|Book||Gospel of Matthew|
|Christian Bible part||New Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||1|
Matthew 10 is the tenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible. Matthew 10 comes after Jesus had called some of his disciples and before the meeting with the disciples of John the Baptist. This section is also known as the Mission Discourse or the Little Commission, in contrast to the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18–20). The Little Commission is directed specifically to the Jewish believers of the early church, while the Great Commission is to all nationalities. The Pulpit Commentary suggests that Jesus' message in this discourse "was hardly likely to have been remembered outside Jewish Christian circles".
Matthew names the twelve apostles, or "twelve disciples", in verses 1 to 4 and the remainder of the chapter consists almost entirely of sayings attributed to Jesus. In this chapter, Jesus sends out the apostles to heal and preach throughout the region and gives them careful instruction. Many of the sayings found in Matthew 10 are also found in Luke 10 and the Gospel of Thomas, which is not found in the accepted canon of the New Testament.
Some early manuscripts containing this chapter are:
- Papyrus 110 (3rd/4th century; extant verses 13–15, 25–27)
- Uncial 0171 (~300; extant verses 17–23, 25–32)
- Codex Vaticanus (325–350)
- Codex Sinaiticus (330–360; complete)
- Codex Bezae (~400)
- Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (~450; complete)
- Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus (6th century)
The text in verse 1 refers to "his twelve disciples" (Greek: τους δωδεκα μαθητας αυτου, tous dodeka mathetas autou). Verse 2 calls them "the twelve apostles":
Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. (King James Version)
Verse 5 refers to them simply as "the twelve".
- nor bag for your journey, nor two tunics, nor sandals, nor staffs; for a worker is worthy of his food.
- "Bag" (KJV: "Scrip"): Called "tarmil" in Hebrew as found in one Jewish commentary, it is a large leather bag, which shepherds and travelers carried their food, and other things, hanging it around their necks. The disciples were neither to carry money with them, nor any provisions for their journey.
- "Two tunics" (KJV: "two coats"): supposedly one to wear during travel, and another to put on, when they came to their quarters. The disciples were not allowed change of raiment, either because superfluous, or too magnificent to appear in, or too troublesome to carry.
- "Staffs" (KJV: "staves"): that is, more than one staff, which was sufficient to assist and lean upon during the journey. According to Mark, one staff was allowed, as though they might take a traveling staff, but not staffs for defense or to fight with (Matthew 26:55). Now these several things were forbidden them, partly because they would be burdensome to them in traveling; and partly because they were not to be out any long time, but were quickly to return again; and mainly to teach them to live and depend upon divine providence. Since they were to take neither money, nor provisions with them, and were also to preach the Gospel freely, they might reasonably ask how they should be provided for, and supported, so Jesus said, that they should not be anxiously concerned about that, as he would take care that they had a suitable supply and would so influence and dispose the minds of such, to whom they should minister, as that they should have all necessary provisions made for them, without any care or expense of theirs.
- "For a worker is worthy of his food" (KJV: "For the workman is worthy of his meat"): Jesus uses this proverbial expression to remark that the disciples are workmen, or laborers in his vineyard, and for doing their duty, they were entitled to all the necessaries of life. This is their due and justified to give it to them, and on which they might depend. So that this whole context is so far from militating against a minister's maintenance by the people, that it most strongly establishes it; for if the apostles were not to take any money or provisions with them, to support themselves with, it clearly follows, that it was the will of Christ, that they should live by the Gospel, upon those to whom they preached and though they were not to make gain of the Gospel, or preach it for filthy lucre's sake, yet they might expect a comfortable subsistence, at the charge of the people, to whom they ministered, and which was their duty to provide for them.
- You will be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.
Cross references: Matthew 27:2
- "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send [or bring] peace, but a sword."
This is a much-discussed passage, often explained in terms of the "apocalyptic-eschatological" context of the 1st century.
R. T. France explains the verse, in context with the subsequent verse 35: "The sword Jesus brings is not here military conflict, but, as vv. 35–36 show, a sharp social division which even severs the closest family ties. … Jesus speaks here, as in the preceding and following verses, more of a division in men’s personal response to him."
The text of Matthew's Gospel in the Book of Kells alters gladium, the Vulgate translation of makhairan "sword", to gaudium "joy", resulting in a reading of "I came not [only] to bring peace, but [also] joy".
Parallels in the Gospel of Thomas
Matthew 10 contains many parallels found in the Gospel of Thomas.
- Matthew 10:16 parallels saying 39 in the Gospel of Thomas.
- Matthew 10:37 parallels sayings 55 and 101
- Matthew 10:27b parallels saying 33a.
- Matthew 10:34–36 parallels saying 16.
- Matthew 10:26 parallels saying 5b.
- Pulpit Commentary on Matthew 10, accessed 3 January 2017
- Matthew 10:10 NKJV
- Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Sheviith, c. 2. sect. 8. & in Celim. c. 16. 4. & 24. 11. & Negaim. c. 11. sect. 11.
- John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible – Matthew 10:10
- Matthew 10:18 NKJV
- Matthew 10:34 KJV
- Charles Mathewes. Understanding Religious Ethics. p. 186.
- Cim, David. "The sword motif in Matthew 10:34". Theological Studies; Vol 56, No 1 (2000), 84-104. School of Theology, Australian Catholic University. doi:10.4102/hts.v56i1.1698.
- France, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, Vol 1: Matthew (1985). 2nd ed (2008), p. 192. ISBN 978-1844742677.
- Nathan, George Jean Nathan; Henry Louis Mencken (1951). The American Mercury. p. 572.
The compilers of the late seventh century manuscript, The Book of Kells, refused to adopt St. Jerome's phrase "I come not to bring peace but a sword" (" ... non pacem sed gladium"). To them the phrase made no sense and they altered it ...
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| Chapters of the New Testament
Gospel of Matthew