Jump to content

Roberta Williams

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Roberta Williams
Williams displayed in a close-up photo
Roberta Williams in 2022
Roberta Lynn Heuer

(1953-02-16) February 16, 1953 (age 71)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation(s)Video game designer, writer
Known for
(m. 1972)

Roberta Lynn Williams (née Heuer; born February 16, 1953)[1][2] is an American video game designer and writer, who co-founded Sierra On-Line with her husband, game developer Ken Williams. In 1980, her first game, Mystery House, became a modest commercial success; it is credited as the first graphic adventure game. She is also known for creating and maintaining the King's Quest series, as well as designing the full motion video game Phantasmagoria in 1995.

Sierra was acquired by CUC International in 1996, leading to layoffs and management changes. Williams took a brief sabbatical, and returned to the company in a game design role, but grew increasingly frustrated with CUC's creative and business decisions. After the release of King's Quest: Mask of Eternity in 1998, she left the game industry in 1999 and focused her retirement on traveling and writing historical fiction. In 2021 she released her historical novel, Farewell to Tara. Soon after, she returned to game development with the 3D remake of the classic adventure game Colossal Cave Adventure, released in January 2023 as Colossal Cave.

Several publications have named Roberta Williams as one of the best or most influential creators in the video game industry, for co-founding Sierra, pioneering the graphic adventure game genre, and creating the King's Quest series. Several publications have called her the "Queen of adventure games". She has received the Industry Icon Award from The Game Awards, and the Pioneer Award at the Game Developers Choice Awards.

Early life and career[edit]

Ken Williams wearing a cowboy hat
Ken Williams, Roberta's husband and co-founder of Sierra

Born in Los Angeles, Roberta Heuer grew up in rural Southern California as the daughter of an agricultural inspector.[3][2] A shy child with a vivid imagination, she often created fairy-tale adventure stories to entertain her family.[4] She would lie in bed and imagine fantastical situations, which she sometimes described as her "movies".[3] She met her future husband Ken Williams when they were both teenagers, and the two began dating.[5] After high school she became a clerk at the Los Angeles County Welfare Department, in part thanks to her father's connections working in local government.[6] In late 1972 Roberta married Ken just a few days after his eighteenth birthday,[6] and gave birth to their first son in November 1973.[6] The couple briefly moved to Illinois, where she was employed as a computer operator,[6] soon moving back to Los Angeles where she took a job at Lawry's Foods as a computer programmer working in COBOL.[6]

By 1979 the couple had two children.[4] Ken was employed as a computer programmer and consultant, working on large IBM mainframe machines.[4][7] They wanted to leave Los Angeles to fulfill their dream of living in the woods.[6] As Ken brainstormed ideas for a technology business that could become viable outside of a major city, Roberta purchased an Apple II computer for the family,[6][8] which strained their expenses.[3] Roberta's love of computers grew as she played several text adventure games.[4]

Game design career[edit]

Early graphic adventure games (1979–1983)[edit]

An advertisement featuring three photos from three games, with short paragraphs promoting them
Advertisement from On-Line Systems' June 1981 issue of 'The On-Line Letter for some Hi-Res Adventure games, including both Mystery House and The Wizard and the Princess

Around 1979, Roberta Williams was an avid player of Colossal Cave Adventure, a text adventure program running on a mainframe, 3,000 miles away,[9] via Ken's teletype machine.[10][11][12]

She was inspired to speak to her husband Ken Williams about her[13] vision for what a video game could be,[14] drawing influence from Agatha Christie's story And Then There Were None,[1] and the board game Clue.[10] Roberta convinced Ken to provide the coding work to program the game, while she contributed her experience with fiction and storytelling.[14] Roberta drew the pictures using her Apple II and a Versawriter, a graphics tablet that could be used to hand-trace a piece of paper and input the image into a computer.[7][10] Since no programs existed to read the Versawriter image, Ken had to write one,[14] eventually compressing nearly seventy images onto a 5¼-inch minifloppy disk.[10]

