Sentetsu Purena-class locomotives

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Chosen Government Railway Purena class (プレナ)
Gyeongchun Railway Purena class (プレナ)
Korean National Railroad Pureo7 class (푸러7)
Korean State Railway Purŏch'i class (부러치)
South Manchuria Railway Puresa class (プレサ)
China Railways PL3
CR PL3-51.jpg
China Railways PL3-51 at Beijing Railway Museum.
This was originally a Mantetsu Puresa-class locomotive.
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
BuilderOriginal: Hitachi Kasato, Kawasaki
Bureau: Gyeongseong Works, Kawasaki, Hitachi Kasato, Nippon Sharyō
Build date1930–1941
Total produced112
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte2-6-2T
Gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Driver dia.1,370 mm (54 in)
LengthOriginal: 10,480 mm (34 ft 5 in)
Bureau: 10,773 mm (35 ft 4.1 in)
WidthOriginal: 3,250 mm (10 ft 8 in)
Bureau: 3,200 mm (10 ft 6 in)
HeightOriginal: 4,268 mm (14 ft 0 in)
Bureau: 4,230 mm (13 ft 11 in)
Adhesive weightOriginal: 42.00 t (41.34 long tons)
Bureau: 44.90 t (44.19 long tons)
Loco weightOriginal: 65.50 t (64.47 long tons)
Bureau: 67.70 t (66.63 long tons)
Fuel capacityOriginal: 2.50 t (2.46 long tons)
Bureau: 3.00 t (2.95 long tons)
Water capBoth: 7,000 L (1,800 US gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
Both: 2.60 m2 (28.0 sq ft)
Boiler:
 • Small tubesOriginal: 106 x 45 mm (1.8 in)
Bureau: 104 x 51 mm (2.0 in)
 • Large tubesOriginal: 26 x 137 mm (5.4 in)
Bureau: 21 x 137 mm (5.4 in)
Boiler pressureBoth: 13.0 kgf/cm2 (185 psi)
Heating surfaceOriginal: 116.90 m2 (1,258.3 sq ft)
Bureau: 118.30 m2 (1,273.4 sq ft)
 • TubesOriginal: 73.10 m2 (786.8 sq ft)
Bureau: 82.80 m2 (891.3 sq ft)
 • FireboxOriginal: 11.60 m2 (124.9 sq ft)
Bureau: 9.50 m2 (102.3 sq ft)
Superheater:
 • Heating areaOriginal: None
Bureau: 26.00 m2 (279.9 sq ft)
Cylinders1
Cylinder sizeBoth: 430 mm × 610 mm (17 in × 24 in)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Performance figures
Maximum speed75 km/h (47 mph)
Tractive effortOriginal: 85.0 kN (19,100 lbf)
Bureau: 89.0 kN (20,000 lbf)
Career
OperatorsChosen Government Railway
Gyeongchun Railway
Korean National Railroad
Korean State Railway
South Manchuria Railway
Chinese Changchun Railway
China Railway
ClassSentetsu: プレナ
KNR: 푸러7
KSR: 부러치
Mantetsu: プレサ
CR: PL3
Number in classSentetsu: 93
Gyeongchun: 9
Mantetsu: 18
CR: 10
NumbersSentetsu: プレナ1 – プレナ93
Mantetsu: プレサ1 – プレサ18
CR: PL3-51 – PL3-60
Delivered1930–1941

The Purena-class (プレナ) locomotives were a group of steam tank locomotives with 2-6-2 wheel arrangement of used by the Chosen Government Railway (Sentetsu) in Korea. The "Pure" name came from the American naming system for steam locomotives, under which locomotives with 2-6-2 wheel arrangement were called "Prairie".[1]

In all, Sentetsu owned 227 locomotives of all Pure classes, whilst privately owned railways owned another 52; of these 279 locomotives, 169 went to the Korean National Railroad in South Korea and 110 to the Korean State Railway in North Korea.[2]

Description[edit]

Locomotives of this design were built for one unidentified private railway company in Korea, the Chosen Government Railway, and the privately owned Gyeongchun Railway in Korea, as well as for the South Manchuria Railway.

