List of locomotives in China

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A list of current and defunct locomotives in the People's Republic of China.

Steam locomotives[edit]

The first steam locomotive in China is thought to be a 2'6" gauge 0-4-0T engine used on the Shanghai-Wusong railway. Towards the end of the 19th century concessions obtained from the Qing dynasty enabled foreign powers (Germany, Russia, France and Great Britain) to build railways in China, and they introduced a variety of foreign-built machines. Later Japan gained control over Manchuria as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth following the Russo-Japanese War and created the South Manchuria Railway from their acquisitions - resulting in Japanese as well as American locomotives being imported into the north-east of China.[1]

After the end of the Second World War China came back under indigenous rule. Locomotive were imported from both the United States and Russia as well as other Communist bloc countries.[1]

Production of steam locomotives continued into the late 20th century. However, steam motive power was supplanted by diesel and electric locomotives as early as the 1950s. The Chinese rail network has been increasingly electrified in the twentieth century.

Model Wheel arrangement Build year Builder Number built Notes Photo
DB1 2-6-4T 1907 ALCO DB1-28 (Dampflokomotivmuseum Shenyang).jpg
DB4 2-6-4ST 1892 Dübs and Company
DB5 2-6-4T 1911 Kitson and Company
ET6 0-8-0 1936~1938 North British Locomotive Company
ET7 0-8-0T ~1960 Fablok 90 Similar to the polish TKP T2D Silesia locomotives, for industrial use, not used on the main network
FD 2-10-2 1930s Voroshilovgrad 1034 Converted to standard gauge (1958-) from Russian FD class locomotives
GJ 0-6-0T 1958-61 Chengdu, Taiyuan 122 Designed at Dalian locomotive works, used in industrial lococations, and other shunting duties. Gongjian 1019.jpg
HS 4-6-4T Nasmyth Wilson
JF1 2-8-2 1918 ~ 1945 ALCO, Kawasaki, KSK, Nippon, Hitachi, SMR shops, Dalian, Sifang 2000> JF304 and JF1191.jpg
JF2 2-8-2 1928 Shahekuo JF2-2525 (Dampflokomotivmuseum Shenyang).jpg
JF3 2-8-2 1930 Škoda JF3-2558 (Dampflokomotivmuseum Shenyang).jpg
JF6 2-8-2 1940 JF6-3329 (Dampflokomotivmuseum Shenyang).jpg
JF7 2-8-2 1931 North British Locomotive Company
JS 2-8-2 1957-65, 1981-88 Dalian works, Qishuyan works, Datong works, Beijing 7th Feb works 1916 Built in two tranches, revised version introduced in 1985. Many still remain on industrial lines and short lines.[when?] JS 5001.jpg
KD3 2-8-0 1910 Beyer Peacock
KD4 2-8-0 1911–1919 Imported ROD 2-8-0
KD6 2-8-0 1942–1946 American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Lima Locomotive Works Imported USATC S160 Class 5197 at Cheddleton.jpg
KD7 2-8-0 1946–1947 American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Lima Locomotive Works 160 Built in the USA and supplied to China by UNRRA in 1946. KD7-641 SL by china.JPG
KF 4-8-4 Vulcan Foundry (UK) KF7 steam locomotive at Qishuyan.jpg
MG 2-6-0 North British Locomotive Company
MG1 2-6-0 1903–1916 North British Locomotive Company
MG3 2-6-0 1900–1903 Dübs and Company North British Locomotive Company
MG4 2-6-0 1919–1928 North British Locomotive Company
ML1 0-6-6-0 1908 North British Locomotive Company
PL 2-6-2ST/2-6-2T 1887–1910 Dübs and Company North British Locomotive Company
PL2 2-6-2
PL5 2-6-2ST 1887–1925 Dübs and Company North British Locomotive Company
PL6 2-6-2T 1915–1925 North British Locomotive Company
PL12 2-6-2T 1930 North British Locomotive Company
PL14 2-6-2T 1891–1896 North British Locomotive Company
PL20 2-6-2ST 1923–1927 North British Locomotive Company
QJ 2-10-2 1956-88 mostly Datong 4708 Became the primary freight locomotive in China from 1960s to 1980s China Railways HP3501.jpeg
RM 4-6-2 RM1163 02.jpg
SL5 4-6-2 1927 Shahekuo SL5-292 (Dampflokomotivmuseum Shenyang).jpg
SL6 4-6-2 Shengli 6 Steam locomotive 601.jpg
SL7
Pashina
4-6-2 Kawasaki / Dalian Used on the Asia Express train during Japanese control of the South Manchurian Railway, designated "SL7" under Chinese ownership Super Express Asia.jpg
SL14 4-6-2 1903 North British Locomotive Company
SL16 4-6-2 1930 North British Locomotive Company
TH3 4-6-0 1903–1930 North British Locomotive Company
TH9 4-6-0 1910 Hawthorne Leslie
TH13 4-6-0 1931 Kitson and Company
SY 2-8-2 1960-1999 Many remain on industrial lines and short lines[when?] China Railways Steam Locomotive 0309 at beijing.jpg
XK2 0-6-0T 1942–1944 Davenport Locomotive Works, H.K. Porter, Inc., Vulcan Iron Works 20 Imported USATC S100 Class 030-TU-22.jpg
XK13 0-6-0T <=1958=> Fablok Chrzanow (Poland) XK13-3858
YJ 2-6-2
Sources:[2]

