Panch phoron (Hindi: पन्चफोरन, Bengali: পাঁচ ফোড়ন pãch phoṛon, Odia: ପଞ୍ଚୁ ଫୁଟଣ, Assamese: পাঁচ ফুৰণ), also found transliterated as Padkaune Masala, panch puran, panchphoran, panch phutana, panch phuran, is a whole spice blend, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Bangladesh, Eastern India and Southern Nepal especially in their cuisine. The name literally means "five spices" in Maithili (paanch phorana), Nepali (Padkaune Masala), Assamese (pas phoṛôn), Bengali (pãch phoṛon) and Odia (panchu phutana (ପଞ୍ଚୁ ଫୁଟଣ)).
All of the spices in panch phoron are seeds. Typically, panch phoron consists of fenugreek seed (methi मेथी दाना), nigella seed (मंग्रैल / कलौंजी), cumin seed (जीरा), black mustard seed (राई) and fennel seed (सौंफ़) in equal parts. Some cooks prefer to use a smaller proportion of fenugreek seeds, which have a mildly bitter taste.
In the tradition of Odia, Maithili cuisine, Nepali cuisine, and Bengali cuisine, panch phoron is typically fried in mustard oil or ghee, which causes it to immediately begin popping. This technique is known as "tempering", called ବଘାର (baghaar) or ଛୁଙ୍କ (Chhunka) or ଫୁଟଣ (Phutana) in Odia, ফোড়ন (phoŗon) in Maithili of Nepali dialect and in Bengali, or বাগাড় (bagaŗ) also in Bengali and छौंक (chaunk) in Hindi/Urdu. After tempering, other ingredients are added to the fried spices to be coated in the mixture.
- Jaffrey, Madhur. Madhur Jaffrey's Ultimate Curry Bible. Ebury Press, 2003. ISBN 0-09-187415-7
- "Panch Phoron Seeds Glossary | Recipes with Panch Phoron Seeds". Tarladalal.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
- Mom, Bong (2007-06-07). "Bong Mom's CookBook: Panch Phoran". Bongcookbook.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
- Deepika Sahu (10 May 2012). "The power of five seeds".