Chosen Government Railway プレナ (Purena) class[edit]

The プレナ (Purena) class locomotive was designed by the Railway Bureau based on the experiences gained through the design of modifications leading to the Pureshi-class rebuilds, and differed considerably from the imported Pure classes.[3] The first eight were built for a private railway, with Hitachi's Kasato factory[3] and Kawasaki[4] each building four units; these were bought by Sentetsu in 1936 and numbered 341-348.[5]

The design was then modified to include a superheater, but the resulting design retained the "Purena" classification; the two subclasses were thenceforward referred to as the "Original Purena" and "Bureau Purena" (局プリナ) classes. The first six Bureau Purena locomotives were built for Sentetsu in 1931 by the Gyeongseong Works;[3] these were numbered 321 through 326.[5] The 14 locomotives of both Purena subtypes were lumped together in Sentetsu's general renumbering of 1938, with 341–348 becoming プレナ1 through プレナ8, and 321–326 becoming プレナ9 through プレナ14.[5] In 1938 four more were built by Nippon Sharyō and fourteen more were built at Gyeongseong. In 1939 and 1941,[4] a total of nine were built by Kawasaki and Hitachi Kasato for the Gyeongchun Railway;[3] these were assembled in Korea at Sentetsu's Busan shops and numbered プレナ85 through プレナ93.

South Manchuria Railway プレサ (Puresa) class[edit]

Nineteen locomotives of the Sentetsu Purena design were built for the South Manchuria Railway (Mantetsu) in Japan in 1935.[6] Although under the Mantetsu classification system tank locomotives were generally given the "Dabu" (ダブ, from "double-ender") classification,[7] Mantetsu instead designated these as プレサ (Puresa) class; eight were assigned to Mantetsu's Rajin depot for use on the North Chosen Line, whilst the other ten were assigned to depots in Manchukuo.

Postwar[edit]

After the end of the Pacific War, the locomotives owned by Sentetsu and the Gyeongchun Railway were divided between North and South Korea, whilst those belonging to Mantetsu were divided between North Korea and China.

Korean National Railroad 푸러7 (Pureo7) class[edit]

Many Purena class locomotives ended up with the Korean National Railroad after Liberation, which designated them 푸러7 (Pureo7) class;[3] at least 15 are known to have been operated by the KNR.[5]

Korean State Railway 부러치 (Purŏch'i) class/1700 series[edit]

The Sentetsu Purena class locomotives that remained in the North after the partition of Korea were operated by the Korean State Railway, designating them 부러치 (Purŏch'i) class, and later renumbering them into the 1700 series around the early 1970s. One, number 1718, was noted dumped near the steelworks in Ch'ŏngjin in 2015.[8]

Korean State Railway 부러서 (Purŏsŏ) class/1300 series[edit]

The nine Puresa-class locomotives that Mantetsu had assigned to its Rajin depot were taken over by the Korean State Railway after the war. They were initially designated 부러서 (Purŏsŏ) class - together with the Puresa-class engines inherited from Sentetsu - and were retained in use mostly around Rajin; around the early 1970s, they were renumbered into the 1300 series, though at least one's number omitted the initial '1'.[9] At least two have been seen operational in the 21st century; one, 1304, was seen in 2001 doing shunting work at Ch'ŏngjin,[9] while the other, 1319, is still operational as of October 2015, kept in pristine condition for use with tourist and railfan trains.[10]

The one unit known to have omitted the initial '1', number 307, was inspected by Kim Jong-il as a child at Rajin Station on 6 September 1954.[11] This locomotive has also been depicted on a commemorative stamp issued by the DPRK postal service.[9]

China Railways PL3 class[edit]

The ten Puresa-class engines that were used by Mantetsu in Manchukuo were taken over first by the joint Chinese-Soviet "Chinese Changchun Railway" (Chinese: 中國長春鐵路, Zhōngguó Chǎngchūn Tiělù; Russian: Кита́йская Чанчу́ньская желе́зная доро́га, Kitayskaya Chanchun'skaya Zheleznaya doroga), which took over Mantetsu operations within China in 1945. In 1952, the Chinese Changchun Railway was returned to China,[12] and they were taken over by the China Railway as class ㄆㄌ3. In 1959, they were designated class PL3, numbered 51–60.[13]

Construction[edit]