The result was Mystery House, an adventure game with black and white graphics for the Apple II computer.[15] Released in 1980, the game was distributed by mail order, advertised in computer magazines under the name of Ken's consulting company, On-Line Systems.[3] The game soon sold ten thousand copies,[8] with Roberta personally packing the disks and supporting materials in Ziploc bags, and answering her home phone to provide hints for the game's puzzles.[3] Ken began to personally distribute copies of the game to computer stores. He quit his consulting job, with hopes that it would allow the couple to eventually move out of the city.[3]

They released the Wizard and the Princess later that year, improving on their previous title with color graphics and dithering.[3][16] The game sold 60,000 copies, leading them to hire more employees for distribution and programming.[3] Encouraged by the success of their first two games, On-Line Systems switched its focus from consulting to game development.[16] Roberta's ambitions grew with the design of Time Zone, a time-travelling game spanning thousands of years, which was released on twelve disks in 1982.[3] Around this time, Roberta's parents retired and moved to Oakhurst, California, and she hoped to move close by.[6] With their company expanding, the couple was finally able to move On-Line Systems from Simi Valley, California to Coarsegold.[17] They also changed their company name to Sierra On-Line, based on its location near the Sierra Nevada mountains.[18]

After just two years Sierra had grown to nearly a hundred employees with $10 million in revenue.[3] Sierra's success started to attract investors, including venture capitalists.[15] Around this time, Jim Henson approached Ken Williams to create a game adaptation of The Dark Crystal, before the film's release.[3] Roberta was excited by the project, believing video games to be a facet of entertainment as much as film.[3] She designed much of the game adaptation on paper; it was finalized and released in 1983.[19] The high-profile game caused the company to attract mainstream media attention, and Roberta hoped that the entertainment industry would not just recognize the value of games, but also the value of the artists who created them.[3]

Programmers, authors are going to be the future new entertainers ... It might be presumptuous to say they might be new Robert Redfords ... but to a certain extent [they will be] idolized. Tomorrow's heroes.

Roberta Williams, 1982 interview[3]

King's Quest breakthrough (1983–1994)[edit]

By 1983 Sierra's new investors pushed the company to diversify into video game cartridges for platforms such as the Atari.[15] The video game industry soon experienced a crash, and Sierra's board of directors began to push a merger with Spinnaker Software, an educational software company.[15] When Spinnaker presented their proposal to the Sierra board, Roberta proclaimed, "These guys are a joke. No one in the industry respects them. Can't we talk about something productive?"[6] Although Ken Williams was amenable to the deal, Roberta strongly opposed it, and the merger did not proceed.[15] Sierra was forced to downsize to 30 employees,[6] and the Williams family mortgaged their home to pay their remaining employees.[15]

Sierra had cultivated a strong relationship with IBM as the IBM PC was being developed, and Wizard and the Princess was one of the first games released for the computer under the title Adventure in Serenia. Around the time of Sierra's financial difficulties, IBM offered to invest in the struggling company, with hopes of creating a game that could showcase the technical capabilities of their upcoming IBM PCjr.[16] Roberta had wanted to build on her experience with The Wizard and the Princess with a fully animated adventure game, in a pseudo-3D world.[6] This led to the 1984 release of King's Quest,[17] conceived as a blend of common fairy tales that could be directly experienced as a game.[20] Although the PCjr was considered a failure, King's Quest was ported to many other platforms and quickly rose to bestseller status.[16] The game was considered revolutionary for its pseudo-3D elements,[21] becoming the first adventure game to allow the player character to move in front of, behind, or over other objects on the screen.[8][16] It was also the first computer game to support the 16-color EGA standard,[16] setting a new standard for future graphic adventure games.[21]

Roberta Williams wearing a cowboy hat
Roberta Williams at a celebration of On-Line Systems' first anniversary, 1981

