And Then There Were None

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And Then There Were None
And Then There Were None First Edition Cover 1939.jpg
Cover of first UK 1939 edition with original title.
AuthorAgatha Christie
Original titleTen Little Niggers
Cover artistStephen Bellman
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Genre
PublisherCollins Crime Club
Publication date
6 November 1939
Pages272[1]
Preceded byMurder Is Easy 
Followed bySad Cypress 
WebsiteAnd Then There Were None

And Then There Were None is a mystery novel by the English writer Agatha Christie, described by her as the most difficult of her books to write.[2] It was first published in the United Kingdom by the Collins Crime Club on 6 November 1939, as Ten Little Niggers,[3] after the children's counting rhyme and minstrel song, which serves as a major element of the plot.[4][5] A US edition was released in January 1940 with the title And Then There Were None, which is taken from the last five words of the song.[6] All successive American reprints and adaptations use that title, except for the Pocket Books paperbacks published between 1964 and 1986, which appeared under the title Ten Little Indians.

The book is the world's best-selling mystery, and with over 100 million copies sold is one of the best-selling books of all time. Publications International lists the novel as the sixth best-selling title.[7]

Plot[edit]

These details correspond to the text of the 1939 first edition.

Eight people arrive on a small, isolated island off the Devon coast, each having received an unexpected personal invitation. They are met by the butler and cook-housekeeper, Thomas and Ethel Rogers, who explain that their hosts, Ulick Norman Owen and Una Nancy Owen, have not yet arrived, though they have left instructions.

A framed copy of the old rhyme "Ten Little Niggers"[8] hangs in every guest's room, and on the dining room table sit ten figurines. After supper, a phonograph record is played; the recording accuses each visitor as well as the Rogers of having committed murder, then asks if any of the "prisoners at the bar" wishes to offer a defence.

The guests discover that none of them knows the Owens, and Mr Justice Wargrave suggests that the name "U N Owen" is a play on "Unknown". Marston finishes his drink and promptly dies of cyanide poisoning. Dr Armstrong confirms that there was no cyanide in the other drinks, and suggests that Marston must have dosed himself.

Next morning, Mrs Rogers is found dead in her bed, and by lunchtime General MacArthur has also died, from a heavy blow to the head. The guests realise that the nature of the deaths corresponds with the respective lines of the rhyme; and three of the figurines are found to be broken.

The guests suspect that U N Owen may be systematically murdering them, and fruitlessly search the island. But as the island has no hiding places, and no one could have arrived or left, they are forced to conclude that one of the seven remaining persons must be the killer. The next morning, Rogers is found dead while chopping wood, and Emily Brent is found dead in the drawing room having been injected with potassium cyanide.

After Wargrave suggests searching all the rooms, Lombard's gun is found to be missing. Vera Claythorne goes up to her room, and screams when she finds seaweed hanging from the ceiling. Most of the remaining guests rush upstairs, and when they return they find Wargrave still downstairs, crudely dressed in the attire of a judge with a gunshot wound to the forehead. Dr Armstrong pronounces him dead.

That night, Lombard's gun is returned, and Blore sees someone leaving the house. Armstrong is absent from his room. Vera, Blore, and Lombard decide to stick together, and leave the house. When Blore returns for food, he is killed by a marble clock shaped like a bear that is pushed from Vera's window sill. Vera and Lombard find Armstrong's body washed up on the beach, and each concludes the other must be responsible. Vera suggests moving the body from the shore as a mark of respect, but this is a pretext to acquire Lombard's gun. When Lombard lunges at her to get it back, she shoots him dead.

Vera returns to the house in a shaken, post-traumatic state. She finds a noose and chair arranged in her room, and a powerful smell of the sea. Overcome by guilt, she hangs herself in accordance with the last line of the rhyme.

Scotland Yard officials arrive on the island to find nobody alive. They discover that the owner of the island, a sleazy lawyer and drug trafficker called Isaac Morris, had arranged the invitations and ordered the recording. But he cannot be the killer, as he had died of a barbiturate overdose on the night the guests arrived. The police reconstruct the deaths with the help of the victims' diaries and a coroner's report, and are able to eliminate several suspects since after each of their deaths items had inexplicably been moved (for example, the chair on which Vera stood to hang herself had been set back upright). They also exclude Blore, since suicide by falling clock seems highly unlikely. Ultimately, however, they are unable to identify the killer.

Much later, a trawler pulls up in its nets a bottle containing a written confession. In it, Mr Justice Wargrave recounts that all his life he had had two contradictory impulses: a strong sense of justice and a savage bloodlust. He had satisfied both through his profession as a criminal judge, sentencing murderers to death following their trial. But after receiving a diagnosis of a terminal illness, he decided to put into effect a private scheme to deal with a group of people he considered to have escaped justice.

