|Part of a series on|
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on prisoners by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps mainly between 1942 and 1945. There were 15,754 documented victims, of various nationalities and age groups, although the true number is believed to be more extensive. Many survived, with only a quarter of documented victims killed. Survivors generally experienced severe permanent injuries.
At Auschwitz and other camps, under the direction of Eduard Wirths, selected inmates were subjected to various experiments that were designed to help German military personnel in combat situations, develop new weapons, aid in the recovery of military personnel who had been injured, and to advance Nazi racial ideology and eugenics, including the twin experiments of Josef Mengele. Aribert Heim conducted similar medical experiments at Mauthausen.
After the war, these crimes were tried at what became known as the Doctors' Trial, and revulsion at the abuses perpetrated led to the development of the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics. The Nazi physicians in the Doctors' Trial argued that military necessity justified their experiments, and compared their victims to collateral damage from Allied bombings.
The table of contents of a document from the Subsequent Nuremberg trials prosecution includes titles of the sections that document medical experiments revolving around: food, seawater, epidemic jaundice, sulfanilamide, blood coagulation and phlegmon. According to the indictments at the subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments included the following:
Blood coagulation experiments
Sigmund Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal, a substance made from beet and apple pectin, which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or surgery. Subjects were given a Polygal tablet, shot through the neck or chest, or had their limbs amputated without anesthesia. Rascher published an article on his experience of using Polygal, without detailing the nature of the human trials, and set up a company staffed by prisoners to manufacture the substance.
Bruno Weber was the head of the Hygienic Institution at Block 10 in Auschwitz and injected his subjects with blood types that differed from their own. This caused the blood cells to congeal, and the blood was studied. When the Nazis removed blood from someone, they often entered a major artery, causing the subject to die of major blood loss.
Bone, muscle, and nerve transplantation experiments
From about September 1942 to about December 1943 experiments were conducted at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, for the benefit of the German Armed Forces, to study bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and bone transplantation from one person to another. In these experiments, subjects had their bones, muscles and nerves removed without anesthesia. As a result of these operations, many victims suffered intense agony, mutilation, and permanent disability.
On 12 August 1946, a survivor named Jadwiga Kamińska gave a deposition about her time at Ravensbrück concentration camp, describing how she was operated on twice. Both operations involved one of her legs, and, although she never describes herself as having any knowledge as to what exactly the procedure was, she explained that both times she was in extreme pain and developed a fever post surgery, but was given little to no aftercare. Kamińska describes being told that she had been operated on simply because she was a "young girl and a Polish patriot". She describes how her leg oozed pus for months after the operations.
Prisoners were also experimented on by having their bone marrow injected with bacteria to study the effectiveness of new drugs being developed for use in the battle fields. Those who survived remained permanently disfigured.
Experiments on twins
Headed by Josef Mengele from 1943–44, twin experiments were of particular interest as one twin could serve as subject with the other as the control. This research also hoped to gain insight in how Germans could reproduce more twins. The experiments included amputating healthy limbs, deliberately infecting them with diseases such as typhus, blood transfusions from one twin to the other, and sewing twins together to create conjoined twins. Eva-Mozes Kor, a survivor, also claimed that Mengele cross-transfused the blood of opposite sex twins to change their respective sexes, experimented on twins' genitals and attempted to attach the urinary tract of a 7 year old girl to her own colon. Most twins died during these procedures and if one survived, they would be killed and dissected for comparative post-mortem reports.
However, some were killed without experimental "purpose", with 14 twins having their hearts injected with chloroform in one night.
Out of the 1,500 twins subject to these experiments, only 200 survived.