Meanwhile, Roberta continued her role as designer of the King's Quest series,[22] which earned a reputation for its unique style of storytelling, as well as its increasingly advanced graphics and technology.[17] The 1986 release of King's Quest III: To Heir is Human was larger and longer than previous games in the series, and earned a ranking on Time's list of 50 Best Video Games of All Time.[23] When King's Quest IV: The Perils of Rosella was released in 1988, it was one of the first games to receive sound card support,[24] and one of the first adventure games to support a mouse.[25] It was also one of the first games to feature a female protagonist,[24][26] a creative decision that Williams seeded by introducing the character in the previous game.[27] Some of her peers cautioned that this might deter men from playing the game,[28] but it was even more commercially successful than previous installments.[25] A post-release survey revealed that most men did not mind playing as a female protagonist, whereas many female players preferred the experience.[28] Sierra received registration cards for the game with a near 40% female audience, leading journalists to credit Williams with expanding the player base for personal computer games.[22] King's Quest IV has been considered one of the most influential video games of all time, impacting the design of games such as Maniac Mansion and other LucasArts adventure games.[25]

Roberta Williams on the cover of the Fall 1989 edition of the Sierra Magazine.

Williams continued to design other titles, such as the educational title Mixed-Up Mother Goose.[29] The game went on to sell more than 500,000 copies,[30] and the CD-ROM version earned the Software Publishers Association Excellence in Software Award for Best Early Education Program.[29] In 1989 Williams released another mystery adventure game called The Colonel's Bequest, which iterated on ideas from her original Mystery House game with more detailed graphics and improved text parsing.[31] The game was still rare for featuring a female protagonist,[26] and deviated from the traditional adventure game formula to become more of an interactive mystery, putting more onus on the player to discover the plot.[32] The 1990 release of King's Quest V became the first game to use an icon-based interface, continuing the series' innovations in game design.[16][33] The game was critically acclaimed, winning several awards upon release,[34][35][36] with Computer Gaming World including it in their 1996 list of greatest games of all time.[37]

By the early 1990s Sierra was a publicly traded company, generating $100 million per year in revenue.[15] The company released The Dagger of Amon Ra in 1991, a sequel to The Colonel's Bequest based on characters and concepts created by Williams.[38] Meanwhile, Williams worked with Jane Jensen to design King's Quest VI.[39] Released in 1992, it was recognized by several publications as one of the best adventure games, if not one of the best games overall.[40][41][42] By the mid 1990s, Williams was considered the company's most popular game designer, particularly for her success with the King's Quest series.[3] The saga is still remembered as the only video game series created and maintained by a female designer.[22]

Roberta Williams and her two colleagues all wearing cowboy hats
Roberta Williams (right) with fellow On-Line Systems employees Maria Stahl (left) and Diane Siegal (middle) at a celebration of the company's first anniversary in 1981

Later games and career exit (1995–1999)[edit]

Williams branched out from her work on King's Quest by designing Phantasmagoria, a realistic horror adventure game.[21] As a long time fan of the novels of Stephen King, she had often contemplated whether it was possible to create a terrifying video game.[6] Because she believed it would be difficult to make a truly frightening game without live actors,[6] the game was created entirely in full-motion video.[16] The production ultimately cost $4 million, with a team of nearly two hundred people[28] and a script of more than five hundred pages.[1] Designed as a mature title for adults,[28] the game was marketed as an interactive film,[16] and published on seven CD-ROMs.[1] Although Phantasmagoria received a mixed critical reception, it was one of the most commercially successful adventure games[16] and Sierra's bestselling game,[6] selling more than a million copies upon its release in 1995.[1] Williams recalls the game as her favorite achievement.[21]

