Pineapple juice

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Pineapple juice in glass

Pineapple juice is a liquid made from pressing the natural liquid from the pulp of the pineapple (a fruit from a tropical plant).[1] Numerous pineapple varieties may be used to manufacture commercial pineapple juice, the most common of which are Smooth Cayenne, Red Spanish, Queen, and Abacaxi.[1] In manufacturing, pineapple juice is typically canned.[1]

It is used as a single or mixed juice beverage, and for smoothies, cocktails, culinary flavor, and as a meat tenderizer.[1] Pineapple juice is a main ingredient in the piña colada and tepache.

History[edit]

There is no record of how or when pineapples arrived in Hawaii, with some accounts of pineapples being washed ashore from a Spanish or Portuguese shipwreck or brought ashore by sailors.[2] The fruit may have arrived with the Spanish years before the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778,[3] but another source states the first pineapple was planted by Don Francisco de Paula Marin.[4] While Marin was a horticulturalist who introduced many new plants to Hawaii, he may not have been the first person to introduce pineapples to Hawaii, but did describe pineapple planting in his journals in 1813.[5]

Pineapple juice contributed to the success of the pineapple industry in the 1930s. In 1932, the Hawaiian Pineapple Company successfully developed a process of clarifying the juice, while capturing the aroma and flavor of the fruit.[6] Large-scale cultivation of pineapples led to the formation of a pineapple commerce association which had strict production limits on the canning of whole, cut and crushed pineapple. Although industry members had agreed on these limitations in a 1934 pool agreement, the industry turned to canning of pineapple juice to expand commercial opportunities, while taking advantage of fruit juice as a new trend in breakfast drinks.[6]

Production[edit]

Pineapple juice (canned, solids and liquids)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy251 kJ (60 kcal)
15.7 g
Sugars14.45 g
Dietary fiber0.8 g
0.08 g
0.42 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Thiamine (B1)
9%
0.1 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.28 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
2%
0.1 mg
Vitamin B6
5%
0.07 mg
Folate (B9)
1%
5 μg
Choline
1%
4.8 mg
Vitamin C
11%
9.5 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
1%
14 mg
Copper
5%
0.09 mg
Iron
2%
0.28 mg
Magnesium
4%
14 mg
Manganese
53%
1.12 mg
Phosphorus
1%
6 mg
Potassium
3%
122 mg
Sodium
0%
1 mg
Zinc
1%
0.10 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water83.5 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Pineapple juice is manufactured from ripe pineapples.[1][7] To clean pineapples before juicing, a brush and spray cleaning machine is used to remove stains, imperfections and pesticide residue.[8] After cleaning, the fruit is put into a pineapple peeling and extractor machine to obtain pulps which are put into a spiral juice extractor.[8] A juice fine filter is then used to remove all solids, fiber and colloidal particles from the pineapple juice.[1][8]

A vacuum degasser is used to remove the air in the pineapple juice. Removing the gas prevents the solids from floating. Degassing also helps to reduce foaming in packing and sterilization occurs in a heat exchanger. After this process, the sterilized pineapple juice is cooled to 50 °C (122 °F).[8] Pasteurizing pineapple juice stops the enzymes that cause browning.[1][7] The pasteurized pineapple juice is put in iron drums lined with aseptic aluminum-plastic composite bags.[7] After cooling, the pineapple juice is put into bottles or cans using a filling machine.[1][8]

Pineapple juice powder is made by spraying pineapple juice on tapioca maltodextrin and leaving it to dry.[9]

Nutrition[edit]

Pineapple juice is 84% water, 16% carbohydrates, and contains negligible fat and protein (table). In a 100 ml (g) reference amount, pineapple juice supplies 60 calories, with only manganese in significant content (53% of the Daily Value, DV), while vitamin C content is moderate (11% DV).

Cooking[edit]

Pineapple juice powder can be used in pies, cakes, muffins, scones, chutneys, jams, chilis, candies, sauces, and stews. Pineapple juice powder can be used to marinate chicken and fish.[9]

Market[edit]

The European Union consumed 50% of global total for pineapple juice in 2016.[10] The Netherlands was the largest importer of pineapple juice in Europe in 2016.[10] Thailand and Costa Rica were the major suppliers to the European Union market in 2016.[10] Countries consuming the most pineapple juice in 2017 were Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, having combined consumption of 47% of the world total.[11] The consumption of pineapple juice in China and India is low compared to their populations.[11]

Beverages[edit]

The tepache is made from the skin and core of pineapples, sugar cane and cinnamon.[12] The piña colada is a cocktail made with white rum, coconut cream, and pineapple juice.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h JF Morton (1987). "Pineapple; In: Fruits of warm climates". NewCROP, New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  2. ^ Dianne Onstad (2004). Whole foods companion: a guide for adventurous cooks, curious shoppers, and lovers of natural foods. Chelsea Green Pub. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-931498-68-5.
  3. ^ Donald D Heaton (May 28, 1997). A Produce Reference Guide to Fruits and Vegetables from Around the World: Nature's Harvest. CRC Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-56022-865-3.
  4. ^ D. P. Bartholomew; Robert E. Paull; K. G. Rohrbach (November 20, 2002). The Pineapple: Botany, Production, and Uses. CABI. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-85199-979-1.
  5. ^ Julius Lloyd Collins (1960). The Pineapple: Botany, Cultivation and Utilization. L. Hill. p. 21.
  6. ^ a b Richard A. Hawkins (November 15, 2011). A Pacific Industry: The History of Pineapple Canning in Hawaii. I.B.Tauris. pp. 87–89. ISBN 978-1-84885-596-0.
  7. ^ a b c Pineapple juice processing complete sets of production lines TICO, Retrieved June 10, 2019
  8. ^ a b c d e Pineapple juice processing line TICO, Retrieved June 10, 2019
  9. ^ a b Pineapple Juice Powder Spices, Inc. Retrieved June 12, 2019
  10. ^ a b c "Exporting pineapple juice to Europe". Centre for the Promotion of Imports, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of the Netherlands. December 13, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Population growth drives gradual expansion of pineapple juice market". AgriOrbit. January 21, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  12. ^ Tom Hunt. "How to turn pineapple skin into a refreshing drink". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  13. ^ The "Strained Pineapple"....History of Pina Colada Piteliaxitelia Retrieved June 11, 2019

Further reading[edit]

  • Carneiro, Lucia; Dos Santos Sa, Iralla; Dos Santos Gomes, Flávia; Matta, Virginia Martins; Cabral, Lourdes Maria Corrêa (September 10, 2002). "Cold sterilization and clarification of pineapple juice by tangential microfiltration". Desalination. 148 (1–3): 93–98. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(02)00659-8. ISSN 0011-9164.
  • Sreenath, Hassan K.; Sudarshanakrishna, Kadambi R.; Santhanam, Krishnaswamy (December 1, 1993). "Improvement of juice recovery from pineapple pulp/residue using cellulases and pectinases". Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering. 78 (6): 486–488. doi:10.1016/0922-338X(94)90054-X. ISSN 0922-338X.
  • Braddock, R.J.; Marcy, J.E. (1985). "Freeze Concentration of Pineapple Juice". Journal of Food Science. Wiley. 50 (6): 1636–1639. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb10552.x. ISSN 0022-1147.

External links[edit]