|Cultural origins||Late 1990s, Goa, India|
Psychedelic trance, psytrance or psy is a subgenre of trance music characterized by arrangements of synthetic rhythms and layered melodies created by high tempo riffs. By 1998 psytrance had become a mainstream form of music.
Psytrance lies at the hardcore, underground end of the diverse trance spectrum. The genre offers variety in terms of mood, tempo, and style. Some examples include full on, darkpsy, Hi-Tech, progressive, suomi, psy-chill, psycore, psybient, psybreaks, or "adapted" tracks from other music genres. Goa trance preceded psytrance, when digital media became more commonly used psytrance evolved. Goa continues to develop alongside the other genres.
The first hippies who arrived in Goa, India in the mid-1960s were drawn there for many reasons, including the beaches, the low cost of living, the friendly locals, the Indian religious and spiritual practices and the readily available Indian cannabis, which until the mid-1970s was legal. During the 1970s the first Goa DJs were generally playing psychedelic rock bands such as the Grateful Dead, Pink Floyd and The Doors. In 1979 the beginnings of electronic dance music could occasionally be heard in Goa in the form of tracks by artists such as Kraftwerk but it was not until 1983 that DJs Laurent and Fred Disko, closely followed by Goa Gil, began switching the Goa style over to electro-industrial/EBM which was now flooding out of Europe from Frontline Assembly, Front 242, Nitzer Ebb as well as Eurobeat.
The tracks were remixed, removing the lyrics, looping the melodies and beats and generally manipulating the sounds in all manner of ways before the tracks were finally presented to the dancers as custom Goa-style mixes.
The music played in the 1980s was a blend of styles loosely defined as techno and various genres of computer music e.g. acid house, electro. The music was brought on tape cassettes by fanatic traveler collectors and DJs. This material was shared and copied tape-to-tape by Goa DJs, in an underground scene that was not driven by music industry labels. The artists producing this "special Goa music" had no idea that their music was being played on the beaches of Goa by cyber hippies.
The first techno played in Goa was by Kraftwerk in the late 1970s on the tape of a visiting DJ. At that time, music played at most parties was performed by live bands, with tapes used to fill the space between sets. Old school acid heads who devoutly believed that only acid rock should be played at parties initially resisted, but they soon relented and converted to the revolutionary wave of technodelia that took hold in the 1980s. In the early 1980s, sampling synth and midi music appeared globally, and DJs became the preferred format in Goa. Two tape decks would drive a party with continuous music and continuous dancing. Cassette tapes were used by DJs until the 1990s, then DAT tapes were used.
Among DJs playing in Goa during the 1980s were Fred Disko, Dr Bobby, Stephano, Paulino, Mackie, Babu, Laurent, Ray, Fred, Antaro, Lui, Rolf, Tilo, Pauli, Rudi, and Gil. Their music was eclectic in style but nuanced around instrument/dub spacey versions of tracks that evoked mystical, cosmic, psychedelic, political, and existential themes. DJs in Goa made special mixes by editing various versions of a track to make it longer, taking the stretch mix concept to new levels. Trip music for journeying to outdoors, trance dancing to mind-expanding music while high on hallucinogens was the Goa mantra. The night clubs were not fueled by alcohol, but by hash and acid. The result was an anarchistic, alternative counterculture of DIY psychedelic exploration driven by future rhythm machine music.
By 1990–91 Goa was no longer under the radar and had become a hot destination for partying. As the scene grew bigger, Goa-style parties spread like a diaspora all over the world from 1993. Parties like Pangaea and megatripolis in the UK helped spawn a multitude of labels in various countries (U.K. Australia, Japan, Germany) to promote psychedelic electronic music that reflected the ethos of Goa parties, Goa music, and Goa-specific artists, producers, and DJs. Goa Trance as commercial scene began gaining global traction in 1994. The golden age of the first wave of Goa Psy Trance as a generally agreed upon genre was between 1994–97.
By 1992 the Goa trance scene had a pulse of its own, though the term 'Goa trance' didn’t become the name tag of the genre until around 1994. The Goa trance sound, which by the late 1990s was being used interchangeably with the term psychedelic trance, retained its popularity at outdoor raves and festivals rather than in nightclubs. New artists were appearing from all over the world and it was in this year that the first Goa trance festivals began, including the Gaia Festival in France and the still-running VuuV festival in Germany.