In 1996 Sierra was sold to CUC International for more than a billion dollars in stock.[15][28] Roberta had opposed the deal, and several other high-ranking Sierra employees had felt there was something suspicious about CUC's financials.[15] Roberta ultimately acquiesced, recognizing that the terms of the deal were too favorable to refuse, and that she could be sued by their shareholders if she failed to maximize their value.[15] The company's management and decision-making dramatically changed under CUC,[18] leading Ken Williams to leave his role at Sierra and work directly for their new parent company.[15] The CUC restructuring also led to lay-offs.[16] Roberta Williams took a sabbatical from the game industry,[43] as the company released The Roberta Williams Anthology, a compilation of 14 games.[28]

Roberta Williams returned to game development in early 1997 to work on King's Quest: Mask of Eternity.[43] She hoped to re-introduce some interactivity absent in Phantasmagoria,[44] and to embrace the advances in 3D graphics technology.[15] Sierra had changed significantly as a company, and its new management insisted on adding elements from popular role-playing games such as Diablo, while straying from the game's traditional adventure elements.[15][45] When she removed certain role-playing elements, the team would re-add them, leading to a power struggle with management.[15] Roberta's frustrations with her lack of control were coupled with suspicions of CUC, after allegations of financial fraud had surfaced about the company. Worried about the company's future, she talked to Ken about selling their stock.[15] The couple soon divested from the company, Ken resigning at the end of 1997, and Roberta staying to finish Mask of Eternity.[15] Released in 1998, the game was considered a commercial and critical disappointment, leading to further layoffs, and the sale of Sierra to Vivendi.[16] That year, CUC was convicted of financial fraud, having exaggerated their revenues by more than half a billion dollars (equivalent to $930 million in 2023).[15] The decline of Sierra had an emotional impact on Roberta,[15] who left the company in 1999.[46] By the 2000s, Sierra's assets were held by Activision Blizzard,[21] after a merger between Activision and Vivendi.[47]


After the release of King's Quest: Mask of Eternity, Roberta Williams described herself as taking a sabbatical from the game industry in 1999.[48] In actuality, both she and Ken had signed a non-compete clause with CUC that prevented them from working in the game industry for five years. According to Ken, "By the time the five years were up, we had moved on to other ventures,"[6] thus ending Roberta's career in the game industry after 18 years and 20 games.[46] At that time, she stayed away from the public eye and rarely spoke to the press.[49] In a rare 2006 interview she said her greatest achievement was creating Phantasmagoria, though she expressed her love of the King's Quest series for its influence on her early career.[20] Williams said that her role as a game designer was in the past, and that she was focused on writing a historical novel.[20] She has also focused on travel,[46] becoming an avid sailor with her husband.[17]

In 2011 the video game website Gamezebo reported that she had returned from her sabbatical as a design consultant on the social network game Odd Manor, for Facebook.[50] By 2012, Replay Games had recruited Sierra veterans Al Lowe and Paul Trowe to return to the Leisure Suit Larry adventure game series, which led Trowe to try to persuade the Williamses to return to the game industry.[51] Activision hired Telltale Games to develop a new entry in the King's Quest series. Williams declined to work on the game, but did offer some advice.[52] The game was later canceled in 2013.[53] Activision attempted to revive the Sierra brand in 2014, leading developer The Odd Gentlemen to create King's Quest: A Knight to Remember.[54] According to the studio, they consulted with Roberta Williams "to make a game like they would make if they had continued making adventure games".[55]

In 2019 Vancouver Film School announced The Roberta Williams Women in Game Design Scholarship, in partnership with game studios The Coalition and Blackbird Interactive.[56] In 2021, Williams self-published her first novel Farewell to Tara, set in mid-1800s Ireland during the time of the Great Famine.[57]

Roberta Williams and her husband Ken in a convention center
Roberta and Ken Williams at the Game Developers Conference in 2022

Roberta and Ken announced plans to return to game development in June 2021, in collaboration with artist Marcus Maximus Mera.[58][59] In an interview that same year, she expressed caution that a veteran game designer could successfully return to the industry after an extended break, saying there are merits to ending one's career at its peak.[45] In 2022 the team revealed that their new studio Cygnus Entertainment was creating a remake of Colossal Cave Adventure titled Colossal Cave 3D Adventure.[60] Roberta explained that this pioneering game from the 1970s had inspired her career, and she was excited to re-imagine it as an interactive 3D experience.[61]

