||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2011)|
|Alternative names||Chatney, Chatni|
|Place of origin||India|
|Region or state||South Asia(Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka )|
|Main ingredients||Seasonings such as salt, spices/herbs, and vegetables/fruits such as chilis, Damsons, plums, tomatoes, apple, pear, onion, garlic, fig, etc.|
|Cookbook: Chutney Media: Chutney|
Chutney ( Hindi - "चटनी" also transliterated chatney or chatni, Sindhi: چٽڻي) is a family of condiments associated with South Asian cuisine made from a highly variable mixture of spices, vegetables, or fruit.
As with other condiments such as relish or mustard, chutneys are based on a wide range of recipes and preparation methods, they vary widely by geography, they can range from a wet to dry—or coarse to fine—and they can be combined with a wide variety of foods or used for dipping.
The word "chutney" derives from the Sanskrit word caṭnī, meaning to lick.
Types and preparation
Chutneys can be made from almost any combination of vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Chutneys are usually grouped into sweet or hot forms; both forms usually contain spices, including chili, but differ by their main flavours.
Vinegar, citrus, tamarind, or lemon juice may be added as natural preservatives, or fermentation in the presence of salt may be used to create acid. The first chutneys in India would have been sticky fruit based preserves. Sugar, although available in India, was not widely cultivated. This led to the chutneys being used as more of a savory dipping sauce rather than a condiment.
Chutneys may be ground with a mortar and pestle or an ammikkal (Tamil). Spices are added and ground, usually in a particular order; the wet paste thus made is sautéed in vegetable oil, usually gingelly (sesame) or groundnut (peanut) oil. Electric blenders or food processors can be used as labor-saving alternatives to stone grinding.
Spices commonly used in chutneys include fenugreek, coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing). Other prominent ingredients and combinations include cilantro, capsicum, mint (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari chutney, where hari is Hindi for "green"), Tamarind or Imli (often called meethi chutney, as meethi in Hindi means "sweet")l, Sooth (or saunth, made with dates and ginger), Coconut, Onion, Prune, Tomato, Red chili, Green chili, mango Lime(made from whole, unripe limes), garlic, coconut, peanut, Dahi, Green tomato, Dhaniya pudina (cilantro and mint), Peanut (shengdana chutney in Marathi), Ginger, Yogurt, red chili powder, Tomato onion chutney, Cilantro mint coconut chutney and apricot.
Major Grey's Chutney is a type of sweet and spicy chutney popular in the United Kingdom and the United States. The recipe was reportedly created by a 19th-century British Army officer of the same name (likely apocryphal) who presumably lived in Colonial India. Its characteristic ingredients are mango, raisins, vinegar, lime juice, onion, tamarind extract, sweetening and spices. Several companies produce a Major Grey's Chutney, in the UK, the US, and India.
The word "chutney" is derived from the Hindi word chatṭnī, meaning to lick. It is written differently in several North Indian and South Indian languages (Gujarati: ચટણી, Bengali: চাটনী, Marathi: चटणी, Punjabi: ਚਟਣੀ, Tamil: சட்டினி chaṭṭiṉi, காரத் துவையல் karathuvaiyal, Kannada: ಚಟ್ನಿ, Hindi: चटनी, Urdu: چٹنی, Sindhi: چٽڻي, Malayalam: ചട്ടിണി, chattin̩i, ചമ്മന്തി, Telugu: పచ్చడి). Pacchadi, as written in Telugu script here, refers specifically to pickled fruits, whilst chutney refers to minced foods, usually made out of coconuts.
In India, "chutney" refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. Several Indian languages use the word for fresh preparations only. A different word achār (Hindi: अचार) applies to preserves that often contain oil and are rarely sweet.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Similar in preparation and usage to a pickle, simple spiced chutneys can be dated as far back as 500 BC. Originating in India, this method of preserving food was subsequently adopted by the Romans and later British empires, who then started exporting this to the colonies, Australia and North America.
As greater imports of foreign and varied foods increasing into Northern Europe the chutney fell out of favor. This combined with a greater ability to refrigerate fresh foods and an increasing amount of glasshouses meant chutney and pickle were relegated to military and colonial use. Chutney also appeared in India around the 1780s as a popular appetizer
Diego Álvarez Chanca brought back chili peppers from the Americas. After discovering their medicinal properties, Chanca developed a chutney to administer them. This coincided with the British Royal Navy's use of a lime pickle or chutney to ward off scurvy on journeys to the new world.
