Newark Public Schools

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Newark Board of Education
Address
756 Broad Street
Newark, NJ 07102

United States
Coordinates40°44′16″N 74°10′16″W / 40.737868°N 74.171044°W / 40.737868; -74.171044Coordinates: 40°44′16″N 74°10′16″W / 40.737868°N 74.171044°W / 40.737868; -74.171044
District information
GradesPreK-12
SuperintendentRoger Leon
Business administratorValerie Wilson
Schools64
Affiliation(s)Former Abbott district
Students and staff
Enrollment40,448 (as of 2018–19)[1]
Faculty2,794.0 FTEs[1]
Student–teacher ratio14.5:1[1]
Other information
District Factor GroupA
Websitewww.nps.k12.nj.us
Ind. Per pupil District
spending
Rank
(*)
K-12
average
%± vs.
average
1ATotal Spending$24,28199$18,89128.5%
1Budgetary Cost17,3039414,78317.0%
2Classroom Instruction8,864578,7631.2%
6Support Services3,5861012,39249.9%
8Administrative Cost1,8571001,48525.1%
10Operations & Maintenance2,675961,78350.0%
13Extracurricular Activities19027268−29.1%
16Median Teacher Salary60,7093164,043
Data from NJDoE 2014 Taxpayers' Guide to Education Spending.[2]
*Of K-12 districts with more than 3,500 students. Lowest spending=1; Highest=103
Headquarters

Newark Board of Education is a comprehensive community public school district that serves the entire city of Newark in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. The state took over the district in 1995 and returned control in 2018, after 22 years.[3][4] The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide,[5] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[6][7]

As of the 2018–19 school year, the district, comprising 64 schools, had an enrollment of 40,448 students and 2,794.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 14.5:1.[1]

The total school enrollment in Newark city was 75,000 in 2003. Pre-primary school enrollment was 12,000 and elementary or high school enrollment was 46,000 children. College enrollment was 16,000. As of 2003, 64% of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 11% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Among people 16 to 19 years old, 10 percent were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school.[8]

The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "A", the lowest of eight groupings. District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local districts. From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J.[9]

History[edit]

The district is one of three districts in New Jersey (along with Jersey City Public Schools and Paterson Public Schools) that has historically been under "state intervention", which authorizes the state Commissioner of Education to intervene in governance of a local public school district (and to intervene in the areas of instruction and program, operations, personnel, and fiscal management).[10] Chris Cerf was the state appointed superintendent of Newark.[11] Cerf said he would resign on February 1, 2018, the day local control was be returned to the district.[12]

Roger Leon, a life long Newark resident and educator was elected by the local school board to replace Cerf by a unanimous 9-0 vote and took office July 1, 2018.[13]

In a referendum held as part of the November 2018 general election, voters chose by a 3-1 margin to have the district function as Type II district, in which the board of education is elected by the residents of the city.[14]

Administration[edit]

Core members of the district's administration are:[15]

  • Roger Leon, District Superintendent of Schools
  • Nicole T. Johnson, Deputy Superintendent
  • Havier Nazario, Chief of Staff
  • Brenda C. Liss, Esq., General Counsel
  • Valerie Wilson, School Business Administrator
  • Kathy Duke-Jackson, Assistant Superintendent (East/Central Ward Schools)
  • José Fuentes, Assistant Superintendent (North Ward Schools)
  • Dr. Shakirah Harrington, Assistant Superintendent (South/West Ward Schools)
  • Dr. Mario Santos, Assistant Superintendent (High Schools)
  • Dr. Yolanda Méndez, Acting Executive Director, Human Resources
  • Carolyn Granato, Executive Director, Special Education
  • Tracy Munford, Executive Director, Communications Department
  • Margarita Muñiz, Executive Director, Family and Community Engagement

Board of Education[edit]

The district's board of education, with nine members, sets policy and oversees the fiscal and educational operation of the district through its administration. As a Type II school district, the board's trustees are elected directly by voters to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with three seats up for election each year held as part of the April school election.[16] As one of the 13 districts statewide with school elections in April, voters also decide on passage of the annual school budget.[17]

Members of the board of education are:[18][19]

  • Shayvonne Anderson (2019-2021)
  • Reginald Bledsoe (2017-2020)
  • Josephine C. Garcia (2018-2020)
  • Yambeli Gomez (2018-2021)
  • Dawn Hayes (2018-2021)
  • Flohisha Hill (2017-2020)
  • A'Dorian Murray-Thomas (2019-2021)
  • Asia J. Norton (2018-2021)
  • Tave Padilla (2019-2021)