Legacy and accolades[edit]

In 1995, Next Generation included Roberta Williams among their list of 75 power players in the game industry.[62] Computer Gaming World also ranked her as tenth on their 1997 list of the most influential people in computer gaming, praising her impact on the design of adventure games.[63] GameSpot likewise ranked her number ten on their 1999 list of "the most influential people in computer gaming of all time" for "pushing the envelope of graphic adventures" and being "especially proactive in creating games from a woman's point of view and titles that appealed to the mainstream market, all the while integrating the latest technologies in graphics and sound wherever possible".[10] In 2009, IGN included both her and Ken in the 23rd position on the list of top game creators of all time, highlighting their role in co-founding Sierra as "the company behind some of the best and most well known adventure games of the '80s and '90s".[21]

Computer Gaming World inducted Roberta Williams into their Hall of Fame in 2011.[64] Both Roberta and Ken were given an Industry Icon Award at The Game Awards in 2014.[14] She also earned the Pioneer Award at the 20th Game Developers Choice Awards in March 2020, for her influential work in the graphical adventure game genre with Mystery House, as well as her role in creating the King's Quest series and co-founding Sierra.[17][65]

Ken Williams has described her as a perfectionist, "extremely smart, intuitive and usually right. She can't be managed."[5] Ars Technica has called her "one of the more iconic figures in adventure gaming", noting her as one of the first well-known female game designers, and praising her writing and design work on Phantasmagoria and the King's Quest series.[46] Smithsonian magazine has noted her as a pioneer of graphic adventure games, for creating the first home computer game to include graphics.[14] Several publications have referred to her as "the Queen of adventure games".[4][8][66][67]

Roberta Williams has personally inspired the characters and artwork of other games. She posed for the cover of the game Softporn Adventure by Chuck Benton, published by On-Line Systems.[46][68] She posed much later with her children as Mother Goose for the cover photograph of Mixed-Up Mother Goose.[46] She also makes a cameo appearance in Leisure Suit Larry 3, where Larry interrupts her while "directing" a scene for King's Quest IV.[69] Ellie Williams, protagonist of the 2013 video game series The Last of Us is named for Ken and Roberta.[70] She was also a source of inspiration for the character of Cameron Howe in the AMC television drama Halt and Catch Fire.[71] The Williams family donated a collection of design materials to the International Center for the History of Electronic Games.[56]




  • Farewell to Tara (2021)