Diesel locomotives[edit]

Diesel-hydraulic transmission[edit]

Diesel hydraulic locomotives type descriptions are prefixed either by the roman initials DFH (Diesel fuel, hydraulic) or NY (neiran yeli chuandong 内燃液力传动 also meaning diesel-hydraulic).[3] From the initials of the acronym DFH is derived from their phonetic sound the Chinese name "Dongfang Hong" meaning "Red East", matching the anthem of Communist China: "The East is Red" at the time of their introduction, as well as the well known observation of Chairman Mao Zedong that 'the east is red'. Usually DFH is used for internally produced locomotives and NY for imported or prototype machines.

Chinese made[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
prototype NY1 "Weixing" 1959 140 1060 Sifang 4 China Railways Weixing.jpg
DFH1 1964–1973 120(140) 1220(1060) Sifang 102 China Railways DFH1 4290.jpg
prototype NY2 "Flying Dragon",
(Simplified Chinese:"飞龙")
1960 100 1470
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 1
DFH2 1971 - 1975 62 650 Ziyang 50 China Railways Dongfanghong 2 0008 diesel loco.jpg
DFH3 1971–1989 120 1440 Sifang 268 China Railways Dongfanghong3 locomotive.jpg
DFH4 1969 160 3675 Sifang 1
1971–1974 140 3309 Qishuyan 2
1975–1981 ? 3309 Ziyang 3
DFH5 1976–1988 80 790 Ziyang
Sifang
480~ China Railways DFH5 001 20111007.jpg
DFH5B (3000系) 1973-1988 80 920 Ziyang ~20
DFH5C (4000系) 1973-1988 80 920 Ziyang 6
DFH6 1981 90 1470 Ziyang 1
DFH7 1988–1991 80 790 Ziyang 15
DFH21
(narrow gauge)
1977–1984 50 810 Sifang 104
Beijing 6001 1970 100 4412
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 1
Beijing 1971–1990 120 2206 Beijing Feb. 7th 361 BJ 3003@CRM (20150709135944).JPG
Beijing
(coupling of double loco)
1986–1990 120 2×2206 Beijing Feb. 7th 2×6 Shi Du station dsc 4006.jpg

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
NY5 1967 passenger: 160
freight: 120
2940 Henschel, West Germany 4 China Railways NY5 0003.jpg
NY6[4] 1972 108 3160 Henschel, West Germany 10 China Railways NY6 0007 20111007.jpg
NY7[4] 1972 113 3680 Henschel, West Germany 20 Chinese Diesel locomotive NY7 001.jpg

Diesel-electric transmission[edit]

Chinese made[edit]

The Dongfeng (DF) series of diesel electric transmission locomotives is the most important in Chinese rail transport. The Dongfeng4 (DF4) is by far the most common locomotive to be seen on Chinese rails.

