Neonaticide

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For practices of killing infants after 24 hours of a child's birth, but under the age of 12 months, see infanticide. For the killing of older children by a parent, see filicide.

Neonaticide is the deliberate act of a parent murdering their own child during the first 24 hours of life.[1] As a noun, the word "neonaticide" may also refer to anyone who practice or who have practiced this.

Neonaticide are relatively rare in developed countries, but most of these murders remain secret:

"...every year, hundreds of women commit neonaticide: they kill their newborns or let them die. Most neonaticides remain undiscovered, but every once in a while a janitor follows a trail of blood to a tiny body in a trash bin, or a woman faints and doctors find the remains of a placenta inside her."

— Steven Pinker, New York Times, 1997[2]

Parental infanticide after the first 24 hours is slightly more commonly committed by fathers than mothers[3] but vice versa for neonaticide.[4]

Statistics[edit]

90% of neonaticidal mothers are 25 years of age or younger. Less than 20% are married. Less than 30% are seen as psychotic or depressed[5][6][7] They have typically denied and/or concealed the pregnancy since conception.[8][9]

The United States ranks first in rates of homicide of children under the age of four years. Forty-five percent (45%) of all child murders occur in the first 24 hours of life, and thus can be classified as neonaticide.[10] For the period 1982-1987, approximately 1.1% of all homicides have been of children under one year of age. Eight to nine percent (8%–9%) of all murders are of persons under 18 years of age. Of these, almost twice as many sons as compared to daughters are victims.[5] In half of the cases death occurs literally "at the hands of" the parent. Weapons are almost never used in neonaticide. Drowning, strangulation, head trauma, suffocation, and exposure (to the elements) are all common methods.[5]

Current law[edit]

Romania[edit]

The new Penal Code of Romania, which came into force in 2014, resolved the issues of the previous Code, under which the law was unclear. Article 200 of the new Penal Code stipulates that the killing of a newborn during the first 24 hours, by the mother who is in a state of mental distress, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to five years.[11]

United States[edit]

Under the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002, a woman who gives childbirth after an attempted abortion is the mother of a born-alive infant if the infant is observed with any of the following signs of life: breathing, heartbeat, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or confirmed voluntary muscle movement, regardless of the gestational age of the child. Although medical guidelines recommend withholding resuscitation for infants with practically no chance of surviving, and allow parental discretion if the chance of survival is marginal, any child that has a better-than-marginal chance of survival who is allowed to die would be considered the victim of infanticide or neonaticide.[12][13]

History[edit]

An early reference to filicide (the killing of a child by a parent) is in Greek mythology, In his play, Medea, Euripides portrayed Medea as having killed her two sons after Jason abandoned her for the daughter of the King of Corinth[14] giving us what has been termed the Medea Complex.[15] Under the Roman Law, patria potestas, the right of a father to kill his own children was protected.[16][17] It was not until the 4th century that the Roman state, influenced by Christianity, began to regard filicide as a crime. Still, mothers who killed their infants or newborns received lesser sentences under both the laws of the church and the state.[18][19]

The church consistently dealt more leniently with those mothers whose children died by "overlying," an accidental death by smothering when a sleeping parent rolled over on the infant. The opinions of the church in these deaths may reflect an awareness of one of society's first attempts to understand the severe problem of overpopulation and overcrowding.[20] England has traditionally viewed infanticide as a "special crime," passing its first Infanticide Act in 1623 under the Stuarts and more recently in the Infanticide Acts of 1922 and 1938.[21][22] Most recently England passed the Infanticide Act of 1978 which allows a lesser sentence for attempted infanticide.[23] Unlike England and other European countries, the United States has not adopted special statutes to deal with infanticide or neonaticide. Nonetheless, juries and judges, as reflected in their verdicts and sentences, have consistently considered the difficulties and stresses of a mother during the post-partum period.[24]

Modern Times[edit]

Australia[edit]

In June of 2016 it was reported that 27 babies were born in Queensland hospitals in 2015, only to later die after not receiving care.[25] This was also reported to be happening as early as 2007 in Victoria, where 52 babies were born alive after failed late-term abortions[26] and were "simply put on a shelf and left to die"[27][28]This is generally accepted as fitting the definition of infanticide in Victoria[29] and other states.

Cultural aspects[edit]

The Chinese, as late as the 20th century, killed newborn daughters because they were unable to transmit the family name. Additionally, daughters were viewed as weaker and not as useful in time of war or for agricultural work. In the past, Inuit killed infants with known congenital anomalies and often one of a set of twins.[30] Similarly, Mohave Indians had killed all children of racially mixed birth at birth.[31] In their 1981 paper, Sakuta and Saito[32] reviewed infanticide in Japan and describe the two distinct types of infanticide commonly seen. The Mabiki type corresponds to the ancient means of "thinning out" or population control; the Anomie type, a product of modern society, corresponds to the "unwanted child."