In 1993 the first 100% Goa trance album was released, Project 2 Trance, featuring tracks by Man With No Name and Hallucinogen to name two. Goa trance enjoyed its commercial peak between 1996 and 1997 with media attention and some recognised names in the DJ scene joining the movement. This hype did not last long and once the attention had died down so did the music sales, resulting in the failure of record labels, promotion networks and also some artists. This ‘commercial death of Goa trance’ was marked musically by Matsuri Productions in 1997 with the release of the compilation Let it RIP. On the back sleeve of the album at the bottom of the notes, R.I.P : Mother Theresa, Princess Diana, William Burroughs & Goa Trance was written.
While the genre may have been incubated in the goa trance scene it went on to proliferate globally. Its impact was felt in western Europe, Israel, North America, Australia, Japan and South Africa. Psytrance is linked to other music genres such as big beat, electroclash, grime and 2-step. The genre evolved in conjunction with a multimedia psychedelic arts scene.
Many consider the difference between goa trance and psychedelic trance as minimal at best and really just a matter of opinion. Psychedelic trance is distinguished from other subgenres because of the unique sounds it typically features. Psychedelic trance has a distinctive, energetic sound (generally between 136 and 140 BPM) that tends to be faster than other forms of trance or techno music. It uses a very distinctive resonated bass beat that pounds constantly throughout the song and overlays the bass with varying rhythms drawn from funk, techno, dance, acid house, eurodance and trance using drums and other instruments. The different leads, rhythms and beats generally change every 8 bars. Layering is used to great effect in psychedelic trance, with new musical ideas being added at regular intervals, often every 4 to 8 bars. New layers will continue to be added until a climax is reached, and then the song will break down and start a new rhythmic pattern over the constant bass line. Psychedelic trance tracks tend to be 6–10 minutes long. Psychedelic trance makes heavy use of the cutoff frequency control of the modulating filter on the synthesizer. Reverb and delay are used heavily, with large, open sounding reverb present on most of the lead synthesizers in the track. The Roland TB-303 (acid) synthesizer, Juno 106, and Roland SH-101 are heavily used and sampled in psychedelic trance, usually processed through a distortion effect.
Fullon is a psytrance style. Full-on is particularly popular in Israel.
Full-on psychedelic trance is a High-energy music for peak moments. Often having melodic, energetic and crisp basslines with a high bpm (usually 140 to 148 bpm). There are some related styles that are derived from this style and are distinguished as different varieties of full-on: twilight and night full on (or dark full on) playing bolder and lower notes in their basslines, morning (light), and uplifting .
Progressive psytrance, is among the common party themes, normally distinguished between a psytrance (often fullon), and progressive dance floor. Example progressive artists include Astrix or Protonica.
Suomisaundi is the "freeform" variation of psytrance, where the artist has almost no limits but still bear a specific "Finnish" style (which is also produced in other countries but the originating Suomi designation is in wide use).
Dark psychedelic trance is the heavier end of the psychedelic trance spectrum with BPMs from about 148 and up. Related styles include psycore (fast and crazy), hi-tech (bouncy and glitchy), and forest (more organic and earthy). Characterized of having obscure, deep and more escathological background that leads into profund meditation of death, night and transcendence. Often with dismal sounds and heavy basslines.
Large psytrance festivals are both culturally and musically diverse. They have attracted a following amongst international backpackers. Earthdance, the world's largest synchronized music and dance festival for peace, has its roots in the psychedelic trance scene. In Australia, pioneering outdoor festival Earthcore began in 1992 and runs a yearly event predominately featuring psytrance amongst the long list of international performers. Rainbow Serpent Festival and Maitreya Festival are also held in Victoria.
The Boom Festival in Portugal was originally a psytrance festival but now includes world music. It is held every second year in August and combines social activism with cultural and spiritual elements. In 2004, the Glastonbury Festival dedicated a full day on the Glade stage to psytrance.
Ozora festival in Hungary is held every year during summer days on a private estate near village Dadpuszta, and it originally started as a party called Solipse which was held during Solar eclipse of August 11, 1999.
