canada Building 3 1827 Toronto Bank of Upper Canada.JPG
Stone House currently the Bytown Museum 3 1827 Ottawa Thomas McKay
Osgoode Hall 1829-1832 Toronto 1OsgoodeHallToronto.jpg
Sharon Temple 1832 Sharon Ebenezer Doan
Fort Henry 1832 Kingston Royal Engineers
Toronto's First Post Office 3 1833 Toronto James Scott Howard First Toronto Post Office.JPG
Eldon House 1834 London
McKinnon-Eakin House 2 1835 (Unionville) Markham
Dundurn Castle 1835 Hamilton Robert Charles Wetherell
Haldimand House 1836-1842 Caledonia James Little
Rideau Hall 2 1838 Ottawa Thomas McKay
Bellevue House 3 1840 Kingston Charles Hales
Bristow's Inn 2 1840s Elmira Edward Bristow
Ruthven Park 2 1846 Cayuga John Latshaw
Dominion House 2 Before 1850 Windsor Jimmy Switchblade
Paris Old Town Hall 3 1854[26] Paris
Mackenzie Hall 1856 Windsor
Caledonia Town Hall 2 1857 Caledonia John Turner
Distillery District various 1859–1929 Toronto Various
Canadian Parliament buildings 92 13 1865 Ottawa John A. Pearson & Marchand
Pepper Hill 1870 Carlisle Unknown
St. James Cathedral 93 1874 Toronto Frederick Cumberland and Thomas Ridout
Mackenzie Building Royal Military College of Canada 1878 Kingston Robert Gage
Victoria Hall 1888 Hamilton William Stewart
Ontario Legislative Building 55 5 1893 Toronto
Old City Hall 104 5 1899 Toronto E. J. Lennox

Quebec[edit]

The first Europeans to arrive in Quebec were settlers from France. They founded Quebec City in 1608 and erected there the first foundations such as the Habitation made of wood and set up by Samuel de Champlain. Despite the founding of other significant settlements in New France in the 17th century, notably Trois-Rivières in 1634 and Montreal in 1642, there are only a few 17th century buildings that still survive outside the Capitale-Nationale region. Therefore, the oldest buildings that still remain standing in Quebec are found heavily in and around Quebec City. All such buildings date from the French regime and are protected as historical monuments under the law enforced by the Ministry of Culture and Communication of Quebec.[27]

Building Built City Architect Image
Maison des Jésuites-de-Sillery 1702-1733 Sillery, Quebec City Maison Jésuites devant.jpg
Maison Puiseaux 1637 Quebec City
Maison de madame de La Peltrie 1644 Quebec City
Basilique-cathédrale de Notre-Dame-de-Québec 1647 Quebec City Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry, Jean Baillairgé Cathédrale de Québec.jpg
Maison Delisle 1648 Deschambault-Grondines
Maison du Duc-de-Kent 1648 Quebec City
Maison Bouchard 1660 L'Isle-aux-Coudres
Maison LeBer-LeMoyne 1669 Montreal (Lachine) Jacques Le Ber, Charles Le Moyne Maison LeBer-LeMoyne 01.jpg
Manoir de Niverville 1668 Trois-Rivières
Maison Marcoux 1670 Quebec City
Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Anges 1671 Notre-Dame-des-Anges
Maison-Laberge 1674 L'Ange-Gardien
Moulin à vent de Grondines 1674 Deschambault-Grondines
Maison François-Jacquet-dit-Langevin 1675 Quebec City
Séminaire de Québec 1675 Quebec City François de Laval Québec-Grand-Séminaire-1.JPG
La Poudrière 1676 Desbiens
Manoir de Charleville 1677 Boischatel
Maison Amiot 1679 Quebec City
Sacristie de l'Hôpital-Général-de-Québec 1679 Notre-Dame-des-Anges Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Vallier Hôpital général de Québec.JPG
Bâtiment des Récollets de l'Hôpital-Général-de-Québec 1680 Notre-Dame-des-Anges Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Vallier Hôpital général de Québec.jpg
Maison L'Âtre 1680 Saint-Famille
Maison Rageot 1682 Quebec City
Maison Chavigny-Gosselin 1683 Quebec City
Maison Louis-Fornel 1683 Quebec City
Maison Louis-Jolliet 1683 Quebec City
Maison Frérot 1683 Quebec City
Maison Maheu-Couillard 1683 Quebec City
Maison Hazeur 1684 Quebec City
Maison Delage 1684 Quebec City
Tours du fort des Messieurs de Saint-Sulpice 1684 Montreal
Vieux-Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice 1684 Montreal Society of Saint-Sulpice Montreal 13 db.jpg
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Quebec City 1687 Quebec City Québec-Place Royale 2011.JPG
Maison Saint-Gabriel 1698 Montreal Marguerite Bourgeoys Maison Saint-Gabriel 02.jpg
Maison Lamontagne 1744 Rimouski Maison Lamontagne.jpg
Maison Routhier 1755 Sainte-Foy Maison Routhier.JPG

Saskatchewan[edit]

