Pearl onion

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Pearl onions.jpg
Pearl onions and peas topping a crockpot dish
Species A. ampeloprasum var. sectivum or A. ampeloprasum 'Pearl-Onion Group'
Cultivar 'Pearl onion'

The "true" pearl onion (A. ampeloprasum var. sectivum or A. ampeloprasum 'Pearl-Onion Group'),[1] (also known as 'button' or 'baby onions' in the UK,[2] or 'creamers 'in the US,[3] ) is a close relative of the leek (A. ampeloprasum var. porrum), and may be distinguished from common onions by having only a single storage leaf,[4] similar to cloves of garlic. In French they are known as 'petit poireau antillais'.[5]

They are cultivated mostly in Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy,[6] usually in home gardens,[1] although formerly on a commercial scale.[5] They are mostly used for pickling.[7]

However, the majority of onions grown for pickling are common onions (A. cepa).[8] They are grown to a small size suitable for pickling by planting at a high density.[9]

Known small white varieties include 'Crystal Wax',[6](or 'White Bermuda').[10] but red varieties exist but they are milder in flavour.[11] 'Pearl' onions ready to harvest from seed in 90 days.[10] They an be stored for up to a month in a cool, dry, dark place.[11][12]

Because of its uniquely small size and a taste sweeter than that of a common onion,[2][10] it has also been used in dishes ranging from mid-20th-century American casserole dishes such as succotash to sweetly flavored onion relishes in Indian cuisine. It an also be used in stews soups or sauted (fryed) with other vegetables.[3][2][13] It an also be used in cocktails such as "martini standing".[6]

'Pearl' onions are, however, a staple to the cuisine of Northern Europe, especially Sweden.[citation needed] Also in modern Europe they are used as a beautiful flowering plant and in Israel as a cut flower.[5]

'Pearl' onions contain chemical compounds that have health benefits including helping cardiovascular health and stabilize blood sugar levels, and acting as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.[11][12]

Cultural references[edit]

Larry Wall's yearly serious State of the Onion speeches about advancements in Perl programming, an allusion to the many layers of the language, are named as a pun both on the 'pearl' onion and the US presidents' State of the Union addresses.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 0-85199-510-1. 
  2. ^ a b c "Onion". waitrose.com. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Pearson, Liz (21 December 2007). "SKINNING A PEARL ONION". saveur.com. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  4. ^ AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center. "Onion cultivation". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c "Parisian Onions". traveltoeat.com. 17 June 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Linda Griffith and Fred Griffith Onions, Onions, Onions: Delicious Recipes for the World's Favorite Secret ..., p. 126, at Google Books
  7. ^ Hanelt, Peter (2001). "Alliaceae". In P. Hanelt. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except ornamentals). Berlin: Spring-Verlag. p. 2266. ISBN 3-540-41017-1. 
  8. ^ Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 0-85199-510-1. 
  9. ^ Brewster, James L. (1994). Onions and other vegetable alliums (1st ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 212. ISBN 0-85198-753-2. 
  10. ^ a b c "Pearl Onions". cooksinfo.com. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c "Pearl Onions". bonappetit.com. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "Pearl onion nutrition selection storage". fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  13. ^ Maister, Kathy. "How to Peel Pearl Onions". startcooking.com/. Retrieved 23 January 2017.