List of nicknames of New York City
New York City has been known by a variety of nicknames, both officially and unofficially, now and in the past. City nicknames can help in establishing a civic identity, helping outsiders recognize a community or attracting people to a community because of its nickname; promote civic pride; and build community unity. Nicknames and slogans that successfully create a new community "ideology or myth" are also believed to have economic value. Their economic value is difficult to measure, but there are anecdotal reports of cities that have achieved substantial economic benefits by "branding" themselves by adopting new slogans.
New York City is frequently shortened to simply "New York," "NY", or "NYC". New York City is also known as "The City" or "The Big City" in much of the eastern United States. Other monikers have the form of "Baghdad on the Subway" or "Hong Kong on the Hudson," a reference in different cases to the city's prominence or its immigrant groups.
- The Big Apple, first used as a reference to the city's prominence in horse racing by John J. Fitz Gerald during the 1920s but made popular by a 1970s advertisement campaign
- The Capital of the World (Caput Mundi), popularized by the author E. B. White and by New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani
- The Center of the Universe, particularly in reference to Times Square
- The City So Nice They Named It Twice, a reference to "New York, New York" as both the city and state, first mentioned in the New York Times in 1975
- The City That Never Sleeps, first used in 1912 article in the Fort Wayne News, and popularized by John Kander and Fred Ebb's song "New York, New York" from the Martin Scorsese 1977 film of the same name
- The Empire City, derived from George Washington in the alleged quote "Surely this is the seat of the empire!" though first published in an 1836 newspaper as "the Empire City of the New World"; also in reference to New York City's status as the most populous city in New York State, whose primary nickname is The Empire State.
- The Five Boroughs, a reference to the counties that consolidated into New York City in 1898, and often used to distinguish the city proper from Manhattan alone or the New York metropolitan area
- Gotham, first used by Washington Irving in his satirical periodical Salmagundi (1807) and made popular as the location of Batman comics, first specified in 1940
- The Melting Pot, a reference to the wide variety of ethnicities and language groups in the city, and popularized by various authors including playwright Israel Zangwill in his 1908 play The Melting Pot
- Metropolis, popularized as the location of Superman comics, first specified in 1939 and itself an allusion to the setting of the Fritz Lang film Metropolis (1927), used to describe New York City in the daytime, in contrast to Gotham, sometimes used to describe New York City at night
- The Modern Gomorrah, referring to the sinfulness and organized crime of Manhattan, first popularized by Reverend Thomas De Witt Talmage in 1875 at the Brooklyn Tabernacle
- New Amsterdam, the original name of the Dutch colony prior to the English capture and renaming of the colony in 1665
- Muench, David "Wisconsin Community Slogans: Their Use and Local Impacts", December 1993, accessed April 10, 2007.
- Alfredo Andia, Branding the Generic City :), MU.DOT magazine, September 10, 2007
- Hickey, Walter (June 5, 2013). "22 Maps That Show How Americans Speak English Totally Differently From Each Other". Business Insider. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Popik, Barry (January 19, 2005). "The Big Apple: 98 Nicknames". Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "Why is New York City known as "the Big Apple" and "Gotham?"". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "About New York City". The City of New York. 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Eugene J. Sherman. "FORWARD New York – Capital of the Modern World". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Flannigan, Jenna; Miscone, Michael (January 18, 2011). "A history of NYC nicknames". Time Out New York. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Sarah Moore (March 22, 2011). "Explore Manhattan Neighborhoods: The Center of the Universe (aka Times Square)". Her Campus Media. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "Times Square The Crossroads of the World". TimesSquare.com. October 30, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Popik, Barry (July 18, 2004). "New York, New York—so nice, they named it twice". Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Gollust, Shelley (April 28, 2013). "Nicknames for New York City". Voice of America. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Keri Blakinger (March 8, 2016). "From Gotham to Metropolis: A look at NYC’s best nicknames". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Medina, Miriam (May 22, 2012). "The Five Boroughs of the City of New York: A Brief Historical Description". The History Box. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Nigro, Carmen (January 25, 2011). "So, why do we call it Gotham anyway?". New York Public Library. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Daniels, Les (April 1, 2004). Superman:The Complete History. Chronicle Books. p. 26. ISBN 0-8118-4231-2.
Another nickname is the big apple