New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.
Founded as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1626, the city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697 distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population of approximately 19.8 million people remains by a significant margin the United States' largest Metropolitan Statistical Area. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 55 million annual visitors. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, has been called the world's leading financial center and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
The death of John Lennon
occurred outside the entrance of the The Dakota
, in New York City's Upper West Side
on December 8, 1980. John Lennon
was an English musician who gained worldwide fame as one of the founder members of The Beatles
, for his subsequent solo career, and for his political activism and pacifism
. He was shot by Mark David Chapman
at the entrance of The Dakota, the apartment building where Lennon and Ono lived. Lennon had just returned from Record Plant Studio
with his wife, Yoko Ono
Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital, where it was stated that nobody could have lived for more than a few minutes after sustaining such injuries. Shortly after local news stations reported Lennon's death, crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota. Lennon was cremated on December 10, 1980 at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York; the ashes were given to Ono, who chose not to hold a funeral for him. The first media report of Lennon's death to a US national audience was announced by Howard Cosell, on ABC's Monday Night Football.
Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig
(June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), nicknamed "The Iron Horse"
for his durability, was an American Major League Baseball first baseman
. He played his entire 17-year baseball career for the New York Yankees
(1923–1939). Gehrig set several major league records. He holds the record for most career grand slams
(23). Gehrig is chiefly remembered for his prowess as a hitter, his consecutive games-played record and its subsequent longevity
, and the pathos of his farewell from baseball at age 36, when he was stricken with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A native of New York City, he played for the New York Yankees until his career was cut short by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), now commonly known in the United States and Canada as Lou Gehrig's disease. Over a 15-season span from 1925 through 1939, he played in 2,130 consecutive games, the streak ending only when Gehrig became disabled by the fatal neuromuscular disease that claimed his life two years later. His streak, long considered one of baseball's few unbreakable records, stood for 56 years, until finally broken by Cal Ripken, Jr., of the Baltimore Orioles on September 6, 1995.
- August 6, 1988 – The Tompkins Square Park Police Riot occurs, leading to reforms of the New York Police Department.
- August 8, 1673 – During the Third Anglo-Dutch War, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the English surrender of New York City.
- August 14, 1980 – The 1980 Democratic National Convention nominates Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale for President and Vice President of the United States, respectively.
- August 15, 1965 – The Beatles play at Shea Stadium during their 1965 United States tour, marking the peak of "Beatlemania".
- August 19–21, 1991 – The Crown Heights riot occurs among tensions between African Americans and Orthodox Jews in the Crown Heights neighborhood.
- August 27, 1776 – The British Army outflanks the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island (pictured), forcing George Washington to evacuate to Manhattan.
The City University of New York
(CUNY) system is the public university system
of New York City
. CUNY consists of three types of institutions
: senior colleges, which grant bachelor's degrees
and occasionally master's
and associate's degrees
; community colleges
, which grant associate's degrees; and graduate or professional schools. CUNY is the United States's largest urban public university, with an enrollment of over 400,000 students As of 2009 . All of these schools are accredited
by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools
, in addition to other program-specific accreditations held by individual campuses, such as Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
and Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs
CUNY and the State University of New York (SUNY) are different university systems, despite the fact that both are public institutions that receive funding from the state of New York. The 64 SUNY and 24 CUNY campus institutions are part of University of the State of New York (USNY). USNY is the governmental umbrella organization for most education-related institutions and many education-related personnel (both public and private) in the state of New York, and which includes, as a component, the New York State Education Department.
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