Before departing for the island, he had given Morris a lethal dose of barbiturates for his indigestion. His own 'death' on the island had initially been faked with the assistance of Dr Armstrong under the pretext that it would help the group identify the killer. After killing the remaining guests, including Armstrong, he finally committed suicide in the same way, using the gun and some elastic to ensure that his true death matched the account of his faked death in the guests' diaries. Wargrave had written his confession and thrown it into the sea in a bottle in response to what he acknowledged to be his "pitiful human need" for recognition.

Principal characters[edit]

  • Anthony James Marston, an amoral and irresponsible young man
  • Thomas Rogers, the butler and Ethel Rogers' domineering husband
  • Mrs. Ethel Rogers, the cook/housekeeper and Thomas Rogers' wife
  • General John Gordon MacArthur, a retired World War I war hero
  • Emily Caroline Brent, an elderly, pious spinster
  • Dr Edward George Armstrong, a Harley Street doctor
  • William Henry Blore, a former police inspector, now a private investigator
  • Philip Lombard, a soldier of fortune
  • Vera Elizabeth Claythorne, a young woman who is on leave from her position as a sports mistress at a girls' school
  • Lawrence John Wargrave (Mr Justice Wargrave), a retired criminal judge
  • Isaac Morris, the island's owner, a sleazy lawyer and drug trafficker

Structure of the novel[edit]

The plot is structured around the ten lines of the children's counting rhyme "Ten Little Niggers"[3] ("Ten Little Indians" or "Ten Little Soldiers" in later editions). Each of the ten victims – eight guests plus the island's two caretakers – is killed in a manner which reflects one of the lines of the rhyme. Also killed, but off the island, is the island's recent owner.

Current published version of the rhyme[edit]

This is the version of the rhyme as published in a recent edition:[9]

Ten little Soldier Boys went out to dine; One choked his little self and then there were nine.
Nine little Soldier Boys sat up very late; One overslept himself and then there were eight.
Eight little Soldier Boys travelling in Devon; One said he'd stay there and then there were seven.[10]
Seven little Soldier Boys chopping up sticks; One chopped himself in halves and then there were six.
Six little Soldier Boys playing with a hive; A bumblebee stung one and then there were five.
Five little Soldier Boys going in for law; One got in Chancery and then there were four.
Four little Soldier Boys going out to sea; A red herring swallowed one and then there were three.
Three little Soldier Boys walking in the zoo; A big bear hugged one and then there were two.
Two little Soldier Boys sitting in the sun; One got frizzled up and then there was one.
One little Soldier Boy left all alone; He went out and hanged himself and then there were none.

Correspondence between rhyme and modes of death[edit]

Modes of death of the victims vs the wording of the rhyme
No. Character Accusation Mode of death Original rhyme, early UK editions[11] Current version of the rhyme[9]
- Isaac Morris (deceased) [Recent owner of the island. Sold illegal drugs to a woman who became an addict and later committed suicide] Accepts a lethal cocktail of drugs to treat his imagined ailments
1 Anthony James Marston Knocked over and killed two young children while recklessly speeding Choked after drinking poisoned whisky Ten little nigger boys went out to dine;

One choked his little self and then there were Nine.

Ten little Soldier Boys went out to dine;

One choked his little self and then there were nine.

2 Mrs Ethel Rogers Allowed herself to be persuaded by her husband into withholding a former employer's medicine in order to collect an inheritance Dies in her sleep of an unknown cause Nine little nigger boys sat up very late;

One overslept himself and then there were Eight.

Nine little Soldier Boys sat up very late;

One overslept himself and then there were eight.

3 General John Gordon MacArthur Ordered a younger officer to undertake a mission where he was almost guaranteed to be killed Killed by a heavy blow to the head Eight little nigger boys travelling in Devon;

One said he'd stay there and then there were Seven.

Eight little Soldier Boys travelling in Devon;

One said he'd stay there and then there were seven.[12]

4 Thomas Rogers Induced his wife to withhold a former employer's medicine in order to collect an inheritance Killed with an axe while chopping wood Seven little nigger boys chopping up sticks;

One chopped himself in halves and then there were Six.

Seven little Soldier Boys chopping up sticks;

One chopped himself in halves and then there were six.

5 Emily Caroline Brent Dismissed her teenage maid for becoming pregnant out of wedlock, the dismissal causing the maid to drown herself Injected with poison Six little nigger boys playing with a hive;

A bumble-bee stung one and then there were Five.

Six little Soldier Boys playing with a hive;

A bumblebee stung one and then there were five.

6 Lawrence John Wargrave (Mr Justice Wargrave) Improperly influenced a jury to bring in a guilty verdict against a man many thought to be innocent; and sentencing him to death Gunshot wound to the head, while dressed as a judge Five little nigger boys going in for law;

One got in Chancery and then there were Four.

Five little Soldier Boys going in for law;

One got in Chancery and then there were four.

7 Dr Edward George Armstrong Responsible for the death of a patient whom he had operated on while drunk Drowns after being pushed over a cliff into the sea Four little nigger boys going out to sea;

A red herring swallowed one and then there were Three.