Prevention[edit]

A number of studies have evaluated risk factors in infant homicide with the aim of preventing it.[9]

Anonymous delivery, a system where mothers can give birth in a hospital for free without showing ID, has been found to reduce the rate of police reported neonaticides in Austria.[33]

Baby hatch[edit]

In the Middle Ages and in the 18th and 19th centuries, a "foundling wheel" system was used where mothers could leave them anonymously to be found and cared for. In modern times, baby hatch systems have been introduced in hospitals and other areas to allow mothers to leave children.[34][35]

The hatches are usually in hospitals, social centres, or churches, and consist of a door or flap in an outside wall which opens onto a soft bed, heated or at least insulated. Sensors in the bed alert carers when a baby has been put in it so that they can come and take care of the child. In Germany, babies are first looked after for eight weeks during which the mother can return and claim her child without any legal repercussions. If this does not happen, after eight weeks the child is put up for adoption.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Craig, Michael (February 2004). "Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide: can we identify those at risk?". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 97 (2): 57–61. doi:10.1258/jrsm.97.2.57. PMC 1079289Freely accessible. PMID 14749398. 
  2. ^ "Why They Kill Their Newborns - By Steven Pinker". 
  3. ^ Maureen Marks. "Infanticide". Psychiatry. 8 (1): 10–12. doi:10.1016/j.mppsy.2008.10.017. 
  4. ^ Dr. Neil S. Kaye M.D - Families, Murder, and Insanity: A Psychiatric Review of Paternal Neonaticide
  5. ^ a b c Uniform Crime Reports (1982-1987). U.S. Government Printing Office
  6. ^ Harder T (1967). "The Psychopathology of Infanticide". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 43: 196–245. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1967.tb11026.x. 
  7. ^ Turnbull H.R. (1986). "Incidence of Infanticide in America: Public and Professional Attitudes". Issues in Law & Medicine. 1: 363–389. 
  8. ^ "Denial of pregnancy – a literature review and discussion of ethical and legal issues". JRSM. 104: 286–91. Jul 2011. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2011.100376. PMC 3128877Freely accessible. PMID 21725094. 
  9. ^ a b "Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide: can we identify those at risk?". JRSM. 97: 57–61. Feb 2004. doi:10.1258/jrsm.97.2.57. PMC 1079289Freely accessible. PMID 14749398. 
  10. ^ d'Orban P (1979). "Women who kill their Children". Brit. J. Psychiat. 134: 560–571. doi:10.1192/bjp.134.6.560. 
  11. ^ "Noul Cod Penal (2014)". 
  12. ^ Kattwinkel, John; et al. (November 2010). "Part 15: neonatal resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.". Pediatrics. 126: S909–s919. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2972E. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Guidelines on Basic Newborn Resuscitation" (PDF). World Health Organization: 42. 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  14. ^ Hamilton, E.: Mythology. New York, Mentor Book, 1942
  15. ^ Wittels, F.: Psychoanalysis and literature, in Lorand, S. (ed): Psychoanalysis Today, Albanay, N.Y., Boyd Printing Co., 1944.
  16. ^ Black's Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition: St. Paul, Minnesota, West Publishing Company
  17. ^ 142 N.Y.S.2d 163
  18. ^ Victoroff V (1955). "A case of Infanticide Related to Psychomotor Automitism: Psychodynamic, Physiological, Forensic and Sociological Considerations". J. Clin. Exper. Psychopath. 16: 191–220. 
  19. ^ Langer W (1974). "Infanticide: A Historical Survey". History of Childhood Quarterly. 1: 354–365. 
  20. ^ Hale, M.: The History of the Pleas of the Crown. London, E.R. Nutt and R. Gosling, 1736.
  21. ^ Infanticide Act of 1938, 1 and 2 Geo. 6, c36, sec. 1 (1)
  22. ^ Jeudwine, J.: Observations on English Criminal Law and Procedure. London, D.S. King, 1968
  23. ^ Wilkins A (1985). "Attempted Infanticide". British Journal of Psychiatry. 146: 206–208. doi:10.1192/bjp.146.2.206. 
  24. ^ "Dr. Neil S. Kaye MD, PA Forensic Psychiatrist Expert Witness in Forensics Psychiatry". 
  25. ^ "Rise in Queensland babies surviving late-term abortions, figures show". ABC News. 2016-06-15. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  26. ^ "THE CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL ON OBSTETRIC AND PAEDIATRIC MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR 2006" (PDF). Health.vic.gov.au. Department of Health & Human Services (Victoria). July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 07/08/2008. Retrieved 12/02/2017.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |archive-date= (help)
  27. ^ Zwartz, Barney. "Aborted babies 'being left to die'". The Age. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  28. ^ "VICTORIA: Babies born alive, but left to die?". newsweekly.com.au. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  29. ^ Law of Abortion - Final Report (PDF). Victorian Law Reform Commission. 2008. pp. Chapter 7, Section 55. ISBN 9780975846605. Victorian Law Reform Commission 
  30. ^ Garber C (1947). "Eskimo Infanticide". Scient. Month. 64: 98–102. 
  31. ^ Devereux, G.: Mohave Indidan Infanticide. Psychoanal. Rev. 1948; 35: 126-139
  32. ^ Sakuta T.; Saito S. (1981). "A Socio-Medical Study on 71 Cases of Infanticide in Japan". Keio J. Med. 30: 155–168. doi:10.2302/kjm.30.155. 
  33. ^ "Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study". BJOG. 120: 428–34. 2013. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12099. PMC 3621136Freely accessible. PMID 23210536. 
  34. ^ Hibbert, Katharine (2006-05-21). "The Child Catchers". London: The Times. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  35. ^ The 'baby box' returns to Europe, BBC News, 26 June 2012

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