State intervention[edit]

The district is one of three districts in New Jersey historically under "state intervention", which authorizes the Commissioner of Education to intervene in governance of a local public school district (and to intervene in the areas of instruction and program, operations, personnel, and fiscal management) if the Commissioner has determined that a school district failed or was unable to take corrective actions necessary to establish a thorough and efficient system of education.[10]

State intervention has been criticized as undemocratic and racist.[20][21] Some also have suggested that children were significantly harmed during state control.[22] State intervention in Newark has not produced significant gains,[23] as evidenced by the fact that NPS does not show up in the top ten of New Jersey districts (in terms of achievement, in every tested grade, for math and English) after more than two decades of state control.[24] When viewed through the lens of student growth percentiles, which is a contested measure of growth, NPS may be higher. However, NPS may have had equally high growth before state intervention, so no comparisons are possible.

Chris Cerf and others paid by the state of New Jersey have suggested state control has been good for Newark.[25] However, no measures of the quality of NPS's broad offerings before, during, or after state intervention have been identified. No measures of progress are available for earth science, physics, biology, chemistry, health, citizenship, world history, US history, literature, sociology, anthropology, ethnic studies, New Jersey history, gender studies, media studies, Africana studies, economics, politics, astronomy, geology, philosophy, archaeology, or performing arts. No measures of students' physical wellbeing, social wellbeing, or emotional wellbeing are available before, during, or after state control. No measures of parental wellbeing have been identified.

Local control was returned as of February 1, 2018.[26]

Performance[edit]

The Newark Public Schools is the largest school system in New Jersey. The city's public schools had been among the lowest-performing in the state, even after the state government took over management of the city's schools from 1995-2018, which was done under the presumption that improvement would follow.

Although the school district continues to struggle with low high school graduation rates and low standardized test scores, the former mayor of Newark, Cory Booker, insisted in 2010, "Newark, New Jersey can become one of the first American cities to solve the crisis in public education."[27] This vision for better school district is also shared by Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, who made a $100 million donation to Newark Public Schools in 2010. "Every child deserves a good education. Right now that's not happening," he said.[28] The management has been criticized: while interviews with administration regarding Newark's schools were always positive, highlighting only the good aspects of the huge monetary donation, new contracts were being created, money was being hemorrhaged, and the district was going broke.[29][30] According to The New Yorker, Anderson, Booker, Zuckerberg, and Christie, "despite millions of dollars spent on community engagement—have yet to hold tough, open conversations with the people of Newark about exactly how much money the district has, where it is going, and what students aren't getting as a result."

Awards, recognition and rankings[edit]

Ann Street School of Mathematics and Science was awarded the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, the highest award an American school can receive, during the 1998-99 school year.[31]

Branch Brook Elementary School, a Pre-Kindergarten through 4th grade school, was awarded the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence, during the 2004-05 school year.[32]

During the 2007–08 school year, Harriet Tubman School was recognized with the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education.[33][34]

During the 2009-10 school year, Science Park High School was awarded the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence.[35]

For the 2005-06 school year, the district was recognized with the "Best Practices Award" by the New Jersey Department of Education for its "A Park Study: Learning About the World Around Us" Science program at Abington Avenue School. The curriculum was written, implemented, and submitted to the State of New Jersey by Abington Avenue School kindergarten teacher, Lenore Furman.[36]

After efforts at his dismissal as New Jersey's poet laureate, Amiri Baraka was named the school district's poet laureate in December 2002.[37]

Schools[edit]

Schools in the district (with 2018–19 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[38]) are:[39][40]

Preschools[edit]

  • Ann Street Annex[41] (; PreK-K)
    • Linda J. Richardson, Principal
  • Early Childhood Center - Central[42] (; PreK-K)
    • Jeanne Ramirez, Principal
  • Early Childhood Center - North[43] (; PreK-K)
    • Jeanne Ramirez, Principal
  • Early Childhood Center - South[44] (; PreK-K)
    • Jeanne Ramirez, Principal
  • Early Childhood Center - West[45] (; PreK-K)
    • Jeanne Ramirez, Principal
  • Early Childhood Academy of Excellence (; PreK)
  • Lafayette Street Annexes[46]
  • Wilson Street Annex[47]

Elementary schools[edit]