In 1941, the Luftwaffe conducted experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia. There were 360 to 400 experiments and 280 to 300 victims, indicating that some victims suffered more than one experiment.
|Attempt no.||Water temperature||Body temperature when removed from the water||Body temperature at death||Time in water||Time of death|
|5||5.2 °C (41.4 °F)||27.7 °C (81.9 °F)||27.7 °C (81.9 °F)||66'||66'|
|13||6 °C (43 °F)||29.2 °C (84.6 °F)||29.2 °C (84.6 °F)||80'||87'|
|14||4 °C (39 °F)||27.8 °C (82.0 °F)||27.5 °C (81.5 °F)||95'|
|16||4 °C (39 °F)||28.7 °C (83.7 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||60'||74'|
|23||4.5 °C (40.1 °F)||27.8 °C (82.0 °F)||25.7 °C (78.3 °F)||57'||65'|
|25||4.6 °C (40.3 °F)||27.8 °C (82.0 °F)||26.6 °C (79.9 °F)||51'||65'|
|4.2 °C (39.6 °F)||26.7 °C (80.1 °F)||25.9 °C (78.6 °F)||53'||53'|
Another study placed prisoners naked in the open air for several hours with temperatures as low as −6 °C (21 °F). Besides studying the physical effects of cold exposure, the experimenters also assessed different methods of rewarming survivors. "One assistant later testified that some victims were thrown into boiling water for rewarming."
Beginning in August 1942, at the Dachau camp, prisoners were forced to sit in tanks of freezing water for up to three hours. After subjects were frozen, they then underwent different methods for rewarming. Many subjects died in this process. Others were also forced to stand naked outside in below freezing temperatures, with many screaming in pain as their bodies froze. In a letter from 10 September 1942, Rascher describes an experiment on intense cooling performed in Dachau where people were dressed in fighter pilot uniforms and submerged in freezing water. Rascher had some of the victims completely underwater and others only submerged up to the head.
The freezing and hypothermia experiments were conducted for the Nazi high command to simulate the conditions the armies suffered on the Eastern Front, as the German forces were ill-prepared for the cold weather they encountered. Many experiments were conducted on captured Soviet troops; the Nazis wondered whether their genetics gave them superior resistance to cold. The principal locales were Dachau and Auschwitz. Sigmund Rascher, an SS doctor based at Dachau, reported directly to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and publicised the results of his freezing experiments at the 1942 medical conference entitled "Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter". Himmler suggested that the victims could be warmed by forcing them to engage in sexual contact with other victims. An example included how a hypothermic victim was placed between two naked Romani women.
High altitude experiments
In early 1942, prisoners at Dachau concentration camp were used by Sigmund Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. A low-pressure chamber containing these prisoners was used to simulate conditions at altitudes of up to 68,000 feet (21,000 m). It was rumored that Rascher performed vivisections on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment. Of the 200 subjects, 80 died outright, and the others were murdered. In a letter from 5 April 1942 between Rascher and Heinrich Himmler, Rascher explains the results of a low-pressure experiment that was performed on people at Dachau Concentration camp in which the victim was suffocated while Rascher and another unnamed doctor took note of his reactions. The person was described as 37 years old and in good health before being murdered. Rascher described the victim's actions as he began to lose oxygen and timed the changes in behavior. The 37-year-old began to wiggle his head at four minutes; a minute later Rascher observed that he was suffering from cramps before falling unconscious. He describes how the victim then lay unconscious, breathing only three times per minute, until he stopped breathing 30 minutes after being deprived of oxygen. The victim then turned blue and began foaming at the mouth. An autopsy followed an hour later.
In a letter from Himmler to Rascher on 13 April 1942, Himmler ordered Rascher to continue the high altitude experiments and to continue experimenting on prisoners condemned to death and to "determine whether these men could be recalled to life". If a victim could be successfully resuscitated, Himmler ordered that he be pardoned to "concentration camp for life".
From about July 1944 to about September 1944, experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp to study various methods of making seawater drinkable. These victims were subject to deprivation of all food and only given the filtered seawater. At one point, a group of roughly 90 Roma were deprived of food and given nothing but seawater to drink by Hans Eppinger, leaving them gravely injured. They were so dehydrated that others observed them licking freshly mopped floors in an attempt to get drinkable water.