Four little Soldier Boys going out to sea; A red herring swallowed one and then there were three.
8 William Henry Blore Gave perjured evidence in court resulting in an innocent man being convicted, sentenced to life imprisonment, and dying shortly afterwards Crushed to death by a marble clock shaped like a bear Three little nigger boys walking in the zoo;

A big bear hugged one and then there were Two.

Three little Soldier Boys walking in the zoo;

A big bear hugged one and then there were two.

9 Philip Lombard As a soldier, caused the deaths of a number of East African tribesmen, after stealing their food and abandoning them to their fate Shot by Vera on the beach Two little nigger boys sitting in the sun;

One got frizzled up and then there was One.

Two little Soldier Boys sitting in the sun;

One got frizzled up and then there was one.[13]

10 Vera Elizabeth Claythorne As a governess, allowed her young charge to drown so that his uncle could inherit the family estate and marry her Hangs herself One little nigger boy left all alone;

He went and hanged himself and then there were None.

One little Soldier Boy left all alone;

He went out and hanged himself and then there were none.[14]

Literary significance and reception[edit]

Writing for The Times Literary Supplement of 11 November 1939, Maurice Percy Ashley stated, "If her latest story has scarcely any detection in it there is no scarcity of murders... There is a certain feeling of monotony inescapable in the regularity of the deaths which is better suited to a serialized newspaper story than a full-length novel. Yet there is an ingenious problem to solve in naming the murderer", he continued. "It will be an extremely astute reader who guesses correctly."[15]

For The New York Times Book Review (25 February 1940), Isaac Anderson has arrived to the point where "the voice" accuses the ten "guests" of their past crimes, which have all resulted in the deaths of humans, and then said, "When you read what happens after that you will not believe it, but you will keep on reading, and as one incredible event is followed by another even more incredible you will still keep on reading. The whole thing is utterly impossible and utterly fascinating. It is the most baffling mystery that Agatha Christie has ever written, and if any other writer has ever surpassed it for sheer puzzlement the name escapes our memory. We are referring, of course, to mysteries that have logical explanations, as this one has. It is a tall story, to be sure, but it could have happened."[16]

Many compared the book to her novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (1926). For instance, an unnamed reviewer in the Toronto Daily Star of 16 March 1940 said, "Others have written better mysteries than Agatha Christie, but no one can touch her for ingenious plot and surprise ending. With And Then There Were None... she is at her most ingenious and most surprising... is, indeed, considerably above the standard of her last few works and close to the Roger Ackroyd level."[17]

Other critics laud the use of plot twists and surprise endings. Maurice Richardson wrote a rhapsodic review in The Observer's issue of 5 November 1939 which began, "No wonder Agatha Christie's latest has sent her publishers into a vatic trance. We will refrain, however, from any invidious comparisons with Roger Ackroyd and be content with saying that Ten Little Niggers is one of the very best, most genuinely bewildering Christies yet written. We will also have to refrain from reviewing it thoroughly, as it is so full of shocks that even the mildest revelation would spoil some surprise from somebody, and I am sure that you would rather have your entertainment kept fresh than criticism pure." After stating the set-up of the plot, Richardson concluded, "Story telling and characterisation are right at the top of Mrs Christie's baleful form. Her plot may be highly artificial, but it is neat, brilliantly cunning, soundly constructed, and free from any of those red-herring false trails which sometimes disfigure her work."[3]

Robert Barnard, a recent critic, concurred with the reviews, describing the book as "Suspenseful and menacing detective-story-cum-thriller. The closed setting with the succession of deaths is here taken to its logical conclusion, and the dangers of ludicrousness and sheer reader-disbelief are skillfully avoided. Probably the best-known Christie, and justifiably among the most popular."[18]

The original title of the mystery (Ten Little Niggers) was changed because it was offensive in the United States and some other places. Alison Light, a literary critic and feminist scholar, opined that Christie's original title and the setting on "Nigger Island" (later changed to "Indian Island" and "Soldier Island", variously) were integral to the work. These aspects of the novel, she argued, "could be relied upon automatically to conjure up a thrilling 'otherness', a place where revelations about the 'dark side' of the English would be appropriate."[19] Unlike novels such as Heart of Darkness, "Christie's location is both more domesticated and privatized, taking for granted the construction of racial fears woven into psychic life as early as the nursery. If her story suggests how easy it is to play upon such fears, it is also a reminder of how intimately tied they are to sources of pleasure and enjoyment."[19]

In 1990 Crime Writers' Association ranked And Then There Were None 19th in their The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time list.In 1995 in a similar list Mystery Writers of America ranked the novel 10th.

In the "Binge!" article of Entertainment Weekly Issue #1343-44 (26 December 2014–3 January 2015), the writers picked And Then There Were None as an "EW favorite" on the list of the "Nine Great Christie Novels".[20]

19th-century original verses[edit]

The rhyme used by Christie was derived from older minstrel songs of the 19th century, one in Britain in 1869[21] and one in the US in 1868.[22]

1869 & 1868 verses
Ten Little Niggers
(Frank Green)[21]
Ten Little Indians
(Septimus Winner)[22]

Ten little nigger boys went out to dine
One choked his little self, and then there were nine.

