|Founded||December 6, 1941(inofficially) October 13, 1952 (officially)|
|Headquarters||Câlus (northern Iran), Tehran|
|Politics of Iran
The group was formed in 1952 by Davud Monshizadeh, a professor at Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, who served with the SS and had been injured fighting in Berlin. Before this the name had been used informally to refer to those in Iran who supported and help funded Adolf Hitler during the Second World War. Monshizadeh would go on to serve as a Professor of Persian Studies at Alexandria University and Uppsala University. Despite building up a minor support base in Iranian universities, the party did not last long. It has been claimed that the party enjoyed funding directly from Reza Pahlavi and some Georgian-Iranians for a time. The official logo is the Simorq flag. The emblem is the Simorq bird which was taken from the Shanameh (Book of Kings) at the center.
The group briefly attracted the support of young nationalists in Iran, with Daryoush Homayoun, who would later rise to prominence, an early member. Monshizadeh was known as something of a Hitler worshipper and was fond of many of the ways of the Nazi Party, such as their militarism and salute, as well as attempting to approximate Hitler's physical appearance.On this basis the group adopted the swastika and black shirt as part of their uniforms.
Their Propaganda consisted mainly of Anti–Arabism, Anti–Islam, Anti–Semitism and discrimination against non–Aryan minorities in Iran such as the Baluchs, Afghans, Arabs, Turkmen, Iraqis, etc.
They were firmly opposed to the rule of Mohammed Mossadegh during their brief period of influence and the group worked alongside Fazlollah Zahedi in his opposition to Mossadegh. Indeed in 1953 they were part of a large crowd of Zahedi supporters who marched to the palace of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi demanding the ousting of Mossadegh. The party would become associated with street violence against the supporters of Mossadegh and the Tudeh Party. Members of the National socialist movement of Iran believed that important philosophical works must be translated into Persian so they could form the cultural foundation for the national policy. They started translating some of Plato's works, and went on to Hegel, Nietzsche and eventually Mussolini and Hitler's works. Many translators/authors had eventually developed a taste for translations of the famous philosophical/political works by the western Nationalist Ideologists.
Iranian Nationalist right, naturally had political reasons for doing so, yet they did not use philosophy as a "Means" to achieve a political "Ends". They temporarily adopted the politics to build a strong foundation.
The SUMKA party wanted to extinguish islamic influence because it was as they stated "the root of iranian problems and the cause for the weakness of Iranians". They believed that Islam and Judaism were the two main enemies of the aryan nations because of their negative semitic influence and parasitic presence. They took the view that an aryan nation just can rise when it's freed from it and goes back to its aryan roots, both social, cultural and ethnical. The SUMKA members looked at Jews, Muslims and especially arabic people as weak, corrupt, vile and inferior beings that were blocks on the way of the prosperity of the aryans.
The party leader Monshizadeh looked at Ortega's and Hitler's works as inspirations. He translated a number of Ortega's works into Persian and intended for these works to serve as the founding principles of the SUMKA party. Primarily SUMKA was opposing the Monarchy but later on they opposed all political activities that were not national socialistic, especially the islamic party with whom they even had street fights.
SUMKA had managed to gather a good number of members, sympathizers and support base amongst the university students, labors, technocrats and other workers.
The party was opposed to Mossadeq's social democratic government (1950 - 1953) and propagated a strong national socialist ideology. SUMKA was the Extreme Right Wing, Iranian Ultra Nationalist Party of Iran.In many occasions they went head to head with leftists and they definitely had a beef with the communist party (Hezbe Tudeh). Back then, the majority of youth in Universities and High Schools were extremely political and they were either:
- Tudehi (Communist)
- Jebhei (Liberal Left)
- SUMKAi (national socialistic)
These three were the top three political parties of Iran. And then there were a minority of political activists whom were pro various Nationalist, Republican and Monarchist movements and parties of Iran.
The party eventually passed out of existence, although much of their membership was absorbed by the 'Arya' movement of General Aryana, a largely military-based group that had some pro-Nazi tendencies. Because of General Aryana's sympathies towards the third Reich he was imprisoned for a while by Mossadeq. Monshizadeh was exiled to Sweden and passed away in 1983.
SUMKA had serious plans for a coup to dismantle the weak and corrupt monarchy of Pahlavi and to establish a powerful and progressive NS-Government of the workers; therefore, the party needed to train the future statesmen and technocrats. There were special classes made for the sole purpose of training the future personnel to run the government. The party had various internal organizations which are listed below.
Aryan women group
They were first and foremost a progressive group for women's rights and included later programs such as self-defence and military courses (something that was very uncommon in all the other countries around the globe). They also had parade groups and some engaged as propagandists in schools.
They were a technical group in charge of tasks such as:
- General construction
- Construction of buildings
- Construction of meeting halls and party quarters.
For example, SUMKA had created the famous "Work Movement" (Jebhe Kar) and their motto was to "Build the future Iran with hard work." The very first construction plan drafted by the "Work Movement" was to build a new and large size "Meeting Hall" in the new building, simply because the old Meeting Hall was too small and could not satisfy the needs of the party. SUMKA membership was on the rise and the party needed a huge meeting hall. The picture of the hall was taken 1951 at a speech of the leadership.
The military training for men and women included:
- General allround military training of the members of the party
- Flight training courses (theoretic)
- Flight training courses with model planes (practical)
- Warfare instructor course
Cultural and propaganda Group
This was the most active of the SUMKA Group. Shapour Zandnia was the organizer of this group. The aim of this group was to completely eradicate the arabic letters in the language and to replace it with the original iranic letters (cuneiform).
Another aim of this group was the total prohibition of Islam and the reclaiming of the pagan-aryan roots of Iranians, which is Zoroastrianism alongside its offshoots like Mithraism etc. However, the main aim of this group was the deportation of the non-aryan ethnics and minorities (Baluchs, Afghans, Pakistanis, Arabs, Turkmen, Jews, Iraqis, etc.) in Iran and to reach this, they used propaganda as a weapon to make "Iranians racially aware", as they stated in the SUMKA newspaper.
Today there are different NS-subgroups who are mostly active in Europe or Australia since the islamic republic of Iran executes any person with national socialistic activities. Although it remains to be seen how far this revival extended beyond the internet, the ideology is still the same as the original SUMKA party advocated it. These groups are not connected to the minor Pan-Iranists. They declare the Pan-Iranist movement as their political enemies since they want to include non-aryan land to Iran. A new concept which was brought into the party by Shirin Arvani in 2013 is the caste system.
- Leonard Binder, Iran: Political Development in a Changing Society, University of California Press, 1962, p. 217
- 'Iranian National Socialist Movement (A History)'
- Hussein Fardust, The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty: Memoirs of Former General Hussein, p. 62
- Homa Katouzian, Musaddiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran, I.B. Tauris, 1990, p. 89
- Mark J. Gasiorowski, 'The 1953 Coup D'etat in Iran', International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 3. (Aug., 1987), p. 270
- 'Is the blood of grapes, not of you (the people)'