  • Abington Avenue School[48] (; PreK-8)
    • Nelson Ruiz, Principal
  • Alexander Street School (; 1-8)
  • Ann Street School[49] (; PreK-8)
    • Linda J. Richardson, Principal
  • Avon Avenue Elementary School[50] (; K-8)
    • Charity Haygood, Principal
  • Belmont Runyon Elementary School[51] (; K-8)
    • Dr. Shakirah Harrington, Principal
  • Bragaw Avenue School (; K-8)
  • Branch Brook School[52] (; PreK-4)
    • Joseph P. Cullen, Principal
  • Bruce Street School[53] (; PreK-8)
    • Kyle Thomas, Principal
  • Camden Street Elementary School[54] (; PreK-8)
    • Samuel Garrison, Principal
  • Roberto Clemente School[55] (; PreK-5)
    • Dr. Claudio Barbaran, Principal
  • George Washington Carver School[56] (; K-8)
    • Kyle Thomas, Principal
  • Chancellor Avenue School[57] (; K-8)
    • Sakina Pitts, Principal
  • Cleveland Elementary School[58] (; PreK-8)
    • Claire Emmanuel, Acting Principal
  • Dayton Street School at Peshine Avenue (; PreK-8)
  • East Ward Elementary School[59] (; PreK-2)
    • Rosa Monteiro-Inacio, Principal
  • Elliott Street Elementary School[60] (; PreK-8)
    • Karisa DeSantis, Principal
  • First Avenue School[61] (; PreK-8)
    • Rosa Branco, Principal
  • Fourteenth Avenue School[62] (; K-4)
    • Armando Cepero, Principal
  • Dr. E. Alma Flagg School[63] (; K-8)
    • Ganiat Rufai, Principal
  • Benjamin Franklin School[64] (; PreK-5)
    • Amy B. Panitch, Principal
  • Hawkins Street School[65] (; PreK-8)
    • Alejandro Lopez, Principal
  • Hawthorne Avenue School[66] (; K-8)
    • H. Grady James IV, Principal
  • Rafael Hernandez School[67] (; PreK-8)
    • Natasha Pared, Principal
  • Dr. William H. Horton School[68] (; K-8)
    • Hamlet Marte, Principal
  • Ivy Hill School[69] (; PreK-8)
    • Dorrice Rayam-Johnson, Principal
  • Lafayette Street School[70] (; PreK-8)
    • Maria Merlo, Principal
  • Lincoln Elementary School[71] (; PreK-8)
    • Hillary Dow, Principal
  • Madison Avenue Elementary School (; PreK-5)
  • Maple Avenue School (; K-8)
  • Luis Muñoz Marín School[72] (; PreK-8)
    • Kenneth Montalbano, Principal
  • McKinley Elementary School[73] (; PreK-8)
    • Carlos Reyes, Principal
  • Miller Street School[74] (; PreK-8)
  • Mount Vernon Place School[75] (; PreK-8)
    • Camille Findley-Browne, Principal
  • Newton Street School (; PreK-8)
  • Oliver Street School[76] (; PreK-8)
    • Luis Henriques, Principal
  • Park Elementary School[77] (; PreK-8)
    • Sylvia Esteves, Principal
  • Peshine Academy[78] (; PreK-8)
    • Malcolm X Outlaw, Principal
  • Quitman Street School[79] (; PreK-8)
  • Ridge Street School[80] (; K-8)
    • David DeOliveira, Principal
  • Roseville Avenue School (; K-4)
  • South Seventeenth Street School[81] (; K-8)
    • Clarence Allen, Principal
  • South Street School[82] (; PreK-5)
    • Sandra Cruz, Principal
  • Speedway Avenue School[83] (; K-8)
    • Atiba Buckman, Principal
  • Louise A. Spencer School[84] (; PreK-8)
    • Karla Venezia, Principal
  • Sussex Avenue School[85] (; PreK-8)
    • Darleen Gearhart, Principal
  • Thirteenth Avenue School / Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. School[86] (; PreK-8)
    • Simone Rose, Principal
  • Harriet Tubman School[87] (; PreK-6)
    • Angela Davis, Principal
  • Salomé Ureña Elementary School[88] (; PreK-5)
    • Sandra Marques, Principal
  • Wilson Avenue School[89] (; K-8)
    • Margarita Hernandez, Principal

High schools[edit]

High schools in the district (with 2018–19 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[90]) are:

Ungraded[edit]

  • Samuel L. Berliner School ()
  • John F. Kennedy School[108] ()
    • Jill Summers-Phillips, Principal
  • New Jersey Regional Day School - Newark[109] (119; K-12)
    • Jennifer Mitchell, Principal
  • Uplift Academy[110] (97; 9-12)
    • Dr. Dorothy Handfield, Principal