A Holocaust survivor named Joseph Tschofenig wrote a statement on these seawater experiments at Dachau. Tschofenig explained how while working at the medical experimentation stations he gained insight into some of the experiments that were performed on prisoners, namely those in which they were forced to drink salt water. Tschofenig also described how victims of the experiments had trouble eating and would desperately seek out any source of water, including old floor rags. Tschofenig was responsible for using the X-ray machine in the infirmary and describes how, even though he had insight into what was going on, he was powerless to stop it. He gives the example of a patient in the infirmary who was sent to the gas chambers by Sigmund Rascher simply because he witnessed one of the low-pressure experiments.
Sterilization and fertility experiments
From about March 1941 to about January 1945, sterilization experiments were conducted at Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, and other places. The purpose of these experiments was to develop a method of sterilization which would be suitable for sterilizing millions of people with a minimum of time and effort. The targets for sterilization included Jewish and Roma populations. These experiments were conducted by means of X-ray, surgery and various drugs. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Sterilization was not limited to these experiments, with the Nazi government already sterilizing 400,000 people as part of its compulsory sterilization program.
One prominent scientist in this domain was Carl Clauberg, who initially X-rayed women to make sure that there was no obstruction to their ovaries. Over the next three to five sessions, he injected caustic substances into their uteruses without anesthetics. Many died, others suffered permanent injuries and infections and about 700 were successfully sterilized. The women who stood against him and his experiments or were deemed as unfit test subjects were sent to the gas chambers.
Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were similarly successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Those who received cancer were vivisected, with their cervixes and wombs removed Therefore, radiation treatment became the favored choice of sterilization. Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person's ability to produce ova or sperm, sometimes administered through deception. Many suffered severe radiation burns.
The Nazis also implemented X-ray radiation treatment in their search for mass sterilization. They gave the women abdomen X-rays, men received them on their genitalia, for abnormal periods of time in attempt to invoke infertility. After the experiment was complete, they surgically removed their reproductive organs, without anesthesia, for lab analysis.
M.D. William E. Seidelman, a professor from the University of Toronto, in collaboration with Dr. Howard Israel of Columbia University, published a report on an investigation on the medical experimentation performed in Austria under the Nazi regime. In that report he mentions a Doctor Hermann Stieve, who used the war to experiment on live humans. Stieve specifically focused on the reproductive system of women. He would tell women their date of death in advance, and he would evaluate how their psychological distress would affect their menstruation cycles. After they were executed, he would dissect and examine their reproductive organs to investigate this hypothesis. Some of the women were raped after they were told the date when they would be killed so that Stieve could study the path of sperm through their reproductive system.
Anatomist Hermann Stieve is alleged to have carried out experiments which involved allowing SS officers to rape female test subjects in order to study sperm migration. However, there is no evidence that Stieve ever studied sperm migration, a subject not mentioned in his papers.
From about July 1942 to about September 1943, experiments to investigate the effectiveness of sulfonamide, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, were conducted at Ravensbrück. Wounds inflicted on the subjects were infected with bacteria such as Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens (a major causative agent in gas gangrene) and Clostridium tetani, the causative agent in tetanus. Circulation of blood was interrupted by tying off blood vessels at both ends of the wound to create a condition similar to that of a battlefield wound. Researchers also aggravated the subjects' infection by forcing wood shavings and ground glass into their wounds. The infection was treated with sulfonamide and other drugs to determine their effectiveness.
Experiments on homosexuals
The Danish endocrinologist Carl Vaernet developed an artificial male sex gland, a capsule that slowly released testosterone when implanted under the skin. In 1944, Vaernet proposed to deputy Reich SS Physician Ernst-Robert Grawitz that the capsule could convert homosexual men into heterosexuals. At Buchenwald concentration camp, with encouragement of Heinrich Himmler and the support of camp doctor Gerhard Schiedlausky, Vaernet implanted capsules in at least ten homosexual prisoners. Vaernet claimed that "successes" with the implants occurred, presumably due to positive reports from prisoners hoping to receive a release from the camp, or knowing it would increase their odds of survival.
