Electric energy consumption

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2012 World electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2014)[1]

  Coal/Peat (40.4%)
  Natural Gas (22.5%)
  Hydro (16.2%)
  Nuclear (10.9%)
  Oil (5.0%)
  Others (Renew.) (5.0%)

Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy. Electric energy consumption is the actual energy demand made on existing electricity supply.

Overview[edit]

Consumption of electric energy is measured in watt-hours (written W·h, equal to Watt x Hour)

1 W·h = 3600 joule = 859.8 calorie.

Electric and electronic devices consume electric energy to generate desired output (i.e. light, heat, motion, etc.). During operation, some part of the energy – depending on the electrical efficiency – is consumed in unintended output, such as waste heat.

Electricity is generated in power stations since 1882. The invention of the steam turbine in 1883 to drive the electric generator started a strong increase of world electricity consumption.

In 2008, the world total of electricity production was 20,279 terawatt-hours (TWh). This number corresponds to an average rate of around 2.3 terawatts continuously during the year. The total energy needed to produce this power is roughly a factor 2 to 3 higher because a power plants' efficiency of generating electricity is roughly 30–50%. The generated power is thus in the order of 5 TW. This is approximately a third of the total energy consumption of 15 TW (see world energy consumption).

In 2005, the primary energy used to generate electricity was 41.60 Quadrillion BTU (Coal 21.01 quads, Natural Gas 6.69 quads, Petroleum 1.32 quads, Nuclear electric power 8.13 quads, Renewable energy 4.23 quads respectively). The gross generation of electricity in that year was 14.50 Quads; the difference, 27.10 Quads, was conversion losses. Among all electricity, 4.84 Quads was used in residential area, 4.32 Quads used in commercial, 3.47 Quads used in industrial and 0.03 Quads used in transportation. 1 Quad = 1.055 Exajoule.

16,816 TWh (83%) of electric energy was consumed by final users. The difference of 3,464 TWh (17%) was consumed in the process of generating power and lost in transmission to end users.

A sensitivity analysis on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy network model for electric demand estimation shows that employment is the most critical factor influencing electrical consumption.[2] The study used 6 parameters as input data, employment, GDP, dwelling, population, HDD and CDD, with electricity demand as output variable.

World electricity consumption down in 2009[edit]

Electricity Consumption in 2009
Source: Enerdata Statistical Energy Review

At the world level, energy consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009, for the first time since World War II.[3] Except in Asia and Middle East, consumptions were reduced in all the world regions. In OECD countries, accounting for 53% of the total, electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5% in both Europe and North America while it shrank by above 7% in Japan. Electricity demand also dropped by more than 4.5% in CIS countries, driven by a large cut in Russian consumption. Conversely, in China and India (22% of the world's consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy demand related to high economic growth. In Middle East, growth rate was softened but remained high, just below 4%.

World electricity consumption (2012)[edit]

The table lists the top 37 electricity consuming countries, which use 19,000 TWh/a. i.e. 90% of the consumption of all more than 190 countries. The total final consumption and the energy sources to generate this electricity is given per country. The data are of 2012.[4][5] The last column contains the number of millions of inhabitants.

