Fenugreek

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Fenugreek
Illustration Trigonella foenum-graecum0 clean.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Trigonella
Species: T. foenum-graecum
Binomial name
Trigonella foenum-graecum
L.[1]
Fenugreek greens

Fenugreek (/ˈfɛnjᵿɡrk/; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop, and its seeds are a common ingredient in dishes from the Indian subcontinent.

History[edit]

Fenugreek is believed to have been brought into cultivation in the Near East. While Zohary and Hopf are uncertain which wild strain of the genus Trigonella gave rise to domesticated fenugreek, charred fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal, Iraq, (carbon dated to 4000 BC) and Bronze Age levels of Lachish and desiccated seeds from the tomb of Tutankhamen.[2] Cato the Elder lists fenugreek with clover and vetch as crops grown to feed cattle.[3] In the 1st century AD, in Galilee, it was grown as a food staple, as Josephus mentions it in his book, the Wars of the Jews.[4] A compendium of Jewish oral law known as the Mishnah (compiled in the 2nd century) mentions the plant under its Hebrew name, tiltan.[5]

Production[edit]

Major fenugreek-producing countries are Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Bangladesh, Argentina, Egypt, France, Spain, Turkey, and Morocco. The largest producer is India. Fenugreek production in India is concentrated in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, and Punjab. Rajasthan accounts for over 80% of India's output.[6]

Use[edit]

Fenugreek seeds

Fenugreek is used as an herb (dried or fresh leaves), spice (seeds), and vegetable (fresh leaves, sprouts, and microgreens). Sotolon is the chemical responsible for fenugreek's distinctive sweet smell. Cuboid-shaped, yellow- to amber-colored fenugreek seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, used both whole and powdered in the preparation of pickles, vegetable dishes, daals, and spice mixes such as panch phoron and sambar powder. They are often roasted to reduce bitterness and enhance flavor.[7]

Fresh fenugreek leaves are an ingredient in some Indian curries. Sprouted seeds and microgreens are used in salads. When harvested as microgreens, fenugreek is known as samudra methi in Maharashtra, especially in and around Mumbai, where it is often grown near the sea in the sandy tracts, hence the name samudra, "ocean" in Sanskrit. Samudra methi is also grown in dry river beds in the Gangetic plains. When sold as a vegetable in India, the young plants are harvested with their roots still attached and sold in small bundles in the markets and bazaars. Any remaining soil is washed off to extend their shelf life.

In Turkish cuisine, fenugreek seeds are used for making a paste known as çemen. Cumin, black pepper, and other spices are added into it, especially to make pastırma.

In Persian cuisine, fenugreek leaves are called شنبلیله (shanbalile). They are the key ingredient and one of several greens incorporated into ghormeh sabzi and eshkeneh, often said to be the Iranian national dishes.

In Egyptian cuisine, peasants in Upper Egypt add fenugreek seeds and maize to their pita bread to produce aish merahrah, a staple of their diet.

Fenugreek is used in Eritrean and Ethiopian cuisine.[8] The word for fenugreek in Amharic is abesh (or abish), and the seed is used in Ethiopia as a natural herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes.[8]

Yemenite Jews following the interpretation of Rabbi Shelomo Yitzchak (Rashi) believe fenugreek, which they call hilbeh, hilba, helba, or halba (חילבה), to be the Talmudic rubia (רוביא). When the seed kernels are ground and mixed with water they greatly expand; hot spices, turmeric and lemon juice are added to produce a frothy relish eaten with a sop. The relish is also called hilbeh;[9] it is reminiscent of curry. It is eaten daily and ceremonially during the meal of the first and/or second night of the Jewish New Year, Rosh Hashana.[10]

Nutritional profile[edit]

Fenugreek leaves, raw[11] (% Daily Value)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 205 kJ (49 kcal)
6 g
0.9 g
4.4 g
Minerals
Calcium
(40%)
395 mg
Iron
(15%)
1.93 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
51 mg
Other constituents
Water 88.7 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Per 100g, fenugreek leaves provide 49 calories and contain 89% water, 6% carbohydrates, 4% protein and less than 1% fat, with calcium at 40% of the Daily Value (DV, table).[11]

Fenugreek seeds (per 100 g) are rich sources of protein (46% of DV), dietary fiber (98% DV), B vitamins, iron (186% DV) and several other dietary minerals.[12]

Safety[edit]

Fenugreek sprouts, cultivated from a single specific batch of seeds imported from Egypt into Germany in 2009, were implicated as the source of the 2011 outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Germany and France. [13] Identification of a common producer and a single batch of fenugreek seeds supports the epidemiologic evidence implicating them as the source of the outbreaks.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trigonella foenum-graecum information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 122. 
  3. ^ Cato the Elder. De Agri Cultura. p. 27. 
  4. ^ Josephus, De Bello Judaico, book 3, chapter 7, vs. 29. The prepared relish made from ground fenugreek seeds is very slimy and slippery, and was therefore poured over ladders as a stratagem to prevent the enemy's ascent.
  5. ^ Thus explained by Maimonides in his commentary on the Mishnah (Kilaim 2:5; Terumot 10:5; Orlah 3:6; Niddah 2:6, et. al), although not to be confused with the Modern Hebrew word, tiltan, which is now used for clover (Trifolium).
  6. ^ V. A. Parthasarathy, K. Kandinnan and V. Srinivasan (ed.). "Fenugreek". Organic Spices. New India Publishing Agencies. p. 694. 
  7. ^ "Fenugreek recipes". BBC Food. 
  8. ^ a b Gall, Alevtina; Zerihun Shenkute (November 3, 2009). "Ethiopian Traditional and Herbal Medications and their Interactions with Conventional Drugs". EthnoMed. University of Washington. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Hilba (Fenugreek_paste)". cookipedia.co.uk. 
  10. ^ This is based on the assumption that the Aramaic name רוביא corresponds to it. (Karetot 6a; Horiyot 12a) Rabbenu Nissim at the end of Rosh Hashana, citing the custom of R Hai Gaon. This follows Rashi's translation of רוביא, cited as authoritative by Tur and Shulchan Aruch OC 583:1. But Abudirham interprets רוביא as black-eyed peas.
  11. ^ a b C.Gopalan, B.V. Ramasastri and S.C. Balasubramaniyam. Nutritive value of Indian food. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR Hydrabad. 
  12. ^ "Fenugreek seed per 100 g". Conde Nast Nutritiondata.com from the USDA National Nutrient Database, release SR-21. 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  13. ^ McKenna, Maryn (2011-07-07). "E. coli: A Risk for 3 More Years From Who Knows Where". Wired. 
  14. ^ King, L. A.; Nogareda, F.; Weill, F.-X.; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P.; Loukiadis, E.; Gault, G.; Jourdan-DaSilva, N.; Bingen, E.; Mace, M.; Thevenot, D.; Ong, N.; Castor, C.; Noel, H.; Van Cauteren, D.; Charron, M.; Vaillant, V.; Aldabe, B.; Goulet, V.; Delmas, G.; Couturier, E.; Le Strat, Y.; Combe, C.; Delmas, Y.; Terrier, F.; Vendrely, B.; Rolland, P.; de Valk, H. (2012). "Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Associated With Organic Fenugreek Sprouts, France, June 2011". Clinical Infectious Diseases 54 (11): 1588–1594. doi:10.1093/cid/cis255. ISSN 1058-4838. 

Further reading[edit]

Oddepally, R.; Guruprasad, L. (Mar 2015). "Isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds". Biochemistry (Moscow) 80 (3): 332–342. doi:10.1134/S0006297915030086. PMID 25761687. 

External links[edit]