New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.
Founded as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1626, the city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697 distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population of approximately 19.8 million people remains by a significant margin the United States' largest Metropolitan Statistical Area. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 55 million annual visitors. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, has been called the world's leading financial center and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
The death of John Lennon
occurred outside the entrance of the The Dakota
, in New York City's Upper West Side
on December 8, 1980. John Lennon
was an English musician who gained worldwide fame as one of the founder members of The Beatles
, for his subsequent solo career, and for his political activism and pacifism
. He was shot by Mark David Chapman
at the entrance of The Dakota, the apartment building where Lennon and Ono lived. Lennon had just returned from Record Plant Studio
with his wife, Yoko Ono
Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital, where it was stated that nobody could have lived for more than a few minutes after sustaining such injuries. Shortly after local news stations reported Lennon's death, crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota. Lennon was cremated on December 10, 1980 at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York; the ashes were given to Ono, who chose not to hold a funeral for him. The first media report of Lennon's death to a US national audience was announced by Howard Cosell, on ABC's Monday Night Football.
Sanford "Sandy" Koufax
; born Sanford Braun
; December 30, 1935) is a retired American baseball left-handed pitcher
, who played his entire Major League Baseball
(MLB) career for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers
from 1955 to 1966. He retired at the peak of his career, and in 1972 became the youngest player ever elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
Koufax's career peaked with a run of six outstanding seasons from 1961 to 1966, before arthritis in his left elbow ended his career prematurely at age 30. He was named the National League's (NL) Most Valuable Player in 1963. He also won the 1963, 1965, and 1966 Cy Young Awards unanimously, making him the first 3-time Cy Young winner in baseball history and the only one to win 3 times when the award was for all of baseball, not just one league. In each of his Cy Young seasons, Koufax won the pitcher's triple crown by leading the NL in wins, strikeouts, and earned run average. Koufax was the first major leaguer to pitch four no-hitters (including the eighth perfect game in baseball history). Despite his comparatively short career, Koufax's 2,396 career strikeouts ranked 7th in history as of his retirement, trailing only Warren Spahn (2,583) among left-handers. Koufax and Nolan Ryan are the only two pitchers inducted into the Hall of Fame who had more strikeouts than innings pitched.
There have been 12 Nobel laureates
affiliated with the City University of New York
(CUNY). CUNY considers any laureate who attended one of its senior colleges
as an affiliated laureate. Arthur Kornberg
, who graduated from the City College of New York
, a senior college of CUNY, in 1937, was the first CUNY laureate, winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959. Herbert A. Hauptman
and Jerome Karle
, both of whom graduated from the City College in 1937 with Kornberg, jointly won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1985, the only CUNY laureates to do so. Five CUNY laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Nine of the CUNY laureates graduated from the City College, two laureates, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
and Gertrude B. Elion
, graduated from Hunter College
, another CUNY senior college, and one laureate, Stanley Cohen
, graduated from Brooklyn College
, one of CUNY's senior colleges, in 1943.
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel and are administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
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