According to notes written by the senior doctor at Buchenwald dated 3 January 1945, at least one man died during the experiment in December 1944 "of heart failure associated with infectious enteritis and general bodily weakness". Eugen Kogon reported that a second man died as a result of the operations due to festering inflammation of cell tissue, presumably after 3 January 1945. Little is known about the fate of the other victims; none are known to have applied for financial compensation after 1945.: 282 The hypothesis that circulating hormones determined or cured homosexuality was discredited by later scientific research, and hormonal exposure prior to birth became a far more influential hypothesis.: 120
Castration of homosexual men was also commonly performed in Nazi Germany. This began with "voluntary" castrations, but was later performed in concentration camps and prisons. It was believed castration, which reduces male sex drive, would prevent men from being "infected" with homosexuality by gay men.: 113 This idea was most influential in Nazi beliefs about homosexuality, rather than biological (genetic or prenatal environmental) theories of homosexuality.: 171
In mid-1942 in Baranowicze, occupied Poland, head injury experiments were conducted in a small building behind the private home occupied by a known Nazi SD Security Service officer, in which "a young boy of eleven or twelve [was] strapped to a chair so he could not move. Above him was a mechanized hammer that every few seconds came down upon his head." The boy was driven insane from the torture. Inmates were also subjected to various diseases which were given in the form of injections. At the German concentration camps of Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Natzweiler, Buchenwald, and Neuengamme, scientists tested immunization compounds and serums for the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases, including malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and infectious hepatitis.
From about February 1942 to about April 1945, malaria experiments were performed on over 1,200 inmates in Dachau concentration camp. Healthy inmates had their hands and arms confined in cages filled with malaria mosquitoes. Upon contracting the disease, they were treated with synthetic drugs, at doses ranging from high to lethal. More than half died as a result. Other inmates were left with permanent disabilities. In an affidavit, presented at the Doctors' Trial, Oswald Pohl called the Dachau malaria experiment's the "largest experiment" and reported it as the cause for his protest to Heinrich Himmler against such experiments because "Schilling continually asked for prisoners." From June 1943 until January 1945 at the concentration camps, Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler, experimentation with 'epidemic jaundice' (i.e. viral hepatitis) was conducted. Test subjects were injected with the disease in order to discover new inoculations for the condition. These tests were conducted for the benefit of the German Armed Forces. Most died in the experiments, whilst others survived, experiencing great pain and suffering.
Somewhere between December 1943 and October 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of various poisons. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In September 1944, experimental subjects were shot with poisonous bullets, suffered torture, and often died. Some male Jewish prisoners had poisonous substances scrubbed or injected into their skin, causing boils filled with black fluid to form. These experiments were heavily documented as well as photographed by the Nazis.
At various times between September 1939 and April 1945, many experiments were conducted at Sachsenhausen, Natzweiler, and other camps to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by mustard gas. Test subjects were deliberately exposed to mustard gas and other vesicants (e.g. Lewisite), which inflicted severe chemical burns. The victims' wounds were then tested to find the most effective treatment for the mustard gas burns. From around November 1943 to around January 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. These burns were inflicted on prisoners using phosphorus material extracted from incendiary bombs. Some female prisoners of Block 10 were also subject to electroshock therapy. These women were often sick and underwent this experimentation before being sent to the gas chambers and killed.
Other documented transcriptions from Heinrich Himmler include phrases such as "These researches… can be performed by us with particular efficiency because I personally assumed the responsibility for supplying asocial individuals and criminals who deserve only to die from concentration camps for these experiments." Many of the subjects died as a result of the experiments conducted by the Nazis, while many others were murdered after the tests were completed to study the effects post mortem. Those who survived were often left mutilated, with permanent disability, weakened bodies, and mental distress. On 19 August 1947, the doctors captured by Allied forces were put on trial in USA vs. Karl Brandt et al., commonly known as the Doctors' Trial. At the trial, several of the doctors argued in their defense that there was no international law regarding medical experimentation. Some doctors also claimed that they had been doing the world a favor. An SS doctor was quoted saying that "Jews were the festering appendix in the body of Europe." He then went on to argue he was doing the world a favor by eliminating them.