Nine little nigger boys sat up very late
One overslept himself, and then there were eight.

Eight little nigger boys traveling in Devon
One said he'd stay there, and then there were seven.

Seven little nigger boys chopping up sticks
One chopped himself in half, and then there were six.

Six little nigger boys playing with a hive
A bumble-bee stung one, and then there were five.

Five little nigger boys going in for law
One got in chancery, and then there were four.

Four little nigger boys going out to sea
A red herring swallowed one, and then there were three.

Three little nigger boys walking in the zoo
A big bear hugged one, and then there were two.

Two little nigger boys sitting in the sun
One got frizzled up, and then there was one.

One little nigger boy living all alone
He went and hanged himself and then there were none.

Ten little Injuns standin' in a line,
One toddled home and then there were nine;

Nine little Injuns swingin' on a gate,
One tumbled off and then there were eight.

Refrain :
One little, two little, three little, four little, five little Injuns boys,
Six little, seven little, eight little, nine little, ten little Injuns boys.

Eight little Injuns gayest under heav'n,
One went to sleep and then there were seven;

Seven little Injuns cutting up their tricks,
One broke his neck and then there were six.

Six little Injuns kickin' all alive,
One kick'd the bucket and then there were five;

Five little Injuns on a cellar door,
One tumbled in and then there were four.

Four little Injuns up on a spree,
One he got fuddled and then there were three;

Three little Injuns out in a canoe,
One tumbled overboard and then there were two.

Two little Injuns foolin' with a gun,
One shot t'other and then there was one;

One little Injun livin' all alone,
He got married and then there were none.

Publication history[edit]

This novel has a long and noteworthy history of publication. It is a continuously best selling novel in English and in translation to other languages since its initial publication. From the start, in English, it was published under two different titles, due to different sensitivity to the author's title and counting-rhyme theme in the UK and in the US at first publication.

The novel was originally published in late 1939 and early 1940 almost simultaneously, in the United Kingdom and the United States. The serialization was in 23 parts in the Daily Express from Tuesday 6 June to Saturday 1 July 1939. All of the instalments carried an illustration by "Prescott" with the first having an illustration of Burgh Island in Devon which inspired the setting of the story. The serialized version did not contain any chapter divisions.[23] The book retailed for seven shillings and six pence.

The title[edit]

Cover of first US 1940 edition with current title for all English-language versions.

In the UK it appeared under the title Ten Little Niggers, in book and newspaper serialized formats. In the United States it was published under the title And Then There Were None, in both book and serial formats. Both of the original US publications changed the title from that originally used in the UK, due to the offensiveness of the word in American culture, where it was more widely perceived as a racially loaded ethnic slur or insult compared to the contemporaneous culture in the United Kingdom. The serialized version appeared in the Saturday Evening Post in seven parts from 20 May (Volume 211, Number 47) to 1 July 1939 (Volume 212, Number 1) with illustrations by Henry Raleigh, and the book was published in January 1940 by Dodd, Mead and Company for $2.[4][5][6]

In the original UK novel, and in succeeding publications until 1985, all references to "Indians" or "Soldiers" were originally "Nigger", including the island's name, the pivotal rhyme found by the visitors, and the ten figurines.[5] (In Chapter 7, Vera Claythorne becomes semi-hysterical at the mention by Miss Brent of "our black brothers", which is understandable only in the context of the original name.) UK editions continued to use the original title until the current definitive title appeared with a reprint of the 1963 Fontana Paperback in 1985.[24]

The word "nigger" was already racially offensive in the United States by the start of the 20th century, and therefore the book's first US edition and first serialization changed the title to And Then There Were None and removed all references to the word from the book, as did the 1945 motion picture (except that the first US edition retained 'nigger in the woodpile' in chapter 2 part VIII). Sensitivity to the original title of the novel was remarked by Sadie Stein in 2016, commenting on a BBC mini series with the title And Then There Were None, where she noted that "[E]ven in 1939, this title was considered too offensive for American publication."[25] In general, "Christie’s work is not known for its racial sensitivity, and by modern standards her oeuvre is rife with casual Orientalism."[25] The original title was based on a rhyme from minstrel shows and children's games. Stein quotes Alison Light as to the power of the original name of the island in the novel, Nigger Island, "to conjure up a thrilling ‘otherness’, a place where revelations about the ‘dark side’ of the English would be appropriate".[26] Light goes on to say that "Christie's location [the island] is both more domesticated and privatised, taking for granted the construction of racial fears woven into psychic life as early as the nursery."[26] Speaking of the "widely known" 1945 film, Stein added that "we’re merely faced with fantastic amounts of violence, and a rhyme so macabre and distressing one doesn’t hear it now outside of the Agatha Christie context."[25] She felt that the original title of the novel in the UK, seen now, "that original title, it jars, viscerally."[25]

Best-selling crime novel[edit]

This is the best-selling crime novel of all time, and made Agatha Christie the best-selling novelist, according to the Agatha Christie Estate.[2]