Building Height [m] Floors Built City Architect Image
Holy Trinity Anglican Church 1854 Stanley Mission The Rev. Robert Hunt Hly-trin-ch.jpg
Mission of St. Antoine de Padoue[28]  ? 1 1884 Batoche Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Ludger Gareau
Marr Residence  ? 2 1885 Saskatoon Marr Residence.jpg
All Saints Anglican Church 1887 Katepwa Beach
Almighty Voice Jailhouse 1880 Duck Lake [29]
Powder Magazine 1890 Cumberland House [30]
Territorial Administration Building  ? 2 1891 Regina Thomas Fuller
Jean Caron Sr. Farm Home[31] 1895 Batoche Jean Caron Sr. [32]
All Saints Anglican Church 1 1896 Duck Lake
Hudson's Bay Company Store 1897 Fort Qu'Appelle FortQu'AppelleHBC.JPG
Motherwell Homestead 1897 Abernethy William Richard Motherwell [33]
Addison Sod House 1909-11 Kindersley James Addison
Saskatchewan Legislative Building 53 3 1912 Regina Edward and William Sutherland Maxwell Saskatchewan legislative building.jpg
Hotel Saskatchewan 53 12 1927 Regina Ross and Macdonald Hotel Saskatchewan, circa 1930.jpg
Hotel Senator  ?  ? 1908 Saskatoon Walter William LaChance Senator Hotel.jpg
Hotel Bessborough 70.7 14 1931 Saskatoon Archibald and Schofield Hotel Bessborough rear 2.jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Historic Places Canada Access date: 2015-06-13
  2. ^ About Victoria Settlement Access date: 2015-06-13
  3. ^ Parks Canada Access date: 2015-06-10
  4. ^ "Calgary's oldest building may be doomed". CBC News. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  5. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date: 2015-06-13
  6. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date: 2015-06-13
  7. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date: 2015-06-11
  8. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date: 2015-06-13
  9. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date: 2015-06-13
  10. ^ Canada.com Access date: 2009-10-17
  11. ^ Canada.com A Top 40 list of B.C.’s oldest buildings Access Date: 2009-10-17
  12. ^ BritishColumbia.com Historic Craigflower Manor Access date: 2009-10-17
  13. ^ St John the Divine Anglican Church http://stainedglasscanada.ca/site.php?site=247
  14. ^ St John the Divine, Medical and British Columbia History http://stainedglasscanada.ca/site.php?site=246
  15. ^ Okanagan Historical Society Access date: 2009-10-17
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ http://www.virtual.heritagewinnipeg.com/vignettes/vignettes_125W.htm
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ http://www.steeveshousemuseum.ca/
  20. ^ http://www.historicplaces.ca/en/rep-reg/place-lieu.aspx?id=12664
  21. ^ "Fort Anne National Historic Site of Canada". Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  22. ^ a b "Welcome to the Town of Annapolis Royal > Heritage Buildings & Awards". 
  23. ^ Parks Canada, Fort Edward NHS http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/ns/edward/natcul/natcul1.aspx
  24. ^ "Dendroarchaeological investigation of the Sinclair Inn, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia" (pdf). Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  25. ^ Canadian Register of Historic Places
  26. ^ MacRae, Marion (1983). Cornerstones of Order. University of Michigan: C. Irwin. pp. 168–170. ISBN 9780772013873. 
  27. ^ [3]
  28. ^ Parks Canada Batoche National Historic Site Access date 2009-06-30
  29. ^ Historic Places Canada Access Date June 30, 2009
  30. ^ Canada's Historic Places Access date 2015-06-10
  31. ^ [Parks Canada - Education Program, 2009 Parks Canada Batoche National Historic Site] Access date 2009-06-30
  32. ^ Jean Caron Farm house Saskatoon Gen Web Image Access date 2009-06-30
  33. ^ Virtual Saskatchewan Motherwell Homestead 2009-06-30
  • "Architecture in Canada" The Canadian Encyclopedia
  • Kalman, Harold D. A History of Canadian Architecture. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Canada by Design: Parliament Hill, Ottawa at Library and Archives Canada
  • Baker, Marilyn, Manitoba's Third Legislative Building: Symbol in Stone:The Art and Politics of a Public Building, Hyperion Press, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1986
  • Cameron, Stanley, Stones of History: Canada's Houses of Parliament, Film Board of Canada
  • Denby & Kilbourn, Toronto Observed: Its Architecture, Patrons, and History,Oxford University Press, Toronto 1986
  • Edwards, Gregory, Hidden Cities: Art & Design in Architectural Details of Vancouver & Victoria, Talonbooks, Vancouver, BC 1991.
  • Emporis.com
  • Kalman, Phillips and Ward, Exploring Vancouver: The Essential Architectural Guide, UBC Press, Vancouver 1993
  • Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Architectural Sculpture in America, unpublished manuscript
  • Maitland, Hucker & Ricketts, A Guide to Canadian Architectural Styles, broadview press, Peterborough, ON 1992
  • McHugh, Patricia, Toronto Architecture: A City Guide, McClelland & Stewart Inc., Toronto 1989
  • McMullen, Barbara, Ottawa's Terra Cotta Architecture: Two Walking Tours, Heritage Ottawa, Ottawa, 2003
  • skyscraperpage.com
  • Taggart, Jim, The Architecture of Downtown Victoria, Blue Steps - Pacific Walking Tour Guides, Vancouver, BC 2000
  • The Notman Archives.

External links[edit]