School uniforms[edit]

Beginning in the 2008-2009 school year, students in elementary and middle school were required to wear school uniforms.[111] Beginning in September 2010 high school students were required to wear uniforms.[112]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d District information for Newark Public School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
  2. ^ Taxpayers' Guide to Education Spending April 2013, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed April 15, 2013.
  3. ^ "Newark finally gets control of schools -- What we learned about N.J.'s state takeovers". NJ.com. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  4. ^ "22 years of state control over Newark schools: A Timeline". NJ.com. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  5. ^ Abbott School Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed March 1, 2020.
  6. ^ What We Do, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2020.
  7. ^ SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2020.
  8. ^ "US Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  9. ^ NJ Department of Education District Factor Groups (DFG) for School Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed March 18, 2015.
  10. ^ a b Governance and Urban School Improvement: Lessons for New Jersey From Nine Cities (PDF). Institute on Education Law and Policy, Rutgers–Newark. October 2010. pp. 65–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  11. ^ "Office of the Superintendent". Newark Public Schools. August 24, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  12. ^ Yi, Karen. "Newark to pick own schools chief for first time in 22 years", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, December 26, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017. "The state-appointed superintendent for Newark schools will step down in February, paving the way for the district to select its own leader for the first time in 22 years. Superintendent Christopher Cerf announced last week he would resign on Feb. 1 -- the same day the state's takeover of Newark schools will officially end."
  13. ^ "Meet Roger León, the homegrown educator charting a new course for Newark schools". Chalkbeat. July 2, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  14. ^ Yi, Karen. "We want to elect school board members, not have the mayor do it, voters say", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, November 7, 2018, updated January 29, 2019. Accessed April 7, 2020. "The state ended its takeover of the Newark and Paterson school districts this year, leaving residents to decide the key question of how they want their schools to be run: by an elected school board or one appointed by the mayor.... With 90 percent of precincts reporting in Newark, 75 percent of 19,600 voters selected a Type II, or elected school board, compared to 25 percent who voted for a Type I school board appointed by the mayor."
  15. ^ "Office of the Superintendent". Newark Board of Education. August 24, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  16. ^ New Jersey Boards of Education by District Election Types - 2018 School Election, New Jersey Department of Education, updated February 16, 2018. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  17. ^ Mazzola, Jessica. "13 N.J school districts held elections Tuesday and - surprise! - hardly anyone voted. See how bad it was", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, April 18, 2018, updated May 14, 2019. Accessed February 17, 2020. "The rest of their 530 counterparts across the state have switched to November elections – most made the change immediately after a 2012 law allowing school district votes to move from April to the fall, held in tandem with the general election. But voters in 13 New Jersey towns went to the polls Tuesday to cast votes for their local boards of education, and in most cases, on whether or not to pass the district budgets."
  18. ^ "Newark Public Schools, New Jersey, elections (2019)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  19. ^ "Board of Education Members". Newark Board of Education. December 2, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  20. ^ "N.J. Sen. Rice calls for feds to look into state control of Newark, Jersey City and Paterson schools". NJ.com. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  21. ^ "#WeChoose Campaign". Journey For Justice. February 14, 2017. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  22. ^ "Parents Unified for Local School Education". Parents Unified for Local School Education. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  23. ^ "'States cannot run school districts': 10 reactions to historic Newark moment". NJ.com. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  24. ^ "PARCC Results: NJ's Top Performing School Districts, And More". Toms River, NJ Patch. February 3, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  25. ^ "Newark Public Schools on road to reclaiming local control, but more work remains". Politico PRO. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  26. ^ Yi, Karen (February 1, 2018). "Newark finally gets control of schools -- What we learned about N.J.'s state takeovers". nj.com. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  27. ^ Booker, Cory (September 25, 2010). "A Historic Opportunity". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  28. ^ Sahba, Amy (September 24, 2010). "Facebook founder announces $100 million donation". Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  29. ^ Russakoff, Dale (May 19, 2014). "Schooled: Cory Booker, Chris Christie, and Mark Zuckerberg had a plan to reform Newark's schools; They got an education". The New Yorker.
  30. ^ "Was Zuckerberg's $100M school gift a waste?". MSN Money. May 14, 2014. Archived from the original on May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  31. ^ Blue Ribbon Schools Program: Schools Recognized 1982-1983 through 1999-2002 (PDF) Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, accessed May 11, 2006.
  32. ^ U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon Schools Program: Schools Recognized 2003 through 2005 (PDF), accessed June 5, 2006.
  33. ^ Addison, Kasi; and Juri, Carmen. "Three Essex schools capture blue ribbon", The Star-Ledger, October 7, 2007. Accessed October 14, 2007. "Principals in three Essex County schools found out last week their buildings joined an exclusive club of exemplary schools when the U.S. Department of Education named the nation's latest batch of No Child Left Behind -- Blue Ribbon Schools.... The three Essex County schools are Oakview School in Bloomfield, Millburn High School and Harriet Tubman School in Newark."
  34. ^ No Child Left Behind - Blue Ribbon Schools Program: 2007 Schools, United States Department of Education. Accessed October 15, 2007.
