New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.
Founded as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1626, the city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697 distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population of approximately 19.8 million people remains by a significant margin the United States' largest Metropolitan Statistical Area. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 55 million annual visitors. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, has been called the world's leading financial center and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
Congregation Beth Elohim
is a Reform Jewish
congregation in the Park Slope
neighborhood of Brooklyn
, New York
, United States
. Founded in 1861 as a more liberal breakaway from Congregation Baith Israel
, within 65 years it attempted four mergers with other congregations, including three with Baith Israel. The congregation completed its current Classical Revival synagogue
building in 1910 and its "Jewish Deco" (Romanesque Revival
and Art Deco
) Temple House in 1929. These two buildings were contributing properties
to the Park Slope historic district
, listed as a New York City Landmark district
and listed on the National Register of Historic Places
The congregation went through difficult times during the Great Depression, and the bank almost foreclosed on its buildings in 1946. Membership dropped significantly in the 1930s because of the Depression, grew after World War II, and dropped again in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of demographic shifts. Programs for young children helped draw Jewish families back into the neighborhood and revitalize the membership. By 2006, Beth Elohim had over 1,000 members. As of 2009 , it was the largest and most active Reform congregation in Brooklyn, and its pulpit was the oldest in continuous use in any Brooklyn synagogue.
Eliot Laurence Spitzer
(born June 10, 1959) is an American
lawyer and politician of the Democratic Party
. He served as Governor of New York
from January 2007 until his resignation on March 17, 2008 in the wake of his involvement in a high-priced prostitution ring. Prior to being elected governor, Spitzer served as New York State Attorney General
Spitzer was born and raised in Riverdale, in the Bronx borough of New York City, to real estate tycoon Bernard Spitzer and Anne Spitzer, an English literature professor. He attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies and Harvard University for law school. It was there that he met his future wife, Silda Wall. After earning his Juris Doctor degree, Spitzer joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. Two years later, he joined the Manhattan district attorney's office, headed by Robert M. Morgenthau, to pursue organized crime. He launched the investigation that brought down the Gambino family's control over Manhattan's garment and trucking industries. In 1992, Spitzer left to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and, later, Constantine and Partners.
- August 6, 1988 – The Tompkins Square Park Police Riot occurs, leading to reforms of the New York Police Department.
- August 8, 1673 – During the Third Anglo-Dutch War, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the English surrender of New York City.
- August 14, 1980 – The 1980 Democratic National Convention nominates Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale for President and Vice President of the United States, respectively.
- August 15, 1965 – The Beatles play at Shea Stadium during their 1965 United States tour, marking the peak of "Beatlemania".
- August 19–21, 1991 – The Crown Heights riot occurs among tensions between African Americans and Orthodox Jews in the Crown Heights neighborhood.
- August 27, 1776 – The British Army outflanks the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island (pictured), forcing George Washington to evacuate to Manhattan.
New York City
, the largest city in the United States, is home to 5,845 completed high-rises
, 97 of which stand taller than 600 feet (183 m). The tallest building
in New York is the under-construction One World Trade Center
, which rises 1,776 feet (541 m) and was topped out
on May 10, 2013. The 104-story skyscraper also stands as the tallest building in the United States
, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere
, and the 4th-tallest building in the world
. The tallest completed building in the city is the 102-story Empire State Building
in Midtown Manhattan
, which was finished in 1931 and rises to 1,250 feet (381 m), increased to 1,454 feet (443 m) by its antenna. It also is the fourth-tallest building in the United States and the 23rd-tallest building in the world. The Empire State Building stood as the tallest building in the world from its completion until 1972, when the 110-story North Tower of the original World Trade Center
was completed. At 1,368 feet (417 m), One World Trade Center briefly held the title as the world's tallest building until the completion of the 108-story Sears Tower
(now known as the Willis Tower) in Chicago in 1974. The World Trade Center towers were destroyed by terrorist attacks in 2001
, and the Empire State Building regained the title of tallest building in the City. The third-tallest building in New York is the Bank of America Tower
, which rises to 1,200 feet (366 m), including its spire. Tied for fourth-tallest are the 1,046-foot (319 m) Chrysler Building
, which was the world's tallest building from 1930 until 1931, and the New York Times Building
, which was completed in 2007.
New York City skyscrapers are concentrated in Midtown and Lower Manhattan, although other neighborhoods of Manhattan and the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens and The Bronx also have significant numbers of high-rises. As of January 2011 , the entire city has 228 buildings that rise at least 500 feet (152 m) in height, including those under construction, more than any other city in the United States.
Since 2003, New York City has seen the completion of 23 buildings that rise at least 600 feet (183 m) in height. Thirteen more are under construction, including One World Trade Center, which will be the tallest building in the country when complete. One World Trade Center is part of the redevelopment of the World Trade Center, which also includes the 975-foot (297 m) 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center and the two under-construction buildings: the 1,350-foot (411 m) 2 World Trade Center and the 1,171-foot (357 m) 3 World Trade Center. Overall, as of November 2013 , there were 170 high-rise buildings under construction or proposed for construction in New York City.
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