Sentetsu Purena-class
Sentetsu running number Postwar
1938–1945 pre-1938 Owner Number Builder Year Notes
プレナ1 プレ341 ? ? Hitachi Kasato 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ2 プレ342 ? ? Hitachi Kasato 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ3 プレ343 ? ? Hitachi Kasato 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ4 プレ344 ? ? Hitachi Kasato 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ5 プレ345 KNR 푸러7-5 Kawasaki 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ6 プレ346 ? ? Kawasaki 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ7 プレ347 ? ? Kawasaki 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ8 プレ348 ? ? Kawasaki 1930 Original Purena. Built for Gyeongchun Railway, bought by Sentetsu in 1936.
プレナ9 プレ321 KNR 푸러7-9 Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ10 プレ322 ? ? Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ11 プレ323 KNR 푸러7-11 Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ12 プレ324 ? ? Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ13 プレ325 ? ? Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ14 プレ326 ? ? Gyeongseong 1931 Bureau Purena.
プレナ15 - KNR 푸러7-15 Nippon Sharyō 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ16 - KNR 푸러7-16 Nippon Sharyō 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ17 - KNR 푸러7-17 Nippon Sharyō 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ18 - KSR 부러치18 → 1718 Nippon Sharyō 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ19 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ20 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ21 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ22 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ23 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ24 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ25 - KNR 푸러7-25 Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ26 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ27 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ28 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ29 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ30 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ31 - KNR 푸러7-31 Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ32 - ? ? Gyeongseong 1938 Bureau Purena.
プレナ33 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ34 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ35 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ36 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ37 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ38 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ39 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ40 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ41 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ42 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ43 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ44 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ45 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ46 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ47 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ48 - KNR 푸러7-48 ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ49 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ50 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ51 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ52 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ53 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ54 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ55 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ56 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ57 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ58 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ59 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ60 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ61 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ62 - KNR 푸러7-62 ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ63 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ64 - KNR 푸러7-64 ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ65 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ66 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ67 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ68 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ69 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ70 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ71 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ72 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ73 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ74 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ75 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ76 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ77 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ78 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ79 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ80 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ81 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ82 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ83 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ84 - ? ? ? ? Bureau Purena.
プレナ85 - KNR 푸러7-85 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ86 - KNR 푸러7-86 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ87 - KNR 푸러7-87 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ88 - KNR 푸러7-88 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ89 - KNR 푸러7-89 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ90 - KNR 푸러7-90 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan. Derelict by 1953.[5]
プレナ91 - KNR 푸러7-91 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ92 - KNR 푸러7-92 Kawasaki 1939 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
プレナ93 - KNR 푸러7-93 Hitachi Kasato 1941 Bureau Purena; Gyeongchun Railway. Assembled in Busan.
Mantetsu Puresa-class.
Due to renumbering, original identities of the ten Chinese locomotives not yet known.
Postwar
Mantetsu number Owner Number Builder Year Notes
プレサ1 Japan 1935
プレサ1 Japan 1935
プレサ1 Japan 1935
プレサ4 KSR 부러서4 → 1304 Japan 1935 Active at Ch'ongjin in 2001.[9]
プレサ5 Japan 1935
プレサ6 Japan 1935
プレサ7 KSR 부러서7 → 307 Japan 1935 inspected by Kim Jong-il as a child at Rajin Station on 6 September 1954.[11]
プレサ8 Japan 1935
プレサ9 Japan 1935
プレサ10 Japan 1935
プレサ11 Japan 1935
プレサ12 Japan 1935
プレサ13 Japan 1935
プレサ14 Japan 1935
プレサ15 Japan 1935
プレサ16 Japan 1935
プレサ17 Japan 1935
プレサ18 Japan 1935
プレサ19 KSR 부러서19 → 1319 Japan 1935 Operational as of October 2015.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colvin, Fred H. (1906). The railroad pocket-book: a quick reference cyclopedia of railroad information. New York, Derry-Collard; London, Locomotive Publishing Company (US-UK co-edition). p. L‑9.
  2. ^ "North and South Korea Steam Locomotives". 20 April 2004. Archived from the original on 20 April 2004.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e Byeon, Seong-u (1999). 한국철도차량 100년사 [Korean Railways Rolling Stock Centennial] (in Korean). Seoul: Korea Rolling Stock Technical Corp.
  4. ^ a b 푸러형 증기기관차(탱크식)를 알아보자. 2 December 2012 (in Korean)
  5. ^ a b c d e "Korean National RR Class PR7 2-6-2T". donsdepot.donrossgroup.net.
  6. ^ "中国的铁路博物馆". www.china.internationalsteam.co.uk.
  7. ^ Takagi, Hiroyuki, "History of the Development of Railways in Manchuria", p. 151, 株式会社潮書房光人社 2012 (in Japanese)
  8. ^ Jones, Keith (July 2016). "Grand Railtour of North Korea". Today's Railways Europe. Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing.
  9. ^ a b c d Kokubu, Hayato (January 2007). 将軍様の鉄道 (in Japanese). Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō. p. 109. ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6.
  10. ^ a b "Steam in Chongjin".
  11. ^ a b "DPRK steam locomotive types".
  12. ^ Zhang Shengfa, "Return of the Chinese Changchun Railway to China by the USSR." In Manchurian Railways and the Opening of China, 171-94. 1st ed. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. Page 171.
  13. ^ "Railography : Chinese Locomotive Lists : Index of Lists Arranged by Class". www.railography.co.uk.