Total Fossil Nuclear Renewable Inhabitants
TWh/a million
WORLD 20,900 68% 11% 21% 7,040
North-America
 United States 4,070 66% 19% 13% 314
 Canada 543 24% 15% 59% 34.9
 Mexico 246 75% 2% 23% 117
South-America
 Brazil 498 17% 1% 82% 199
 Argentina 124 54% 4% 41% 41.1
 Venezuela 102 35% 0 65% 30.0
Europe
 Germany 585 57% 15% 25% 81.9
 France 482 9% 75% 16% 65.4
 United Kingdom 347 67% 19% 12% 63.7
 Italy 321 68% 0 32% 60.9
 Spain 261 48% 21% 31% 46.2
 Ukraine 166 45% 47% 8% 45.6
 Poland 148 89% 0 10% 38.5
 Sweden 136 2% 38% 60% 9.5
 Norway 119 2% 0 98% 5.0
 Netherlands 115 81% 4% 14% 16.8
 Belgium 88.9 35% 48% 14% 11.1
 Finland 84.9 26% 33% 41% 5.4
Russia
 Russia 948 63% 16% 21% 144
Mid-East
 South Africa 248 100% 0 0 28.3
 Turkey 207 73% 0 27% 74.9
 United Arab Emirates 93.7 100% 0 0 9.2
Southern Asia
 China 4,830 78% 2% 20% 1,356
 Japan 989 85% 1% [6] 12% 128
 India 940 81% 3% 16% 1,237
 South Korea 517 70% 28% 2% 50
 Taiwan 241 79% 16% 5% 23.4
 Iran 186 94% 1% 5% 80.8
 Indonesia 181 89% 0 11% 247
 Thailand 169 95% 0 5% 67.7
 Malaysia 126 84% 0 16% 29.2
 Vietnam 104 60% 0 40% 93.4
 Kazakhstan 85.4 88% 0 12% 16.8
 Pakistan 80.1 64% 6% 29% 179
Australia
 Australia 236 89% 0 9% 23.1
Africa
 South Africa 231 93% 5% 2% 52.3
 Egypt 146 88% 0 12% 80,7

Consumption per head[edit]

Total consumption (2nd column) divided by number of inhabitants (last column) gives a country's consumption per head. In W-Europe this is between 5 and 8 MWh/a. (1 MWh equals 1000 kWh.) In Scandinavia, USA, Canada, Taiwan and S-Korea it is much more, in develloping countries much less. The worlds average is 3 MWh/a. A very low consumption per head, as in Indonesia, means that many inhabitants are not connected to the electricity grid. The same applies to countries with large populations like Bangladesh and Nigeria that are absent in the table.

Electricity generation and GDP (2009)[edit]

Listed countries are top 20 populous countries and/or top 20 GDP (PPP) countries and Saudi Arabia as of CIA World Factbook 2009.
30 countries (exclude EU/IEA) in this table represent 77% of world population, 84% of world GDP, 83% of world electricity generation.
Productivity per Electricity generation (concept similar to Energy intensity) can be measured by dividing GDP amount by the electricity generated. World average was $3.5 production/kWh.
Electricity generation include Final consumption, in process consumption, and losses.

Electricity Generation (2008) and GDP (PPP) (2009)
Country Population
million
