Grapefruit juice

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White grapefruit juice
Sliced pink grapefruit

Grapefruit juice is the juice from grapefruits. It is rich in Vitamin C and ranges from sweet-tart to very sour. Variations include white grapefruit, pink grapefruit and ruby red grapefruit juice.[1][2]

Grapefruit juice is important in medicine because of its interactions with many common drugs including caffeine and medications, which can alter how they behave in the body.

Drug interactions[edit]

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs, in many cases resulting in adverse effects.[3] This happens in two ways: one is that grapefruit can block an enzyme which metabolizes medication,[4] and if the drug is not metabolized, then the level of the drug in the blood can become too high leading to an adverse effect;[4] the other effect is that grapefruit can block the absorption of drugs in the intestine,[4] and if the drug is not absorbed, then not enough of it is in the blood to have a therapeutic effect.[4]

One whole grapefruit or a glass of 200 mL (6.8 US fl oz) of grapefruit juice can cause drug overdose toxicity.[5] Drugs which are incompatible with grapefruit are typically labeled on the container or package insert.[4] People taking drugs can ask their health care provider or pharmacist questions about grapefruit/drug interactions.[4]

Use in cocktails[edit]

Grapefruit juice is used in several cocktail,s such as the sea breeze (which consists of grapefruit juice, vodka, and cranberry juice);[6] the salty dog,[7] and the grapefruit mimosa.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The World's Healthiest Foods; Grapefruit. The George Mateljan Foundation. Article
  2. ^ Fellers PJ, Nikdel S, Lee HS (August 1990). "Nutrient content and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 90 (8): 1079–84. PMID 2380455. 
  3. ^ Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JM (March 2013). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". CMAJ. 185 (4): 309–16. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. PMC 3589309Freely accessible. PMID 23184849. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Mitchell, Steve (19 February 2016). "Why Grapefruit and Medication Can Be a Dangerous Mix". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Bailey, D. G.; Dresser, G.; Arnold, J. M. O. (2012). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 185 (4): 309–316. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 3589309Freely accessible. PMID 23184849. 
  6. ^ Salvatore Calabrese, Classic Cocktails (Sterling Publishing, 1997), p. 158.
  7. ^ a b David Tanis, Heart of the Artichoke and Other Kitchen Journeys (Workman: 2010), p. 320.

External links[edit]