Farḍ (Arabic: فرض) or farīḍah (فريضة) or fardh in Islam is a religious duty commanded by God. The word is also used in Turkish, Persian, Pashto, Urdu (spelled farz), and Malay (spelled fardu or fardhu) in the same meaning. Muslims who obey such commands or duties are said to receive hasanat (حسنة), ajr (أجر) or thawab (ثواب) each time for each good deed.
Fard or its synonym wājib (واجب) is one of the five types of ahkam (أحكام) into which fiqh categorizes acts of every Muslim. The Hanafi fiqh, however, does not consider both terms to be synonymous, and makes a distinction between wajib and fard, the latter being obligatory and the former slightly lesser degree than being obligatory.
Individual duty and sufficiency
The Fiqh distinguishes two sorts of duties:
- Individual duty or farḍ al-'ayn (فرض العين) relates is required to perform, such as daily prayer (salat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if the person can afford the journey (hajj). An individual not performing this will be punished in the afterlife (but can be excused on basis of incapability), but if he enjoins and fulfils its necessity will be rewarded.
- Sufficiency duty or farḍ al-kifāya (فرض الكفاية) is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (ummah). The classic example for it is janaza (Funeral prayer): the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfill it.
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