It is Christie's best-selling novel, with more than 100 million copies sold; it is also the world's best-selling mystery and one of the best-selling books of all time. Publications International lists the novel as the sixth best-selling title.[7]

Editions in English[edit]

The book and its adaptations have been released under various new names since the original publication, including Ten Little Indians (1946 play, Broadway performance and 1964 paperback book), Ten Little Soldiers, and official title per the Agatha Christie Limited website, And Then There Were None.[2] UK editions continued to use the work's original title until the 1980s; the first UK edition to use the alternative title And Then There Were None appeared in 1985 with a reprint of the 1963 Fontana Paperback.[24]

  • Christie, Agatha (November 1939). Ten Little Niggers. London: Collins Crime Club. OCLC 152375426. Hardback, 256 pp. First edition.
  • Christie, Agatha (January 1940). And Then There Were None. New York: Dodd, Mead. OCLC 1824276. Hardback, 264 pp. First US edition.
  • Christie, Agatha (1944). And Then There Were None. New York: Pocket Books (Pocket number 261). Paperback, 173 pp.
  • Christie, Agatha (1947). Ten Little Niggers. London: Pan Books (Pan number 4). Paperback, 190 pp.
  • Christie, Agatha (1958). Ten Little Niggers. London: Penguin Books (Penguin number 1256). Paperback, 201 pp.
  • Christie, Agatha (1963). Ten Little Niggers. London: Fontana. OCLC 12503435. Paperback, 190 pp. The 1985 reprint was the first UK publication of the novel under the title And Then There Were None.[24]
  • Christie, Agatha (1964). Ten Little Indians. New York: Pocket Books. OCLC 29462459. First publication of novel as Ten Little Indians.
  • Christie, Agatha (1964). And Then There Were None. New York: Washington Square Press. Paperback, teacher's edition.
  • Christie, Agatha (1977). Ten Little Niggers (Greenway ed.). London: Collins Crime Club. ISBN 0-00-231835-0. Collected works, Hardback, 252 pp. (Except for reprints of the 1963 Fontana paperback, this was one of the last English-language publications of the novel under the title Ten Little Niggers.)[27]
  • Christie, Agatha (1980). The Mysterious Affair at Styles; Ten Little Niggers; Dumb Witness. Sydney: Lansdowne Press. ISBN 0-7018-1453-5. Late use of the original title in an Australian edition.
  • Christie, Agatha (1986). Ten Little Indians. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-55222-8. Last publication of novel under the title Ten Little Indians.

Foreign-language editions[edit]

Many older translations were based on the original British text, although the word used to translate nigger was often somewhat less offensive, more analogous to English Negro or Negrito. Languages where the most recent edition retains racial epithets include Spanish, Greek, Serbian, Bulgarian, Romanian,[28][better source needed] and Hungarian, as well as the 1987 Soviet film adaptation Desyat Negrityat. Changes similar to those in the British edition in the 1980s were made to the German novel in 2003,[n 1] after 2002 protests in Hanover against a stage version using the old title.[29] Similar changes were made in Dutch in 2004,[n 2] Swedish in 2007,[n 3] Brazilian Portuguese in 2009,[n 4] Polish in 2017,[n 5] and French in 2020.[n 6] In 1999, the Slovak National Theatre changed the title of a stage adaptation mid-run.[n 7] The estate of Agatha Christie now offers it under only one title in English, And Then There Were None,[2] and translations increasingly use the equivalent of this as their title.[33] European Portuguese translations have been titled Convite Para a Morte (1948: "An Invitation to Death") and As Dez Figuras Negras (2011: "The Ten Black Figures" — referring to the figurines, in this case minimally anthropomorphic).[33]

Possible inspirations[edit]

The 1930 novel The Invisible Host by Gwen Bristow and Bruce Manning has a plot that strongly matches that of Christie's later novel, including a recorded voice announcing to the guests that their sins will be visited upon them by death. The Invisible Host was adapted as the 1930 Broadway play The Ninth Guest by Owen Davis,[37] which itself was adapted as the 1934 film The Ninth Guest. There is no evidence Christie saw either the play (which had a brief run on Broadway) or the film.

The 1933 K.B.S. Productions Sherlock Holmes film A Study in Scarlet follows a strikingly similar plot;[38] it includes a scene where Holmes is shown a card with the hint: "Six little Indians...bee stung one and then there were five". In this case, the rhyme refers to "Ten Little Fat Boys". (The film's plot bears no resemblance to Arthur Conan Doyle's original story of the same name.) The author of the movie's screenplay, Robert Florey, "doubted that [Christie] had seen A Study in Scarlet, but he regarded it as a compliment if it had helped inspire her".[39]

Adaptations[edit]

