Purple Mountain Observatory

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Purple Mountain Observatory
Purple Mountain Observatory
Purple Mountain Observatory
Organization Chinese Academy of Sciences
Code 330
Location Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China
Coordinates 32°04′N 118°49′E / 32.067°N 118.817°E / 32.067; 118.817Coordinates: 32°04′N 118°49′E / 32.067°N 118.817°E / 32.067; 118.817
Altitude 267 m (876 ft)
Established 1934
Website www.pmo.ac.cn/
Commons page Related media on Wikimedia Commons

The Purple Mountain Observatory (Chinese: 紫金山天文台; pinyin: Zĭjīnshān Tiānwéntái), also known as Zijinshan Astronomical Observatory, is an astronomical observatory located on the Purple Mountain in Nanjing, China. [a] The longtime director of the observatory from 1950 to 1984 was Chinese astronomer Zhang Yuzhe (张钰哲, 1902–1986, also known as Y. C. Chang).

By the late 1980s, increasing light pollution in Nanjing meant Purple Mountain was no longer viable as a working observatory. It has since shifted its focus to public education, with much of the actual scientific work being carried out in its five branch observatories located at Qinghai (in Delingha), Ganyu, Xuyi, Honghe (in Jiamusi), and Qingdao.

The Minor Planet Center credits the observatory with the discovery of 149 minor planets between 1955 and 1983, while the observatory's PMO NEO Survey Program is credited with a total of 532 discoveries between 2006 and 2013.[1]

Discoveries[edit]

The observatory discovered the periodic comets 60P/Tsuchinshan and 62P/Tsuchinshan, as well as the non-periodic C/1977 V1 (Tsuchinshan), also known as Comet 1977 X. Many asteroids were also discovered, including the Trojan asteroids 2223 Sarpedon, 2260 Neoptolemus, 2363 Cebriones, 2456 Palamedes, and the eponymous 3494 Purple Mountain.

Near-Earth Object Survey[edit]

The Chinese Near-Earth Object Survey (CNEOS), based at Xuyi Observation Station,[2] started observations in 2006. It uses a 1:04=1:20=1:80 m Schmidt telescope equipped with a 4K by 4K CCD detector with the drift-scanning function.[3]

As of August 2012, the program has observed 149,971 asteroids, found 1,279 new provisional designation asteroids, and cataloged 251 numbered asteroids including five Jupiter Trojans, two Hildas, and one Phocaea. The program has also observed the position of 824 near-Earth objects (NEOs) and discovered four new ones: the Apollo asteroid (285339) 1999 JR6, and the three Amor asteroids (410195) 2007 RT147, (388567) 2007 QX14, and 2009 MZ6, still unnumbered as of 2016.[4][5]

List of discovered minor planets (1955–1983)[edit]

A total of 149 minor planets were discovered by the Purple Mountain Observatory between 1955 and 1983.[1]