  1. ^ a b c d e Fish, Charlie (May 30, 2021). The History of Video Games. White Owl. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-1-5267-7900-7.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Levy, Steven (May 19, 2010). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition. O'Reilly Media. pp. 241, 245, 253, 267, 288, 309, 316, 320, 357, 392. ISBN 978-1-4493-9374-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e Katz, Alan (August 6, 2019). Awesome Achievers in Technology: Super and Strange Facts about 12 Almost Famous History Makers. Running Press. ISBN 978-0-7624-6335-0.
  4. ^ a b Bonner, Jerry. "The Rise of Sierra Online Wasn't Exactly a Fairytale". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Williams, Ken (July 24, 2020). Not All Fairy Tales Have Happy Endings: The Rise and Fall of Sierra On-Line. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-716-72736-8.
  6. ^ a b "Roberta Williams". Lemelson-MIT Program. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Sherman, Jill (August 2018). 25 Women Who Thought of It First. Capstone. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7565-5852-9.
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b c d e "The Most Influential People in Computer Gaming of All Time". GameSpot. February 24, 1999. Archived from the original on May 17, 2005. Retrieved May 17, 2005.
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Nooney, Laine (December 2013). "A Pedestal, A Table, A Love Letter: Archaeologies of Gender in Videogame History". Game Studies. 13 (2).
  13. ^ a b c d e Eschner, Kat (February 16, 2017). "The Pioneer of Graphic Adventure Games Was a Woman". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Fyfe, Duncan (October 29, 2020). "How Sierra Was Captured, Then Killed, by a Massive Accounting Fraud". Vice. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moss, Richard (January 26, 2011). "A truly graphic adventure: the 25-year rise and fall of a beloved genre". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Adventure game trailblazer Roberta Williams to receive Pioneer Award at GDC 2020". Gamasutra. February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  17. ^ a b Jong, Philip (March 28, 2006). "Ken Williams - Interview". Adventure Classic Gaming. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  18. ^ Anderson, John (March 1983). "The Dark Crystal". Creative Computing. p. 168. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  19. ^ a b c Jong, Philip (July 16, 2006). "Roberta Williams Interview". Adventure Classic Gaming. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Ken Williams & Roberta Williams". IGN. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  21. ^ a b c Mejia, Robert; Banks, Jaime; Adams, Aubrie (August 17, 2017). 100 Greatest Video Game Franchises. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-1-4422-7815-8.
  22. ^ "The 50 Best Video Games of All Time". Time. August 23, 2016. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  23. ^ a b Andreadis, Kosta (May 25, 2014). "Revisiting King's Quest IV: The Perils of Rosella". IGN. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  24. ^ a b c GameSpot Staff (November 7, 2000). "The 15 Most Influential Games of All Time; King's Quest IV: The Perils of Rosella". GameSpot. p. 13. Archived from the original on May 25, 2005. Retrieved February 17, 2020.
  25. ^ a b Ardai, Charles (November 1997). "A Woman's Place". Computer Gaming World. Vol. 160. p. 381.
  26. ^ Marold, Abby (February 17, 2001). "Interviews - Roberta Williams". WomenGamers. Archived from the original on February 17, 2001. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Newsweek Staff (March 30, 1997). "Sierra's Queen Is Still On Top Of Her Game". Newsweek. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  28. ^ a b "Celebrating Software". Computer Gaming World. June 1991. p. 64. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  29. ^ Sierra On-Line (December 1995). "Advertisement: Mixed-Up Mother Goose Deluxe". PC Gamer US. Vol. 2, no. 12. p. 62.
  30. ^ Alexander, Leigh (October 9, 2014). "Lo-Fi Let's Play: The Colonel's Bequest". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  31. ^ Kalata, Kurt (November 22, 2010). "The Colonel's Bequest". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  32. ^ "NG Alphas: King's Quest: Mask of Eternity". Next Generation. No. 30. June 1997. pp. 72–75.
  33. ^ "Computer Gaming World's 1991 Games of the Year Awards". Computer Gaming World. November 1991. p. 38. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  34. ^ "Isn't That Just Spiffy?". Computer Gaming World. February 1992. p. 112. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  35. ^ "Riding the Cutting Edge". Interaction. Vol. Winter 1993. 1993. pp. 36–37.
  36. ^ "150 Best Games of All Time". Computer Gaming World. November 1996. pp. 64–80. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  37. ^ Kalata, Kurt (November 22, 2009). "Laura Bow in: The Dagger of Amon Ra". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  38. ^ Ceccola, Russ (February 1993). "All about King's Quest VI: EG learns the inside scoop from Roberta Williams and Jane Jensen". Electronic Games. Vol. 1, no. 5. pp. 84, 85.