The issue of informed consent had previously been controversial in German medicine in 1900, when Albert Neisser infected patients (mainly prostitutes) with syphilis without their consent. Despite Neisser's support from most of the academic community, public opinion, led by psychiatrist Albert Moll, was against Neisser. While Neisser went on to be fined by the Royal Disciplinary Court, Moll developed "a legally based, positivistic contract theory of the patient-doctor relationship" that was not adopted into German law. Eventually, the minister for religious, educational, and medical affairs issued a directive stating that medical interventions other than for diagnosis, healing, and immunization were excluded under all circumstances if "the human subject was a minor or not competent for other reasons", or if the subject had not given his or her "unambiguous consent" after a "proper explanation of the possible negative consequences" of the intervention, though this was not legally binding.
In response, Drs. Leo Alexander and Andrew Conway Ivy, the American Medical Association representatives at the Doctors' Trial, drafted a ten-point memorandum entitled Permissible Medical Experiment that went on to be known as the Nuremberg Code. The code calls for such standards as voluntary consent of patients, avoidance of unnecessary pain and suffering, and that there must be a belief that the experimentation will not end in death or disability. The Code was not cited in any of the findings against the defendants and never made it into either German or American medical law. This code comes from the Nuremberg Trials where the most heinous of Nazi leaders were put on trial for their war crimes.
Modern ethical issues
Andrew Conway Ivy stated the Nazi experiments were of no medical value. Data obtained from the experiments, however, has been used and considered for use in multiple fields, often causing controversy. Some object to the data's use purely on ethical grounds, disagreeing with the methods used to obtain it, while others have rejected the research only on scientific grounds, criticizing methodological inconsistencies. Those in favor of using the data argue that if it has practical value to save lives, it would be equally unethical not to use it. Arnold S. Relman, editor of The New England Journal of Medicine from 1977 until 1991, refused to allow the journal to publish any article that cited the Nazi experiments.
"I don't want to have to use the Nazi data, but there is no other and will be no other in an ethical world ... not to use it would be equally bad. I'm trying to make something constructive out of it."
Dr John Hayward, justifying citing the Dachau freezing experiments in his research.
The results of the Dachau freezing experiments have been used in some late 20th century research into the treatment of hypothermia; at least 45 publications had referenced the experiments as of 1984, though the majority of publications in the field did not cite the research. Those who have argued in favor of using the research include Robert Pozos from the University of Minnesota and John Hayward from the University of Victoria. In a 1990 review of the Dachau experiments, Robert Berger concludes that the study has "all the ingredients of a scientific fraud" and that the data "cannot advance science or save human lives."
In 1989, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered using data from Nazi research into the effects of phosgene gas, believing the data could help US soldiers stationed in the Persian Gulf at the time. They eventually decided against using it, on the grounds it would lead to criticism and similar data could be obtained from later studies on animals. Writing for Jewish Law, Baruch Cohen concluded that the EPA's "knee-jerk reaction" to reject the data's use was "typical, but unprofessional", arguing that it could have saved lives.
- List of Nazi doctors who conducted human experiments
- Bullenhuser Damm
- Jewish skull collection
- List of medical eponyms with Nazi associations
- Nazi eugenics
- Project MKUltra (CIA)
- Weindling, Paul; von Villiez, Anna; Loewenau, Aleksandra; Farron, Nichola (2016). "The victims of unethical human experiments and coerced research under National Socialism". Endeavour. Elsevier BV. 40 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2015.10.005. ISSN 0160-9327. PMC 4822534. PMID 26749461.
- "Nazi Medical Experimentation". US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Wachsmann, Nikolaus (2015). KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps. New York, NY, United States of America: Farrar Straus & Giroux. p. 505. ISBN 978-0374118259.
- "Nazi 'Doctor Death' found refuge in Cairo, died in 1992". France 24. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Table of contents for prosecution document book 8, concerning medical experiments". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Medical Experiment". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "The Doctors Trial: The Medical Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Michalczyk, p. 96
- Lifton, Robert Jay (16 May 2017). The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09339-7. OCLC 1089625744.
- Perper, Joshua A.; Cina, Stephen J. (14 June 2010). When Doctors Kill: Who, Why, and How. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781441913692.