Discoveries by the Purple Mountain Observatory (I)[1]
1125 China October 30, 1957
1802 Zhang Heng October 9, 1964
1888 Zu Chong-Zhi November 9, 1964
1972 Yi Xing November 9, 1964
2012 Guo Shou-Jing October 9, 1964
2027 Shen Guo November 9, 1964
2045 Peking October 8, 1964
2077 Kiangsu December 18, 1974
2078 Nanking January 12, 1975
2085 Henan December 20, 1965
2162 Anhui January 30, 1966
2169 Taiwan November 9, 1964
2184 Fujian October 9, 1964
2185 Guangdong November 20, 1965
2197 Shanghai December 30, 1965
2209 Tianjin October 28, 1978
2215 Sichuan November 12, 1964
2223 Sarpedon October 4, 1977
2230 Yunnan October 29, 1978
2255 Qinghai November 3, 1977
2260 Neoptolemus November 26, 1975
2263 Shaanxi October 30, 1978
2336 Xinjiang November 26, 1975
2344 Xizang September 27, 1979
2355 Nei Monggol October 30, 1978
2363 Cebriones October 4, 1977
2380 Heilongjiang September 18, 1965
2387 Xi'an March 17, 1975
2398 Jilin October 24, 1965
2425 Shenzhen March 17, 1975
2456 Palamedes January 30, 1966
2503 Liaoning October 16, 1965
2505 Hebei October 31, 1975
2510 Shandong October 10, 1979
2514 Taiyuan October 8, 1964
2515 Gansu October 9, 1964
2539 Ningxia October 8, 1964
2547 Hubei October 9, 1964
2592 Hunan January 30, 1966
2617 Jiangxi November 26, 1975
2631 Zhejiang October 7, 1980
2632 Guizhou November 6, 1980
2655 Guangxi December 14, 1974
2693 Yan'an November 3, 1977
2719 Suzhou September 22, 1965
2729 Urumqi October 18, 1979
2743 Chengdu November 21, 1965
2752 Wu Chien-Shiung September 20, 1965
2778 Tangshan December 14, 1979
2789 Foshan December 6, 1956
Discoveries by the Purple Mountain Observatory (II)[1]
2790 Needham October 19, 1965
2851 Harbin October 30, 1978
2886 Tinkaping December 20, 1965
2899 Runrun Shaw October 8, 1964
2903 Zhuhai October 23, 1981
2963 Chen Jiageng November 9, 1964
3011 Chongqing November 26, 1978
3014 Huangsushu October 11, 1979
3024 Hainan October 23, 1981
3028 Zhangguoxi October 9, 1978
3048 Guangzhou October 8, 1964
3051 Nantong December 19, 1974
3088 Jinxiuzhonghua October 24, 1981
3089 Oujianquan December 3, 1981
3136 Anshan November 18, 1981
3139 Shantou November 11, 1980
3171 Wangshouguan November 19, 1979
3187 Dalian October 10, 1977
3206 Wuhan November 13, 1980
3221 Changshi December 2, 1981
3239 Meizhou October 29, 1978
3241 Yeshuhua November 28, 1978
3297 Hong Kong November 26, 1978
3335 Quanzhou January 1, 1966
3340 Yinhai October 12, 1979
3388 Tsanghinchi December 21, 1981
3405 Daiwensai October 30, 1964
3421 Yangchenning November 26, 1975
3443 Leetsungdao September 26, 1979
3462 Zhouguangzhao October 25, 1981
3463 Kaokuen December 3, 1981
3476 Dongguan October 28, 1978
3494 Purple Mountain December 7, 1980
3502 Huangpu October 9, 1964
3509 Sanshui October 28, 1978
3513 Quqinyue October 16, 1965
3542 Tanjiazhen October 9, 1964
3543 Ningbo November 11, 1964
3556 Lixiaohua October 30, 1964
3560 Chenqian September 3, 1980
3570 Wuyeesun December 14, 1979
3609 Liloketai November 13, 1980
3611 Dabu December 20, 1981
3613 Kunlun November 10, 1982
3643 Tienchanglin October 29, 1978
3650 Kunming October 30, 1978
3678 Mongmanwai January 20, 1966
3704 Gaoshiqi December 20, 1981
3729 Yangzhou November 1, 1983
3746 Heyuan October 8, 1964
Discoveries by the Purple Mountain Observatory (III)[1]
3763 Qianxuesen October 14, 1980
3812 Lidaksum January 11, 1965
3844 Lujiaxi January 30, 1966
3901 Nanjingdaxue April 7, 1958
3960 Chaliubieju January 20, 1955
4047 Chang'E October 8, 1964
4073 Ruianzhongxue October 23, 1981
4245 Nairc October 29, 1981
4273 Dunhuang October 29, 1978
4360 Xuyi October 9, 1964
4431 Holeungholee November 28, 1978
4562 Poleungkuk October 21, 1979
4566 Chaokuangpiu November 27, 1981
4651 Wongkwancheng October 31, 1957
4730 Xingmingzhou December 7, 1980
4913 Wangxuan September 20, 1965
4925 Zhoushan December 3, 1981
4988 Chushuho November 6, 1980
5013 Suzhousanzhong November 9, 1964
5045 Hoyin October 29, 1978
5198 Fongyunwah January 16, 1975
5217 Chaozhou February 13, 1966
(5267) 1966 CF February 13, 1966
5389 Choikaiyau October 29, 1981
5390 Huichiming December 19, 1981
(5537) 1964 TA2 October 9, 1964
5538 Luichewoo October 9, 1964
5539 Limporyen October 16, 1965
5709 Tamyeunleung October 12, 1977
5892 Milesdavis December 23, 1981
(6283) 1980 VX1 November 6, 1980
(6430) 1964 UP October 30, 1964
(7920) 1981 XM2 December 3, 1981
8126 Chanwainam January 20, 1966
8256 Shenzhou October 25, 1981
(8981) 1964 YJ December 31, 1964
8992 Magnanimity October 14, 1980
9512 Feijunlong February 13, 1966
9517 Niehaisheng November 3, 1977
(9710) 1964 VN1 November 9, 1964
(10017) 1978 UP2 October 30, 1978
(10687) 1980 XX December 7, 1980
(11439) 1974 XW December 14, 1974
(12181) 1964 VL1 November 9, 1964
(15677) 1980 TZ5 October 14, 1980
(16350) 1964 VZ2 November 11, 1964
23408 Beijingaoyun October 12, 1977

List of discoveries by the PMO NEO Survey Program 2006–2013[edit]

A total of 532 minor planets were discovered by the observatory's PMO NEO Survey Program from 2006 to 2013.[1]

Discoveries by the PMO NEO Survey (selection)[1]
171448 Guchaohao 11 September 2007
175633 Yaoan 9 October 2007
185535 Gangda 28 November 2007
185538 Fangcheng 14 December 2007
185640 Sunyisui 1 March 2008
187707 Nandaxianlin 2 March 2008
187709 Fengduan 3 March 2008
188973 Siufaiwing 3 March 2008
192178 Lijieshou 3 October 2007
199947 Qaidam 16 April 2007
199953 Mingnaiben 18 April 2007
200002 Hehe 6 May 2007
200003 Aokeda 19 May 2007
202784 Gangkeda 29 February 2008
204836 Xiexiaosi 16 August 2007
204839 Suzhouyuanlin 16 August 2007
207681 Caiqiao 16 August 2007
210210 Songjian 16 August 2007

Image gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ As of 2016, the Minor Planet Center lists 532 discovered bodies by the PMO NEO Survey Program between 2006 and 2013. However, the MPC lists another 3 discoveries by the PMO Neo Survey Program for 2007. Minor Planet Center – Minor Planet Discoverers
  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 24 February 2016. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ "Xuyi Observation Station, Purple Mountain Observatory". Purple Mountain Observatory. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  3. ^ Zhao, Haibin; et al. "The new NEO survey project - Chinese Near Earth Object Survey (CNEOS)" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute: Asteroids, Comets, Meteors (2008 conference). Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) – A Chronology of Milestones – Page 2 (see Oct 2, 2006)". IAU (International Astronomical Union). Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2009 MZ6)" (2009-08-15 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

External links[edit]