|Cultural origins||Late 1960s-early 1970s, United States|
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Psychedelic folk (or acid folk)[not in citation given] is a loosely defined form of psychedelia that originated in the 1960s through the fusion of folk and psychedelic rock. It retained the largely acoustic instrumentation of folk, but added musical influences common to psychedelic rock and the psychedelic experience.
Psych folk generally favors acoustic instrumentation although it often incorporates other instrumentation. Chanting, early music and various non-Western folk music influences are often found in psych folk. Much like its rock counterpart, psychedelic folk is often known for a peculiar, trance-like, and atmospheric sound, often drawing on musical improvisation and Asian influences. Its lyrics are often concerned with such subjects as the natural world, love and beauty and try to evoke a state of mind associated with the effects of psychedelic drugs.
The first musical use of the term psychedelic is thought to have been by the New York-based folk group The Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's 'Hesitation Blues' in 1964. Folk/avant-garde guitarist John Fahey recorded several songs in the early 1960s that experimented with unusual recording techniques, including backward tapes, and novel instrumental accompaniment. His nineteen-minute "The Great San Bernardino Birthday Party" "anticipated elements of psychedelia with its nervy improvisations and odd guitar tunings". Other songs from Fahey's The Great San Bernardino Birthday Party & Other Excursions (recorded between 1962 and 1966) also used "unsettling moods and dissonances" that took them beyond the typical folk fare. In 1967, he performed with the psychedelic/avant-garde/noise rock band Red Krayola (then Red Crayola) at the Berkeley Folk Festival which was recorded and later released as Live 1967. Among other descriptions, their performance has been likened to "the very weirdest parts of late-'60s Pink Floyd pieces (like the shrieking guitar scrapes of 'Interstellar Overdrive')".
Similarly, folk guitarist Sandy Bull's early work "incorporated elements of folk, jazz, and Indian and Arabic-influenced dronish modes". His 1963 album Fantasias for Guitar and Banjo explores various styles and instrumentation and "could also be accurately described as one of the very first psychedelic records". Later albums, such as 1968's E Pluribus Unum and his live album Still Valentine's Day 1969, which use experimental recording techniques and extended improvisation, also have psychedelic elements.
Musicians with several groups that became identified with psychedelic rock began as folk musicians, such as those with the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Country Joe and the Fish, and Quicksilver Messenger Service from San Francisco; the Byrds, Love, Kaleidoscope, and Peanut Butter Conspiracy from Los Angeles; Pearls Before Swine from Florida; and Jake and the Family Jewels, and Cat Mother & the All Night Newsboys from New York.
In the UK, folk artists who were particularly significant included the Scottish performers Donovan, who combined influences of American artists like Bob Dylan with references to flower power, and the Incredible String Band, who from 1967 incorporated a range of influences into their acoustic based music, including medieval and eastern instruments. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, solo acts such as Syd Barrett and Nick Drake began to incorporate psychedelic influences into folk music with albums such as Barrett's The Madcap Laughs and Drake's Five Leaves Left.
There was a brief flowering of British and Irish progressive folk in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with groups like the Third Ear Band and Quintessence following the eastern Indian musical and more abstract work by acts such as Forest, Beau, C.O.B. (Clive's Original Band), Dr Strangely Strange, Jan Dukes De Grey, Trader Horne, Trees, Spirogyra, Comus and Dando Shaft.
Decline in the 1970s
In the mid 1970s psychedelia began to fall out of fashion and those folk groups that had not already moved into different areas had largely disbanded. In Britain folk groups also tended to electrify as did acoustic duo Tyrannosaurus Rex which became the electric combo T. Rex. This was a continuation of a process by which progressive folk had considerable impact on mainstream rock. Others, probably influenced by the electric folk pioneered by Fairport Convention from 1969, moved towards more traditional material, a category including Dando Shaft, Amazing Blondel, and Jack the Lad, an offshoot of northern progressive folk group Lindisfarne. Examples of bands that remained firmly on the border between progressive folk and progressive rock were the short lived Comus and, more successfully, Renaissance, who combined folk and rock with classical elements.
Interest in folk music among the independent artists and crossover bands that dominated much of the underground music scene in the late 1990s led to a revival of psych folk during the following decade, with the New Weird America movement, which also saw the rise of the stylistically similar genre of freak folk. Also, Animal Collective's early albums identify closely with freak folk as does their collaboration with veteran British folk artist Vashti Bunyan, and The Microphones/Mount Eerie, who combine naturalistic elements with lo-fi and psychedelia. Both artists received significant exposure in the indie music scene following critical acclaim from review site Pitchfork Media and soon more artists began experimenting with the genre, including Quilt, Grizzly Bear, Devendra Banhart, Rodrigo Amarante, and Grouper.
List of artists
- "acid folk" at allmusic.com
- Van Waes, Gerald. "A Brief Overview of Psych-Folk and Acid Folk, from 60s until now". Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Hicks (2000), pp 59–60.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Great San Bernardino Birthday Party & Other Excursions — Album Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Red Crayola Live 1967 — Album Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Sandy Bull — Biography". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Greenwald, Matthew. "Fantasias for Guitar & Banjo — Album Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Eder, Bruce. "E Pluribus Unum — Album Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Westergaard, Sean. "Still Valentine's Day 1969 — Album Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Auslander (2006), pp. 76.
- Unterberger (2002), pp. 183–230.
- DeRogatis (2003), p. 120.
- "Five Leaves Left review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Sweers (2005), pp. 40.
- Macan (1997), pp. 134–5.
- "Splendid Magazine reviews Animal Collective (featuring Vashti Bunyan): Prospect Hummer". Splended. September 13, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Splendid E-zine reviews: The Microphones". Splendid. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Animal Collective: Sung Tongs". Pitchfork Media. May 2, 2004. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Animal Collective / Vashti Bunyan: Prospect Hummer EP". Pitchfork Media. May 15, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "The Microphones: The Glow, Pt. 2". Pitchfork Media. September 10, 2001. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Grizzly Bear Feeds on Psych-Folk". The Harvard Crimson. February 11, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Grouper – Dragging A Dead Deer Up A Hill review". Mojo. December 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- Auslander, Philip (2006). Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06868-5.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
- Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06915-4.
- Leech, Jeanette (2010). Seasons They Change: The Story of Acid and Psychedelic Folk. London: Jawbone Press. ISBN 978-1-906002-32-9.
- Macan, Edward (1997). Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509888-4.
- Sweers, Britta (2005). Electric Folk: The Changing Face of English Traditional Music. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515878-6.
- Unterberger, Richie (2002). Turn! Turn! Turn!: The '60s Folk-rock Revolution. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-703-5.
- PsychedelicFolk.com, by Gerald Van Waes
- Ptolemaic Terrascope: resource for psych folk and all other types of psychedelic music
- Dream Magazine: resource for psych folk and all other types of psychedelic music
- Contemporary Psychedelia: From Transcendence to Immanence – An essay on psych folk and spirituality
- Dirty Linen Magazine feature article on New Psych Folk