- "Women's Concentration Camp Medical Experiment Victims". Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Deposition concerning medical experiments at Ravensbrueck [bone/muscle/nerve experiments]". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Nazi Medical Experiments". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz Archived 14 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Children of the Flames; Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz, Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Sheila Cohn Dekel, and Mengele: the Complete Story by Gerald Posner and John Ware.
- Thornton, Larry (2006). "Mengele, Josef (1911–1979)". Europe Since 1914 : ENcyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 1747. ISBN 9780684314976.
- Lifton 1986, pp. 358–359. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLifton1986 (help)
- Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 37. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPosnerWare1986a (help)
- Mozes-Kor 1992, p. 57. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMozes-Kor1992 (help)
- Mozes-Kor, Eva (2011). "The Mengele Twins and Human Experimentation: A Personal Account" (PDF).
- Lifton 1986, pp. 347, 353. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLifton1986 (help)
- Lifton 1986, p. 351. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLifton1986 (help)
- Lifton 1985. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLifton1985 (help)
- Berger, Robert L. (May 1990). "Nazi Science — the Dachau Hypothermia Experiments". New England Journal of Medicine. 322 (20): 1435–40. doi:10.1056/NEJM199005173222006. PMID 2184357.
- The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945. Comite International Dachau. 2000. p. 183. ISBN 978-3-87490-751-4.
- Bogod, David (2004). "The Nazi Hypothermia Experiments: Forbidden Data?". Anaesthesia. 59 (12): 1155–1156. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2004.04034.x. PMID 15549970. S2CID 21906854.
- Mackowski, Maura Phillips (2006). Testing the Limits: Aviation Medicine and the Origins of Manned Space Flight. Texas A&M University Press. p. 94. ISBN 1-58544-439-1.
- "Freezing Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Documents Regarding Nazi Medical Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- Tyson, Peter. "Holocaust on Trial: The Experiments". NOVA Online. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Annas, p. 74.
- Letter from Rascher to Himmler, 17 Feb 1943 from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals, Vol. 1, Case 1: The Medical Case (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1949-1950), pp. 249–251.
- Cockburn, Alexander (1998). Whiteout:The CIA, Drugs, and the Press. Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-139-6.
- "Documents Regarding Nazi Medical Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Letter to Sigmund Rascher concerning the high altitude experiments". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Sea Water Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Cohen, Baruch C. "The Ethics of Using Medical Data From Nazi Experiments". Jewish Law: Articles. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Affidavit concerning the seawater experiments". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Introduction to NMT Case 1: U.S.A. v. Karl Brandt et al". Harvard Law Library, Nuremberg Trials Project: A Digital Document Collection. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Piotrowski, Christa (21 July 2000). "Dark Chapter of American History: U.S. Court Battle Over Forced Sterilization". CommonDreams.org News Center. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Hildebrandt, Sabine; Benedict, Susan; Miller, Erin; Gaffney, Michael; Grodin, Michael A. (1 July 2017). ""Forgotten" Chapters in the History of Transcervical Sterilization: Carl Clauberg and Hans-Joachim Lindemann". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 72 (3): 272–301. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrx018. ISSN 0022-5045. PMID 28873982.
- Carl Clauberg (1898 - 1957)
- Meric, Vesna (27 January 2005). "Forced to take part in experiments". BBC News.
- "Medical Experiments at Auschwitz". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Winkelmann, Andreas; Schagen Udo (March 2009). "Hermann Stieve's clinical-anatomical research on executed women during the "Third Reich"". Clinical Anatomy. United States. 22 (2): 163–71. doi:10.1002/ca.20760. PMID 19173259. S2CID 578958.
- "Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- Bazelon, Emily (6 November 2013). "The Nazi Anatomists". Slate. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- Schaefer, Naomi. The Legacy of Nazi Medicine, The New Atlantis, Number 5, Spring 2004, pp. 54–60.
- Spitz, Vivien (2005). Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Sentient Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-59181-032-2.
sulfonamide nazi tetanus.