rank* GDP (PPP)
billion USD
rank* GDP (PPP)
per capita
rank* Electricity
generation
(GWh/yr)
rank** daily kWh
per capita
rank** GDP (PPP)
/kWh*
 China 1,339 1 $7,992 2 $5,969 133 3,444,108 2 7.04 17 $2.3
 India 1,166 2 $3,304 4 $2,834 166 860,723 5 2.02 23 $3.8
 USA 307 3 $14,440 1 $47,036 11 4,401,698 1 39.25 2 $3.3
 EU* 541 $16,221 $29,983 3,635,604 18.40 $4.5
 Indonesia 240 4 $917 15 $3,821 158 149,437 20 1.70 24 $6.1
 Brazil 199 5 $1,998 9 $10,040 102 505,083 9 6.95 18 $4.0
 Pakistan 176 6 $431 27 $2,449 172 91,626 24 1.43 26 $4.7
 Bangladesh 156 7 $226 49 $1,449 196 35,893 27 0.63 27 $6.3
 Nigeria 149 8 $336 35 $2,255 176 21,110 28 0.39 28 $15.9
 Russia 140 9 $2,271 6 $16,221 72 1,022,726 4 20.00 10 $2.2
 Japan 127 10 $4,340 3 $34,173 36 1,083,142 3 23.35 6 $4.0
 Mexico 111 11 $1,567 11 $14,117 77 257,812 14 6.36 19 $6.1
 Philippines 98 12 $318 37 $3,425 162 60,819 26 1.70 25 $5.2
 Vietnam 87 13 $242 45 $2,782 167 76,269 25 2.40 22 $3.2
 Ethiopia 85 14 $70 78 $824 216 3,777 30 0.12 30 $18.5
 Egypt 83 15 $445 26 $5,361 135 130,144 22 4.29 21 $3.4
 Germany 82 16 $2,925 5 $35,671 33 617,132 7 20.61 8 $4.7
 Turkey 77 17 $904 16 $11,740 92 198,085 19 7.04 16 $4.6
 DR Congo 69 18 $21 120 $304 226 6,939 29 0.28 29 $3.0
 Iran 75 19 $844 17 $12,788 86 211,972 17 8.79 15 $4.0
 Thailand 66 20 $549 24 $8,318 115 149,034 21 6.18 20 $3.7
 France 64 21 $2,133 8 $33,328 38 526,862 8 22.54 7 $4.0
 UK 61 22 $2,236 7 $36,656 30 400,390 11 17.97 13 $5.6
 Italy 58 23 $1,827 10 $31,500 41 359,161 12 16.95 14 $5.1
 South Korea 49 25 $1,338 13 $27,306 49 443,888 10 24.80 5 $3.0
 Spain 41 32 $1,402 12 $34,195 35 303,179 13 20.25 9 $4.6
 Canada 33 37 $1,303 14 $39,485 22 620,684 6 51.50 1 $2.1
 Saudi Arabia 29 41 $578 22 $19,931 59 204,200 18 19.28 12 $2.8
 Taiwan 23 49 $714 19 $31,043 42 238,458 16 28.39 4 $3.0
 Australia 21 54 $803 18 $38,238 25 257,247 15 33.54 3 $3.1
 Netherlands 17 59 $674 20 $39,647 20 123,496 23 19.89 11 $5.66
World 6,784 $70,048 $10,325 20,279,640 8.18 $3.5
  • Population and GDP data are from CIA World Factbook 2009
  • Electricity data are from IEA/OECD 2008[7] (retrieved on April 2011)
  • rank* of Population and GDP are World ranking
  • rank** of Electricity consumption are ranking within this list
  • GDP PP/kWh Amount of GDP (PPP) (USD) produced per every kilowatt-hour
  • EU* only considers EU states which are member of the IEA (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) but also includes non-EU members of the IEA (Norway, Switzerland and Turkey).