  35. ^ 2009 Blue Ribbon Schools: All Public and Private Schools, United States Department of Education. Accessed October 29, 2009.
  36. ^ New Jersey Department of Education Best Practices Award recipient for 2005-06, accessed October 23, 2006
  37. ^ Jacobs, Andrew. "Criticized Poet Is Named Laureate of Newark Schools", The New York Times, December 19, 2002. Accessed September 19, 2008. "A longtime Newark resident who was pivotal in the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s, Mr. Baraka has ignored calls from Gov. James E. McGreevey and others that he resign the post, which pays a stipend of $10,000."
  38. ^ School Data for the Newark Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
  39. ^ School Directory, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  40. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Newark Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
  41. ^ Ann Street Annex , Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  42. ^ Early Childhood Center - Central, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  43. ^ Early Childhood Center - North, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  44. ^ Early Childhood Center - South, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  45. ^ Early Childhood Center - West, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  46. ^ Lafayette Street Annexes, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  47. ^ Wilson Street Annex, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  48. ^ Abington Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  49. ^ Ann Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  50. ^ Avon Avenue Elementar School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  51. ^ Belmont Runyon Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  52. ^ Branch Brook School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  53. ^ Bruce Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  54. ^ Camden Street Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  55. ^ Roberto Clemente School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  56. ^ George Washington Carver School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  57. ^ Chancellor Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  58. ^ Cleveland Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  59. ^ East Ward Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  60. ^ Elliott Street Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  61. ^ First Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  62. ^ Fourteenth Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  63. ^ Dr. E. Alma Flagg School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  64. ^ Benjamin Franklin School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  65. ^ Hawkins Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  66. ^ Hawthorne Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  67. ^ Rafael Hernandez School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  68. ^ Dr. William H. Horton School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  69. ^ Ivy Hill School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  70. ^ Lafayette Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  71. ^ Lincoln Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  72. ^ Luis Muñoz Marín School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  73. ^ McKinley Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  74. ^ Miller Street School Archived 2014-11-05 at the Wayback Machine, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  75. ^ Mount Vernon Place School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  76. ^ Oliver Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  77. ^ Park Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  78. ^ Peshine Academy, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  79. ^ Quitman Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  80. ^ Ridge Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  81. ^ South Seventeenth Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  82. ^ South Street School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  83. ^ Speedway Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  84. ^ Louise A. Spencer School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  85. ^ Sussex Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  86. ^ Thirteenth Avenue School / Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  87. ^ Harriet Tubman School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  88. ^ Salomé Ureña Elementary School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  89. ^ Wilson Avenue School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  90. ^ High School Data for the Newark Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
  91. ^ Arts High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  92. ^ American History High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  93. ^ Barringer High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  94. ^ Bard High School Early College Newark, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  95. ^ Central High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  96. ^ Eagle Academy for Young Men, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  97. ^ East Side High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  98. ^ Fast Track Success Academy, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  99. ^ Malcolm X Shabazz High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  100. ^ [https://www.nps.k12.nj.us/neec Newark Evening High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  101. ^ Newark Leadership Academy, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  102. ^ Newark Vocational High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  103. ^ Science Park High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  104. ^ Technology High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  105. ^ University High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  106. ^ Weequahic High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  107. ^ West Side High School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  108. ^ John F. Kennedy School, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  109. ^ New Jersey Regional Day School - Newark, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  110. ^ Uplift Academy, Newark Public Schools. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  111. ^ "Facts for Parents about School Uniforms[permanent dead link]." Newark Public Schools. Accessed March 2, 2010.
  112. ^ "Dear Parents of High School Students:[permanent dead link]" Newark Public Schools. June 22, 2009. Accessed March 2, 2010.

External links[edit]