  39. ^ Gouskos, Carrie. "The Greatest Games of All Time: King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow". GameSpot. Archived from the original on April 10, 2006.
  40. ^ Staff (August 1994). "PC Gamer Top 40: The Best Games of All Time; The Ten Best Games that Almost Made the Top 40". PC Gamer US. No. 3. p. 42.
  41. ^ Alexander, Jem (March 17, 2015). "The 10 Adventure Games That Everyone Must Play". Kotaku. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  42. ^ a b Senan, David (Fall 1997). King's Quest: Mask of Eternity. InterAction Magazine.
  43. ^ "An Interview with Roberta Williams and Mark Seibert". Next Generation. No. 30. June 1997. pp. 77–81.
  44. ^ a b "A Video Chat with Roberta Williams". Adventure Gamers. March 12, 2021. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Kuchera, Ben (July 18, 2006). "Roberta Williams: After King's Quest, where did she go?". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  46. ^ Johnson, Bobbie (July 11, 2008). "Activision and Vivendi merge to create video games giant". The Guardian. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  47. ^ "Roberta Williams Interview". Gamer's Depot. 1999. Archived from the original on November 27, 1999. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  48. ^ Ribeiro, Ricky (May 11, 2012). "Mothers of Technology: 10 Women Who Invented and Innovated in Tech". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  49. ^ Webster, Andrew (August 14, 2011). "Legendary King's Quest designer Roberta Williams working on Facebook's Odd Manor". Gamezebo. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  50. ^ Walker, John (April 10, 2012). "Replay Trying To Bring Back Space Quest, King's Quest". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  51. ^ "E3 2011: First King's Quest Details - IGN". IGN. June 8, 2011. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
  52. ^ "Activision is planning something for King's Quest After Recovering the Rights From Telltale Games". Digital Trends. April 3, 2013. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  53. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (August 12, 2014). "Geometry Wars and King's Quest return with revived Sierra label". Polygon. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  54. ^ "How King's Quest Creator Roberta Williams Helped King's Quest: A Knight to Remember". Siliconera. July 31, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  55. ^ a b Futter, Mike (June 26, 2019). "Roberta Williams' legacy honored with $250,000 scholarship and internship program". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  56. ^ "Farewell to Tara: Official Release Announcement". Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  57. ^ Rousseau, Jeffrey (June 3, 2021). "Ken and Roberta Williams making first game together in over 20 years". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  58. ^ Cassidy, Ruth (May 29, 2021). "Sierra Entertainment's original creators might be making something new". PC Gamer. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  59. ^ Bailey, Kat (March 29, 2022). "Ken And Roberta Williams Are Remaking Colossal Cave Adventure". IGN. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
  60. ^ Machkovech, Sam (April 8, 2022). "Roberta and Ken Williams open up about their first video game in 25 years". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  61. ^ "75 Power Players". Next Generation. No. 11. November 1995. pp. 53–54.
  62. ^ "The Most Influential People in Computer Gaming". Computer Gaming World. No. 159. October 1997. p. 56.
  63. ^ "Computer Gaming World – Hall of Fame". Computer Gaming World. 1up. August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  64. ^ O'Connor, Alice (March 19, 2020). "Untitled Goose Game ran away with the GDC Awards game of the year trophy". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  65. ^ Craddock, David L. (August 26, 2021). Game Dev Stories Volume 2: More Interviews About Game Development and Culture. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-000-43393-7.
  66. ^ Lewis, Peter H. (December 20, 1992). "Sound Bytes; The Queen of Gaming Reigns at Sierra On-Line". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  67. ^ Nooney, Laine (December 2, 2014). "The Odd History of the First Erotic Computer Game". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  68. ^ Kalata, Kurt (August 5, 2009). "Hardcore Gaming 101: Leisure Suit Larry: Passionate Patti in Pursuit of the Pulsating Pectorals". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  69. ^ Druckmann, Neil (December 29, 2021). "Personal Tweet". Twitter. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  70. ^ Sirois, Justin (September 22, 2015). "Halt and Catch Fire: Cameron". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  71. ^ Webster, Andrew (August 14, 2011). "Legendary King's Quest designer Roberta Williams working on Facebook's Odd Manor". Gamezebo. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  72. ^ Carpenter, Nicole (December 8, 2022). "Classic adventure game Colossal Cave returns remade in 3D in 2023". Polygon. Retrieved January 19, 2023.

External links[edit]