Film and TV adaptations
1945And Then There Were None
1946
1947
1948
1949Ten Little Niggers (British/BBC)
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959Ten Little Niggers (British/ITV)
Ten Little Indians (US)
1960
1961
1962
1963O Caso dos Dez Negrinhos
1964
1965Ten Little Indians
Gumnaam
1966
1967
1968
1969Zehn kleine Negerlein
1970Nadu Iravil
Dix petits nègres
1971
1972
1973
1974Achra Abid Zghar (Lebanese/Télé Liban)
And Then There Were None
1975
1976
1977
1978Deka Mikroi Negroi
1979
1980
1981Ten Little Indians (Filipino)
1982
1983
1984
1985Ten Little Maidens (adult film)
1986
1987Desyat' Negrityat
1988
1989Ten Little Indians
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004Mindhunters
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011The mystery of the ten strangers (Spanish)
2012Aduthathu
2013
2014Achra Abid Zghar (Lebanese/MTV)
2015Aatagara
And Then There Were None
2016
2017Soshite Daremo Inakunatta
2018
2019
2020Ils etaient dix

And Then There Were None has had more adaptations than any other work by Agatha Christie.[2] Christie herself changed the bleak ending to a more palatable one for theatre audiences when she adapted the novel for the stage in 1943. Many adaptations incorporate changes to the story, such as using Christie's alternative ending from her stage play or changing the setting to locations other than an island.

Film[edit]

There have been numerous film adaptations of the novel:

Radio[edit]

The BBC broadcast Ten Little Niggers (1947), adapted by Ayton Whitaker, first aired as a Monday Matinee on the BBC Home Service on 27 December 1947 and as Saturday Night Theatre on the BBC Light Programme on 29 December.[44]

On 13 November 2010, as part of its Saturday Play series, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a 90-minute adaptation written by Joy Wilkinson. The production was directed by Mary Peate and featured Geoffrey Whitehead as Mr Justice Wargrave, Lyndsey Marshal as Vera Claythorne, Alex Wyndham as Philip Lombard, John Rowe as Dr Armstrong, and Joanna Monro as Emily Brent.

Stage[edit]

And Then There Were None (1943 play) is Christie's adaptation of the story for the stage. She and the producers agreed that audiences might not flock to a tale with such a grim ending as the novel, nor would it work well dramatically as there would be no one left to tell the story. Christie reworked the ending for Lombard and Vera to be innocent of the crimes of which they were accused, survive, and fall in love with each other. Some of the names were also changed, e.g., General Macarthur became General McKenzie in both the New York and London productions.[45][46] By 1943, General Douglas MacArthur was playing a prominent role in the Pacific Theatre of World War II, which may explain the change of the character's name.

Ten little niggers (1944 play), Dundee Repertory Theatre Company was given special permission to restore the original ending of the novel. The company first performed a stage adaptation of the novel in August 1944 under the UK title of the novel, with Christie credited as the dramatist.[47] It was the first performance in repertory theatre.[47] It was staged again in 1965.[48] There was an article in the Dundee Evening Register in August 1944

And Then There Were None (2005 play). On 14 October 2005, a new version of the play, written by Kevin Elyot and directed by Steven Pimlott, opened at the Gielgud Theatre in London. For this version, Elyot returned to the original story in the novel, restoring the nihilism of the original.[49]

Television[edit]

Several variations of the original novel were adapted for television, three of which were British adaptations. The first of these, in 1949, was produced by the BBC.[50] The second was produced in 1959,[51] by ITV. Both of those productions aired with Christie's original title. The third and most recent British adaptation aired as And Then There Were None on BBC One in December 2015, as a mini-series broadcast on three consecutive nights, produced in cooperation with Acorn Media and Agatha Christie Productions. The 2015 production adhered more closely to the original plot, though there were several differences to backstories and actual murders on the island, and was the first English language film adaptation to feature an ending similar to that of the novel. It was directed by Craig Viveiros and adapted for television by Sarah Phelps.[52]

An American TV movie aired on NBC 18 January 1959. It was directed by Paul Bogart, and starred Barry Jones and Nina Foch.

There have been many foreign-language TV adaptations:

  • A Portuguese-language version for Brazilian television, broadcast 16 February 1957, titled O Caso dos Dez Negrinhos
  • O Caso dos Dez Negrinhos, a 1963 episode of the Brazilian anthology series Grande Teatro Tupi [pt]
  • A West German television production, Zehn kleine Negerlein, which aired in 1969
  • Dix petits nègres, a 1970 episode of the French anthology series Au théâtre ce soir [fr]
  • Achra Abid Zghar (1974, translation: Ten Little Slaves), a Télé Liban TV series directed by Jean Fayyad, adapted for television by Latifeh Moultaka
  • Deka Mikroi Negroi, a 1978 episode of the Greek anthology series To theatro tis Defteras
  • A free Spanish adaptation made by RTVE in 2011 as the two-parter The mystery of the ten strangers for the second season of Los misterios de Laura
  • Achra Abid Zghar (2014, translation: Ten Little Slaves), an MTV Lebanon television production
  • Soshite daremo inakunatta (そして誰もいなくなった), a Japanese-language adaptation by Shukei Nagasaka (長坂秀佳, Nagasaka Shukei) set in modern times, aired 25 and 26 March 2017 on TV Asahi in Japan. It was directed by Seiji Izumi and adapted for television by Hideka Nagasaka.[53][54]
  • Ils etaient dix, a French six-part miniseries produced by M6 and aired in 2020, set on a tropical island in present time

In 2010, American animated TV series Family Guy adapted the story as And Then There Were Fewer.