Noisily Festival in the United Kingdom is an electronic music festival in the UK. Held in July the festival features a large psychedelic trance stage. Noisly 2015 featured a rare appearance in the UK by Parasense.
There are multiple well-known recurring psytrance festivals in the USA. On the East Coast, Massachusetts-based Fractaltribe hosts their annual Fractalfest while New York State's Radial Engine Tribe has Smoke On The Water. Chilluminati's Sacred Earth Open-Air Festival covers the Midwest, and T.O.U.C.H. Samadhi's Equinox is in North Carolina. On the West Coast, Psytribe's Freakshow has been a Halloween fixture for 16 years. Northern California hosts Symbiosis which is in its 11th year. The Burning Man festival in Nevada has also featured a number of psytrance-oriented camps and DJ performances.
In 2006 research was conducted on the global psytrance scene. 600 people from 40 countries provided detailed information via an online questionnaire. The results were published as "Beyond Subculture and Post-subculture? The Case of Virtual Psytrance" in the Journal of Youth Studies.
In 2013 Graham St. John published Global Tribe: Technology, Spirituality and Psytrance on Equinox Publishing.
- Ishkur (2005). "Ishkur's guide to Electronic Music". Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "Goa Trance". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Graham St John (2010). The Local Scenes and Global Culture of Psytrance. ISBN 1136944346.
- Reynolds, Simon (2012). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1593764774. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Eugene ENRG (aka DJ Krusty) (2001). "Psychic Sonics: Tribadelic Dance Trance-formation – Eugene ENRG (aka DJ Krusty) interviews Ray Castle". In Graham St John. FreeNRG : notes from the edge of the dance floor (PDF). Altona, Victoria, Australia: Common Ground Pub. p. 166. ISBN 1-86335-084-5. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Graham St John (2001). "DJ Goa Gil: Kalifornian Exile, Dark Yogi and Dreaded Anomaly". Retrieved March 21, 2015.
Connecting three generations of music enthusiasts, Goa Gil is an imposing figure in the world of psychedelic trance.
- Eugene ENRG (aka DJ Krusty) (2001). Graham St John, ed. FreeNRG : notes from the edge of the dance floor (PDF). Altona, Victoria, Australia: Common Ground Pub. pp. 167–168. ISBN 1-86335-084-5. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9780571289141.
Psy-trance is an 'equal opportunity' genre when it comes to making the music too: there are leading exponents of psychedelic trance operating in Israel, Australia, Sweden, Greece, Denmark.
- Cardeña, Etzel; Michael Winkelman (2011). Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 212–213. ISBN 0313383081. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Collin, Matthew (2010). Altered State: The Story of Ecstasy Culture and Acid House. Profile Books. p. 335. ISBN 1847656412. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Ishkur (2005). "Ishkur's guide to Electronic Music". Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Trance music. A definition of genre.. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Easwaran, Kenny. "Psytrance and the Spirituality of Electronics". April 2004.
- Gemma Bowes (20 April 2012). "Boom time: Portugal's top psytrance festival". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Asthana, Anushka (4 April 2004). "Clubbers fall under spell of Psytrance". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Heath, Sue; Rachel Brooks; Elizabeth Cleaver; Eleanor Ireland (2009). Researching Young People's Lives. Sage. p. 168. ISBN 1446203972. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Tracey Greener & Robert Hollands (September 2006). "Beyond Subculture and Post-subculture? The Case of Virtual Psytrance". ingentaconnect. Publishing Technology. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- St John, Graham. (ed) 2010. The Local Scenes and Global Culture of Psytrance. London: Routledge. (ISBN 978-0415876964).
- St. John, G. 2011. DJ Goa Gil: Kalifornian Exile, Dark Yogi and Dreaded Anomaly. Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture 3(1): 97–128.
- St. John, G. 2012. Seasoned Exodus: The Exile Mosaic of Psyculture. Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture 4(1): 4–37.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Psytrance.|
- Psytrance Radio
- Psychedelic Trance at DMOZ
- Another Psytrance Radio with 24/7 live-streams
- Ektoplazm – Free and legal psytrance music portal.
- psytrancefestivals.com – Psytrance festivals worldwide.
- Psychedelic Trance Mix, November 2015 (Example video)
- Fractaltribe's North American Psytrance Festival Guide 2016