Electricity final consumption by categories (2008)[edit]

About 17% of total electricity production is consumed by in-processes, such as self-consumption of power plants, grid losses and storage losses. In 2008, total electricity generation accounted for 20,261 TWh, while 3,464 TWh were self-consumption and losses and 16,816 TWh went to final consumption.[7]

In the consumption rate in Industry, China is highest with 67.8%, South Korea is 51.0% (7th), Germany 46.1% (11th), Japan 31.5% (26th), USA 24.0% (28th) In the Commercial and Public Service, Japan is highest with 36.4%, USA 35.6% (3rd), China 5.4% (29th). For Domestic usage, Saudi Arabia is highest with 56.9%, USA 36.2% (8th), Japan 29.8% (16th), China 15.5% (29th), Korea 13.8% (30th).

Definition

  • Industry: iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, transport equipment, machinery, mining, Food and tobacco, Paper, pulp and print, wood and wood product, construction, textile and leather, non-specified.
  • Transport: domestic aviation, Land transportation, Rail, Pipeline transport, domestic navigation, non-specified. note international marine and aviation bunkers are not included.
  • Fishery: some country include fishing with agriculture or forestry.
Electricity Consumption 2008 (TWh)
Country total
(TWh)
Industry Transport Commercial
/Public
Services
Agriculture
/Forestry
Fishery Residential other
 China 2,842 67.8% 1.05% 5.4% 3.12% 0.000% 15.5% 7.19%
 India 602 46.4% 1.93% 8.0% 17.92% 0.000% 20.7% 5.05%
 USA 3,814 24.0% 0.20% 35.0% 0.00% 0.000% 36.2% 4.59%
 Indonesia 129 37.2% 0.00% 23.9% 0.00% 0.000% 38.9% 0.00%
 Brazil 410 48.1% 0.39% 23.7% 4.49% 0.000% 23.3% 0.00%
 Pakistan 70 27.5% 0.01% 14.2% 12.50% 0.000% 45.9% 0.00%
 Bangladesh 32 56.3% 0.00% 6.0% 3.37% 0.000% 32.9% 0.00%
 Nigeria 19 20.0% 0.00% 24.7% 0.00% 0.000% 55.3% 0.00%
 Russia 725 49.6% 11.45% 20.6% 2.14% 0.037% 16.1% 0.00%
 Japan 964 31.5% 1.95% 36.4% 0.09% 0.000% 29.8% 0.23%
 Mexico 200 61.3% 0.55% 10.3% 4.05% 0.000% 23.7% 0.00%
 Philippines 49 34.6% 0.23% 28.7% 2.30% 0.311% 33.8% 0.00%
 Vietnam 68 51.8% 0.75% 8.1% 0.97% 0.000% 38.4% 0.00%
 Ethiopia 3.1 38.0% 0.00% 23.6% 0.00% 0.000% 37.7% 0.74%
 Egypt 112 33.4% 0.00% 15.4% 4.13% 0.000% 39.2% 7.84%
 Germany 526 46.1% 3.14% 22.6% 1.66% 0.000% 26.5% 0.00%
 Turkey 159 45.4% 0.60% 25.6% 3.54% 0.102% 24.8% 0.00%
 DR Congo 6.1 63.4% 0.00% 3.1% 0.00% 0.000% 33.5% 0.00%
 Iran 164 33.2% 0.15% 19.0% 12.92% 0.001% 32.3% 2.50%
 Thailand 135 42.4% 0.04% 35.6% 0.21% 0.000% 21.3% 0.54%
 France 433 32.6% 3.06% 25.0% 0.88% 0.028% 35.9% 2.57%
 UK 342 33.2% 2.47% 28.6% 1.19% 0.000% 34.5% 0.00%
 Italy 309 45.8% 3.50% 26.8% 1.81% 0.022% 22.1% 0.00%
 South Korea 407 51.0% 0.55% 32.5% 1.61% 0.449% 13.8% 0.00%
 Spain 265 38.9% 1.10% 29.5% 2.29% 0.000% 27.1% 1.08%
 Canada 519 36.3% 0.81% 30.0% 1.86% 0.000% 31.0% 0.00%
 Saudi Arabia 170 12.4% 0.00% 28.5% 2.04% 0.000% 56.9% 0.14%
 Taiwan 210 55.7% 0.52% 13.7% 0.78% 0.459% 20.3% 8.48%
 Australia 212 44.7% 1.33% 25.6% 0.88% 0.000% 27.4% 0.00%
 Netherlands 109 38.6% 1.48% 30.0% 7.15% 0.000% 22.7% 0.00%
World 16,816 41.7% 1.60% 23.4% 2.50% 0.025% 27.4% 3.43%
Notes:
  • For more recent data World Electricity production 2012 [8]
  • Listed are top 20 countries, either by population or by GDP (PPP), as well as Saudi Arabia.

Electricity consumption of OECD member countries (2008)[edit]

Electric energy consumption per inhabitant by primary energy source in some countries and areas in 2008 is in the table.

1 MW·h/yr = 114 watt

For the OECD with 8 991 kWh/yr/person: 1.026 watt/person.