- LeVay, Simon (1996). Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality. MIT Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-0-262-12199-6 – via Internet Archive.
- Weindling, Paul (2015). Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments: Science and Suffering in the Holocaust. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4411-7990-6.
- Röll, Wolfgang (26 September 1996). "Homosexual Inmates in the Buchenwald Concentration Camp". Journal of Homosexuality. 31 (4): 24–25. doi:10.1300/J082v31n04_01. ISSN 0091-8369.
- Günter, Grau (1995). Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany, 1933-45. Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 281–292. ISBN 9781134261055.
- Whisnant, Clayton J. (2016). Queer Identities and Politics in Germany: A History. Columbia University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-939594-10-5.
- "Children of Bullenhuser Damm". www.auschwitz.dk. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- Small, Martin; Vic Shayne. "Remember Us: My Journey from the Shtetl through the Holocaust", Page 135, 2009.
- "Nazi Medical Experiments". ushmm.org.
- Metzger, W. G.; Ehni, H.‐J.; Kremsner, P. G.; Mordmüller, B. G. (December 2019). "Experimental infections in humans—historical and ethical reflections". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 24 (12): 1384–1390. doi:10.1111/tmi.13320. ISSN 1360-2276. PMID 31654450.
- Hulverscheidt, Marion. "German Malariology Experiments with Humans, Supported by the DFG Until 1945". Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft Volume 2. Ed. Wolfgang Uwe Eckhart. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2006. ISBN 3-515-08794-X, ISBN 978-3-515-08794-0, pp. 221–236.
- George J. Annas Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law; Medicine Michael A. Grodin Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of Law, and Ethics Program both of the Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health (7 May 1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code : Human Rights in Human Experimentation: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-19-977226-1.
- United States. Office of Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality; United States. Dept. of State; United States. War Dept; International Military Tribunal (1946). Nazi conspiracy and aggression: Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality. U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
- "Malaria Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Affidavit concerning the management of the medical experiments program by the SS". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 29 April 2023.
- "Epidemic Jaundice Experiments". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Letter to Erhard Milch concerning the high altitude and freezing experiments". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Mengele's Children – The Twins of Auschwitz". about.com. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Sterilization Experiments". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Baron, Saskia, director. Science and the Swastika: The Deadly Experiment. Darlow Smithson Productions, 2001.
- Vollman, Jochen; Rolf Winau. "Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code". BMJ. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- "The Nuremberg Code". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Regulations and Ethical Guidelines: Reprinted from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 2, pp. 181–182". Office of Human Subjects Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1949. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Ghooi, Ravindra B. (1 January 2011). "The Nuremberg Code–A critique". Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2 (2): 72–76. doi:10.4103/2229-3485.80371. ISSN 2229-3485. PMC 3121268. PMID 21731859.
- "The Nuremberg Trials". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Annas, George J. (1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195101065.
- Baumslag, N. (2005). Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98312-9
- Michalczyk, J. (Dir.) (1997). In The Shadow of the Reich: Nazi Medicine. First Run Features. (video)
- Nyiszli, M. (2011). "3". Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. New York: Arcade Publishing.
- Rees, L. (2005). Auschwitz: A New History. Public Affairs. ISBN 1-58648-357-9
- Weindling, P.J. (2005). Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-3911-X
- USAF School of Aerospace Medicine (1950). German Aviation Medicine, World War II. United States Air Force.
- The Infamous Medical Experiments from Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project: "Forget You Not"
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Online Exhibition: Doctors Trial
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Online Exhibition: Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Library Bibliography: Medical Experiments
- Jewish Virtual Library: Medical Experiments Table of Contents
Controversy regarding use of findings
- Campell, Robert. "Citations of shame; scientists are still trading on Nazi atrocities", New Scientist, 28 February 1985, 105(1445), p. 31.Citations of shame; scientists are still trading on Nazi atrocities
- "Citing Nazi 'Research': To Do So Without Condemnation Is Not Defensible"
- "On the Ethics of Citing Nazi Research"
- "Remembering the Holocaust, Part 2"
- "The Ethics Of Using Medical Data From Nazi Experiments"