In the early 17th century, British colonization of the Indian subcontinent relied on preserved food stuffs such as lime pickles, chutneys and marmalades. (Marmalades proving unpopular due to their sweetness and a lack of available sugar.)
Beginning in the 17th century, fruit chutneys were shipped to European countries like England and France as luxury goods. These imitations were called "mangoed" fruits or vegetables, the word 'chutney' still being associated with the lower working classes.
Major Grey's Chutney is thought to have been developed by a British officer who had traveled to India. The formula was eventually sold to Crosse and Blackwell, a major British food manufacturer, probably in the early 1800's. In the 19th century, types of chutney like Major Grey's or Bengal Club created for Western tastes were shipped to Europe.
Generally these chutneys are fruit, vinegar, and sugar cooked down to a reduction.
By regions of India
- Assam: coriander, spinach, tomato, curry leaf, chili, radish, carrot, cucumber, beetroot, lentil, chickpea, ghost chilli pepper chutneys
- Andhra Pradesh: coconut, coriander, red chilli with grams (chana), tomato, onion, peanut, lemon, curry leaf, tamarind, green chilli, ginger, mint, mango chutneys
- Gujarat: hot lime chutneys, garlic chutney
- Haryana: tamarind chutney
- Himachal Pradesh: guava and eggplant chutneys
- Karnataka: coconut, chilli, peanut, tomato, tamarind, mango, urad dal (a kind of legume), pudina (mint), heeray kayi (ridge gourd),badane kayi (eggplant), uchellu (Niger seed), bende kaayi (okra or ladyfinger), agashi (flax seed), ginger chutneys
- Kerala: coconut, mint, urad dal, mango, dry fish, shrimp, onion chutney
- Maharashtra: hot raw mango chutney, muramba, panchamrit, mirachicha thecha: dry chutneys made with javas (flax seed), Solapuri shenga (peanut/red chili powder), karale (Niger seed), peanut/garlic (lasun), dudhi (roasted (bottle gourd) skin chutney)
- Odisha: coconut, mango, orange, tomato, dried fish chutneys
- Punjab: pudina (mint) chutney, onion chutney, tamarind chutney, mango chutney
- Tamil Nadu: Coconut, Coriander, Curry leaf, Red chilli, Green chilli, Garlic, Peanut, Tamarind, Tomato, Onion, Ginger, Radish, Mint, Mango, lentil chutneys
- Telangana:coconut, peanut, tomato,lemon, curry leaf, tamarind, green chilli, ginger, mint, mango chutneys.
- Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: coriander seed and leaf, garlic, roasted onion, cooked tomato, mint, radish, amla, sweet and sour mango, green chili, boiled potato and pickled mango, red chili and jaggery chutneys
- West Bengal: amla (gooseberry), coriander, lime, green mango, tomato, papaya, pineapple, date, dried mango jelly and other dry fruits, green chili chutneys
- Anglo-Indian cuisine, for a divergent type of chutney in the UK and elsewhere
- Furikake, a dry, coarsely powdered Japanese food eaten similarly to dry chutney.
- Indian pickle
- List of condiments
- Trowbridge Filippone, Peggy. "Chutney Recipes and Cooking Tips". About.com. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Jellies, Jams & Chutneys, Prince, Thane. Jellies, Jams & Chutneys. Penguin.
- "Tomato Onion chutney « Sinful Curry". sinfulcurry.com.
- "Cilantro Mint Coconut Chutney « Sinful Curry". sinfulcurry.com.
- Sara Buenfeld (1 February 2008). "Apricot blatjang". BBC Good Food.
- The Routledge History of Food, edited by Helstosky, Carol. https://books.google.com/books?id=ul6vBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA330&dq=history+of+chutney+food&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAGoVChMIyp_l-M7vxgIVCUuICh3wcQi5#v=onepage&q=history%20of%20chutney%20food&f=false
- Weaver, William Woys. "Chutney". Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 417–418. 3 vols. ISBN 0-684-80568-5.
- Dahiya, Ashish. Food of Haryana: The Great Chutneys Vol. 1. India. ISBN 978-93-81818-05-3.
- Media related to Chutney at Wikimedia Commons