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A mufti (//; Arabic: مفتي muftī; Turkish: müftü) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh). Muftis are jurists qualified to give authoritative legal opinions known as fatwas. Historically, they were members of the ulama ranking above qadis.
A mufti will generally go through a course in iftaa, the issuance of fatwa, and the person should fulfill the following conditions set by scholars in order that he may be able to issue verdicts (fatwas):
- Knowing Arabic,
- Mastering the study of principles of jurisprudence,
- Having sufficient knowledge of social realities,
- Mastering the study of comparative religions,
- Mastering the foundations of social sciences,
- Mastering the study of Maqasid ash-Shari`ah (Objectives of Shari`ah),
- Mastering the study of Hadith,
- Mastering legal maxims.
According to University of Pennsylvania professor George Makdisi, the term mufti is a direct equivalent of the later western term professor, meaning one who is qualified to profess independent opinion on a subject (same as fatwa). According to him, this was the highest level of academic credentials in classical Islamic academic tradition, above mudarris (doctor meaning teacher), and faqih (meaning Master)--a hierarchy later adopted in Western academic tradition.
Mufti, Mirza Huseyn Qayibzade of Tbilisi
Travelling Mufti's of the Ottoman Empire
Mufti, Jakub Szynkiewicz
Mufti, Absattar Derbisali
Tomb of Mufti in Indonesia
Mufti, Talgat Tadzhuddin
Mufti, Ebrahim Desai
- "mufti". thefreedictionary. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton (2016). A History of the Modern Middle East. Westview Press. p. 561.
- Reaching the status of mufti by Abdurrahman ibn Yusuf Mangera.
- Ask the scholar, Islam online
- George Makdisi (1989) Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West
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