Oda Nobukatsu

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Oda Nobukatsu
織田 信雄
Lord of Uda-Matsuyama
In office
1615–1630
Preceded by Fukushima Takaharu
Succeeded by Oda Takanaga
Personal details
Born 1558
Died June 10, 1630(1630-06-10) (aged 71–72)
Nationality Japanese
Spouse(s) Kitabatake Tomonori's daughter
Father Oda Nobunaga
Military service
Allegiance Mon-Oda.png Oda clan
Goshichi no kiri inverted.svg Toyotomi clan
Tokugawa family crest.svg Tokugawa shogunate
Unit Mon-Oda.png Oda clan
Battles/wars Battle of Komaki and Nagakute
Kyūshū Campaign
Siege of Odawara
Siege of Osaka

Oda Nobukatsu (織田 信雄, 1558 – June 10, 1630) was a Japanese samurai of the Azuchi–Momoyama period. He was the second son of Oda Nobunaga. He survived the decline of the Oda clan from political prominence, becoming a daimyō in the early Edo period. Though often described as an incompetent general, Nobukatsu was a skilled warrior. In the battle of Komaki and Nagakute, he used a 13th-century tachi of the Fukuoka Ichimonji school, to slay a samurai known as Okada Sukesaburō, therefore the blade was known as Okada-giri Yoshifusa, now a national treasure.

Kitabatake clan[edit]

In 1570, Nobukatsu became an adopted heir of the Kitabatake clan and married a daughter of the former lord of Kitabatake, Tomonori. The true nature of this marriage was a condition of truce forced by the Oda clan to the Kitabatake clan. In 1575, Nobukatsu officially became the head of the family. The next year, he killed his father-in-law, imprisoned the previous lord, who was his father by adoption, and completely took over the Kitabatake clan.

In 1579, eager to achieve fame, Nobukatsu directed an invasion of Iga, which only ended in disastrous failure and severe rebuke from his father. Two years later, Nobunaga himself led another invasion with an army of several ten thousand and destroyed the whole region.

Death of Nobunaga[edit]

When Nobunaga and his heir, Nobutada, died at the Incident at Honoo-ji in 1582, problems arose about who would succeed the lordship of Oda clan. When Nobukatsu and his younger brother, Nobutaka, quarreled over the matter, a council decided on the infant son of Nobutada, Oda Hidenobu. The opinion of Toyotomi Hideyoshi was most influential on this decision.[1]

At this point, Nobukatsu changed his surname back to Oda. He succeeded his father as lord of Mino, Owari, and Ise Provinces.

Decline of Nobukatsu[edit]

During the succeeding chaotic years, Nobukatsu joined with Hideyoshi to destroy Nobutaka.[1]:313 However, soon their relationship became hostile, too, and Nobukatsu allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to fight Hideyoshi in the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute in 1584. After more than a half year of battles, Hideyoshi persuaded Nobukatsu to make peace, offering him the security of the dominion. Nobukatsu took this offer and practically became a retainer of Hideyoshi. Later, when he served at the siege of Odawara (1590), he refused to accept Hideyoshi's order to change his dominion, and not only lost his original domain but was also forced to become a monk under the supervision of some Toyotomi retainers. A few years later, Hideyoshi's anger eased and Nobukatsu regained some land to rule.

He became the guardian of Toyotomi Hideyori after Hideyoshi's death. However, he betrayed the Toyotomi clan at the Siege of Osaka, and surrendered to Tokugawa Ieyasu. As a result, he was permitted to remain a daimyō by the Tokugawa shogunate. Though he is often described as an incompetent general, he managed to survive the series of upheavals. After the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, he became the lord of the Uda-Matsuyama Domain in Yamato Province (modern-day Nara Prefecture), and comfortably lived the rest of his life.

Family[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 311. ISBN 0804705259. 
Preceded by
Kitabatake Tomofusa
Kitabatake family head
1572–1582
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
Fukushima Takaharu
1st (Oda) Lord of Uda-Matsuyama
1615–1630
Succeeded by
Oda Takanaga