Other media[edit]

The novel was the inspiration for several video games. For the Apple II, Online Systems released Mystery House in 1980. On the PC, The Adventure Company released Agatha Christie: And Then There Were None in 2005, the first in a series of PC games based on Christie novels. In February 2008, it was ported to the Wii console. The game adheres closely to the novel in most respects, and uses some of its dialogue verbatim, but makes significant changes to the plot in order to give the player an active role and allow those familiar with the novel to still experience some suspense. The player assumes the role of Patrick Naracott (brother of Fred Naracott, who is involved in a newly created subplot), who is stranded with the others when his boat is scuttled. The killer's identity and motives are different, the means of three of the murders were changed (while still corresponding to the rhyme), and it is possible for the player to save two of the victims, with the game branching into four different endings depending on which of the two are saved.[citation needed]

And Then There Were None was released by HarperCollins as a graphic novel adaptation on 30 April 2009, adapted by François Rivière and illustrated by Frank Leclercq.

Peká Editorial released a board game based on the book, Diez Negritos ("Ten Little Negroes"), created by Judit Hurtado and Fernando Chavarría, and illustrated by Esperanza Peinado.[55]

The 2014 live action comedy-crime and murder mystery TV web series, Ten Little Roosters produced by American company Rooster Teeth is largely inspired by And Then There Were None.[56] It featured an interactive murder mystery component where viewers guess who will die next, and how, in order to win prizes. The premise of the show is nearly identical to the book, but with a lighter, more comedic tone and the plot is structured so that anyone having read And Then There Were None would be unable to apply their knowledge of the book's plot twists.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ From Zehn kleine Negerlein to Und dann gab's keines mehr[29][30]
  2. ^ From Tien kleine negertjes to En toen waren er nog maar...[31]
  3. ^ From Tio små negerpojkar to Och så var de bara en[32]
  4. ^ From O Caso dos Dez Negrinhos to E Não Sobrou Nenhum[33]
  5. ^ From Dziesięciu Murzynków to I nie było już nikogo[34]
  6. ^ From Dix petits nègres to Ils étaient dix[35]
  7. ^ From Desať malých černoškov to A napokon nezostal už nik[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "British Library Item details". primocat.bl.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e "And Then There Were None". Agatha Christie Limited. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "Review of Ten Little Niggers". The Observer. 5 November 1939. p. 6.
  4. ^ a b Peers, Chris; Spurrier, Ralph; Sturgeon, Jamie (1999). Collins Crime Club: a checklist of the first editions (2nd ed.). London, UK: Dragonby Press. p. 15. ISBN 1-871122-13-9.
  5. ^ a b c Pendergast, Bruce (2004). Everyman's Guide to the Mysteries of Agatha Christie. Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford Publishing. p. 393. ISBN 1-4120-2304-1.
  6. ^ a b "American Tribute to Agatha Christie: The Classic Years 1940–1944". J S Marcum. May 2004. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  7. ^ a b Davies, Helen; Dorfman, Marjorie; Fons, Mary; Hawkins, Deborah; Hintz, Martin; Lundgren, Linnea; Priess, David; Clark Robinson, Julia; Seaburn, Paul; Stevens, Heidi; Theunissen, Steve (14 September 2007). "21 Best-Selling Books of All Time". Editors of Publications International, Ltd. Archived from the original on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
  8. ^ Christie, Agatha (1964). Ten Little Niggers. London: The Crime Club. pp. 31–32. Original nursery rhyme.
  9. ^ a b Christie, Agatha (March 2008). And Then There Were None. Harper-Collins. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-06-074683-4.
  10. ^ Christie, Agatha (1944). And Then There Were None: A Mystery Play in Three Acts. Samuel French. ISBN 9780573616396. This line is sometimes replaced by One got left behind and then there were seven.
  11. ^ Christie, Agatha (1963). Ten Little Niggers (Paperback ed.). Collins/Fontana. pp. 24–25.
  12. ^ Christie, Agatha (1944). And Then There Were None: A Mystery Play in Three Acts. Samuel French. ISBN 9780573616396. This line is sometimes replaced by One got left behind and then there were seven.
  13. ^ Note: In some versions the ninth verse reads Two little Soldier boys playing with a gun/One shot the other and then there was One.
  14. ^ Christie, Agatha (March 2008). And Then There Were None. Harper-Collins. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-06-074683-4.
  15. ^ Ashley, Maurice Percy Ashley (11 November 1939). "Review: Ten Little Indians". The Times Literary Supplement. p. 658.
  16. ^ Anderson, Isaac (25 February 1940). "Review: Ten Little Indians". The New York Times Book Review. p. 15.
  17. ^ "Review: Ten Little Indians". Toronto Daily Star. 16 March 1940. p. 28.
  18. ^ Barnard, Robert (1990). A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie (Revised ed.). Fontana Books. p. 206. ISBN 0-00-637474-3.