Electric energy per capita for 2008, in kilowatt-hour per person[9]
# Territory Use Production Import/
Export
Non-RE* RE % *
Total Fossil Nuclear RE-Bio Bio+waste
1 Iceland 53,129 53,129 0 0 53,129 0 0 0 100%
2 Norway 27,398 30,355 151 0 30,130 74 -2,957 -2,806 110.2%
3 Canada 18,111 19,092 4,653 2,834 11,333 272 -981 6,507 64.1%
4 Finland* 17,036 14,612 5,182 4,345x 3,356 1,727 2,424 11,953 29.8%
5 Sweden 16,018 16,225 527 6,922 7,687 1,088 -206 7,244 54.8%
6 USA 14,378 14,270 10,162 2,746 1,139 224 108 13,015 9.5%
7 Switzerland 9,052 9,198 130 3,688 5,057 322 -146 3,672 59.4%
8 OECD 8,991 8,982 5,554 1,905 1,340 182 9 7,468 16.9%
9 Belgium 8,961 7,962 2,997 4,295 252 418 999 8,291 7.5%
10 Japan 8,507 8,507 5,669 2,010 682 147 0 7,679 9.7%
11 France 8,233 8,984 853 6,872 1,168 91 -751 6,974 15.3%
12 Netherlands 7,463 6,513 5,590 252 275 396 950 6,792 9.0%
13 Germany 7,450 7,693 4,635 1,804 873 381 -243 6,196 6.8%
14 EU-15 7,409 7,321 3,798 2,121 1,141 261 89 6,007 18.9%
15 Denmark 6,912 6,656 4,680 0 1,272 706 256 4,934 28.6%
16 United Kingdom 6,573 6,392 5,069 860 266 198 180 6,108 7.1%
17 Spain 6,523 6,764 4,066 1,286 1,318 94 -241 5,111 21.6%
18 Italy 6,054 5,384 4,271 0 992 120 671 4,942 18.4%
19 Poland 4,033 4,064 3,865 0 96 103 -32 3,833 5.0%
  • RE-Bio includes hydro power, wind power, solar power and geothermal electricity
  • Bio+waste includes biofuel and waste
  • Non-RE (Non-Renewable electricity) = electricity use – (RE-Bio) – (Bio+waste)
  • RE % = (own RE production (RE+ Bio+waste) / electricity use) * 100%
  • Obs. No specification if waste includes fossil wastes (e.g. The share of fossil wastes in Finland in 2006 was 2% of electricity use 1.78/90TWh). Norway exported 2.8 TWh per person renewable electricity.
  • In Finland 1,600 MW nuclear reactor under construction since 2002

Electricity scenarios until 2040[edit]

In all scenarios, increasing efficiency will result in less electricity needed for a given demand of power and light. But demand will increase strongly on account of

  • growing economy in developing countries and
  • electrification of transport and heating. Combustion engines are replaced by electric drive and for heating less gas and oil, but more electricity is used, if possible with heat pumps.

As transport and heating become more climate-friendly, the environmental effect of energy consumption will be more determined by electricity. This is mainly supplied by burning fossil fuel which disturbs the natural carbon dioxide cycle. The scenarios arrive at very different results for the environment.

The International Energy Agency expects revision of subsidy for fossil fuel which amounted to 550 billion dollar in 2013, more than four times renewable energy subsidy. In this scenario[10] almost half of the increase in 2040 of electricity consumption is covered by more than 80% growth of renewable energy. Many new nuclear plants will be constructed, mainly to replace old ones. The nuclear part of electricity generation will not increase much, from 11 to 12%. The renewable part goes up much, from 21 to 33%. That is not enough. The IEA warns that in order to restrict global warming to 2ºC, the carbon dioxide emission[11] must not exceed 1000 gigaton (Gt) from 2014. This limit is reached in 2040 and emission will not drop to zero then.

The World Energy Council[12] sees world electricity consumption increasing to more than 40,000 TWh/a in 2040. The fossil part of generation depends on energy policy. It can stay around 70% in the so-called Jazz scenario where countries rather independently "improvise" but it can also decrease to around 40% in the Symphony scenario if countries work "orchestrated" for more climate friendly policy. Carbon dioxide emission, 32 Gt/a in 2012, will increase to 46 Gt/a in Jazz but decrease to 26 Gt/a in Symphony. Accordingly, until 2040 the renewable part of generation will stay at about 20% in Jazz but increase to about 45% in Symphony.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2014 Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/. IEA. 2014. p. 24. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Zahedi, Gholamreza; Azizi, Saeed; Bahadori, Alireza; Elkamel, Ali; R. Wan Alwi, Sharifah (8 October 2012). "Electricity demand estimation using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy network: A case study from the Ontario province - Canada". El Sevier - Energy 49: 323–328. 
  3. ^ Enerdata Statistical Review 2012
  4. ^ IEA World energy statistics
  5. ^ IEA Statistics search
  6. ^ 25% before the Fukushima_Daiichi_nuclear_disaster
  7. ^ a b IEA/OECD IEA Statistics/Electricity and Heat by country
  8. ^ World Electricity production 2012
  9. ^ Energiläget i siffror 2009 Energimyndigheten Sweden, Table 25: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source, 2008, kWh/person, Source: Electricity information 2009 IEA/OECD
  10. ^ IEA World energy outlook
  11. ^ by fossil fuel
  12. ^ World energy scenarios

External links[edit]