  19. ^ a b Light, Alison (1991). Forever England: Femininity, Literature, and Conservatism Between the Wars. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 0-415-01661-4.
  20. ^ "Binge! Agatha Christie: Nine Great Christie Novels". Entertainment Weekly (1343–44): 32–33. 26 December 2014.
  21. ^ a b Ten Little Niggers, song written in 1869 by Frank Green, for music by Mark Mason, for the singer G W "Pony" Moore. Agatha Christie, for the purposes of her novel, changed the story of the last little boy "One little nigger boy left all alone / He went out and hanged himself and then there were none".
  22. ^ a b Ten Little Indians, song by Septimus Winner, American lyricist residing in Philadelphia, published in July 1868 in London.
  23. ^ Holdings at the British Library (Newspapers – Colindale); shelfmark NPL LON LD3/NPL LON MLD3.
  24. ^ a b c British National Bibliography for 1985. British Library. 1986. ISBN 0-7123-1035-5. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  25. ^ a b c d Stein, Sadie (5 February 2016). "Mystery". The Paris Review. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  26. ^ a b Light, Alison (2013) [1991]. Forever England: Femininity, Literature and Conservatism Between the Wars. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-135-62984-7.
  27. ^ Whitaker's Cumulative Book List for 1977. J Whitaker and Sons. 1978. ISBN 0-85021-105-0.
  28. ^ ""Zece negri mititei" si "Crima din Orient Express", azi cu "Adevarul"" (in Romanian). Adevarul.ro. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  29. ^ a b Haase, Bernd (3 March 2011). "Streit um Theateraufführung "Zehn kleine Negerlein"". Hannoversche Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  30. ^ ISBN 978-3-502-51767-2 (2001) to ISBN 978-3-502-51937-9 (2003)
  31. ^ Sjouwerman, Petra (20 January 2007). "De vader van Pippi mag geen negerkoning meer heten". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  32. ^ Rydén, Daniel (11 January 2007). "Bok får inte heta "Tio små negerpojkar"". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  33. ^ a b c Lourenço Hanes, Vanessa Lopes (2018). "The Retitling of Agatha Christie's Ten Little Niggers in Anglophone and Lusophone Markets" (PDF). Translation and Literature. 27 (2): 184–194. doi:10.3366/tal.2018.0337. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  34. ^ OCLC 1077449155 to OCLC 1030559084
  35. ^ Marsick, Laurent (26 August 2020). ""Dix petits nègres": le best-seller d'Agatha Christie débaptisé". RTL.fr (in French). RTL Group. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  36. ^ "Agatha Christie: Desať malých černoškov ... a napokon nezostal už nik". Snd.sk (in Slovak). Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  37. ^ Davis, Owen (1930). The Ninth Guest: A Mystery Melodrama In Three Acts. New York City: Samuel French & Co.
  38. ^ Taves, Brian (1987). Robert Florey, the French Expressionist. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-8108-1929-5.
  39. ^ Taves, Brian (1987). Robert Florey, the French Expressionist. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-8108-1929-5.
  40. ^ "Aboard the mystery train". Cinema Express. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2020. Gumnaam (1965) Adapted from: And Then There Were None
  41. ^ "Author of incredible reach". The Hindu. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  42. ^ "Agatha Christie e il cinema: un amore mai sbocciato del tutto" (in Italian). Comingsoon.it. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  43. ^ "Aatagara is not a remake". Bangalore Mirror. 30 August 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  44. ^ "Ten Little Niggers". Radio Times (1263). 26 December 1947.
  45. ^ "Ten Little Indians at Two New York City playhouses 1944-1945". The Broadway League, including cast and characters. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  46. ^ Christie, Agatha (1993). The Mousetrap and Other Plays. HarperCollins. p. 2. ISBN 0-00-224344-X.
  47. ^ a b "Ten little niggers, stage production at Dundee Repertory Theatre". Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Theatre Archive - Event Details. August 1944. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  48. ^ "Ten little niggers staged at Dundee Repertory Theatre 1944 and 1965". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  49. ^ "And Then There Were None". Review. This Is Theatre. 14 October 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  50. ^ BBC TV (20 August 1949). "Ten Little Niggers". Radio Times (1348). p. 39.
  51. ^ "Season 4, Episode 20 'Ten Little Niggers'". Play of the Week. ITV. 13 January 1959.
  52. ^ "And Then There Were None to air on BBC1 on Boxing Day 2015". Radio Times. 2 December 2015.
  53. ^ "And Then There Were None in Japan". Agatha Christie. Agatha Christie Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  54. ^ "そして誰もいなくなった" [And Then There Were None]. TV Asahi (in Japanese). TV Ashi. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  55. ^ "Peká Editorial website". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  56. ^ Staff, Wrap PRO (5 November 2014). "Rooster Teeth Premieres Interactive Murder Mystery Web Series". WrapPRO. Retrieved 13 May 2019.

External links[edit]