Model
(Former name)
Build year Transmission Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
Jianshe
(Simplified Chinese:"建设")
1958 DC - DC 85 441
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 1 China Railways Jianshe locomotive.jpg
Xianxing
(Simplified Chinese:"先行")
1958–1959 DC - DC 125 1471 Qishuyan 47 China Railways locomotive Xianxing.jpg
JuLong
巨龙 ('great dragon')
1958 Dalian 1 China Railways Julong locomotive.jpg
DF
东风 (DongFeng 'East Wind')
1964–1974 DC - DC 100 1500 Dalian
Qishuyan
Chengdu
Datong
USSR
706 China Railways DF 1301.jpg
DF2
(ND2)
1964–1974 DC - DC 95 650 Qishuyan
USSR
148 China Railways DF2.jpg
DF3 1972–1974 DC - DC 120 1050 Dalian
USSR
226 DF3-0190 (Harbin).jpg
DF4 1969–1985 AC - DC 100(freight)
120(passenger)
1920 Dalian 843 DF40001 locomotives.jpg
DF4B 1985-present AC - DC 100(freight)
120(passenger)
1985 Dalian
Ziyang
Datong
Sifang
≥4500 DF4B 1743.JPG
DF4C 1985-1999 AC - DC 100 2165 Dalian
Ziyang
Datong
Sifang
838 DF4C 4259@BJI (20150527112048).JPG
DF4CK 1999 AC - DC 160 2165 Ziyang 2
DF4D(K)
(speedup version)
1996-1999 AC - DC 145 2425 Dalian 580 China Railways DF4D 0578 20120625.jpg
DF4D(H)
(freight version)
1998-present AC - DC 100 2425 Dalian 206 China Railways DF4DH 4190.jpg
DF4D(Z)
(sub-highspeed version)
1999-2007 AC - DC 170 2425 Dalian 333 China Railways DF4D 3028 20090728.jpg
DF4D(7000 Series)
(Radial bogie freight type)
2000-2003 AC - DC 100 2425 Dalian
21 China Railways DF4D 7002 20160109.jpg
DF4DJ
(DF4DAC)
2000 AC - DC - AC 145 2510 Dalian
Siemens, Germany
2 DF4DJ0001 20111007.jpg
DF4DF 1999–2004 AC - DC 120 2425 Dalian 31 沿海公司:DF4DF型机车.jpg
DF4DD
(shunting version)
1999–2004 AC - DC 80 3180 Dalian
EMD, United States
230 Railway between Haikou Railway Station and South Port - 05.JPG
DF4E 1995–1997 AC - DC 100 4860
(2×2430)
Sifang 16
DF5 1976 - 2006 AC - DC 80 1213 Tangshan
EMD-Sifang
EMD, United States
1014 DF5-1204于拉萨站外.JPG
DF5G 2001 — 2006 AC - DC 100 1213 EMD-Sifang 132 China Railways DF5 2025.jpg
DF5B 1976-2006 AC - DC 100 1500 Dalian
EMD, United States
36
DF5BG 1976-2006 AC - DC 100 1500 Dalian
EMD, United States
? China Railways DF5B(G) 0031 20161224.jpg
DF5C 1994–1998年
1998-2006
AC - DC 100 1320
2000
(Diesel engine output)
EMD-Sifang ?
DF5D 1999 - 2006 AC - DC 80 1200 Dalian
EMD, United States
180 China Railways DF5D 0003.jpg
DF6 1989 AC - DC 118 2425 Dalian
GE, United States
4 China Railways DF60003.jpg
DF7 1982–1990 AC - DC 100 1470 Beijing Feb. 7th
USSR
295 DF7-0076 20111004.jpg
DF7B 1990 - ? AC - DC 100 1840 Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD, United States
215 DF7 3067 20110901.jpg
DF7C 1991–2001 AC - DC 100 1840/1470 Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD, United States
289 DF7C Orange.jpg
DF7D 1995–1998 AC - DC 100 1500
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 214 DF7Dgreen.jpg
DF7E 1998 AC - DC 100 2000
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD, United States
2 东风7E0002.jpg
DF7F 2000 AC - DC 100 2650
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD, United States
?
DF7G 2003-present AC - DC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD-Sifang
Qishuyan
EMD, United States
347 DF7G-5011 20120401.jpg
DF7J 2004 AC - DC - AC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th
EMD, United States
1 DF7J 0001 20111007.jpg
DF8 1984–1990 AC - DC 100 3310 Qishuyan 141 China Railways DF8 0019.jpg
DF8B 1997-present AC - DC 100 3100 Qishuyan
Ziyang
EMD, United States
1013 DF8B at Fengtai Depot.jpg
DF8BJ "West Light"
(Simplified Chinese:"西部之光")
2002 AC - DC - AC 120 4000 Ziyang
EMD, United States
1
DF8CJ "Sunlight"
(Simplified Chinese:"霞光")
2002 AC - DC - AC 120 3650 Qishuyan
EMD, United States
3 东风8CJ0003.jpeg
DF8DJ
(DF8B 5672)
2003 AC - DC - AC 120 3350 Ziyang
EMD, United States
1
DF9 1991 AC - DC 170 3040 Qishuyan 2 China Railways DF9 20070217.jpg
DF10 ? AC - DC 100 2×1600 Dalian 1
DF10C 1995 AC - DC 160 2×2130
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 1
DF10D ? AC - DC 120 2×1600 Dalian 1
DF10DD 2003-present AC - DC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian
EMD, United States
262 东风10DD.jpg
DF10F 1996–1998 AC - DC 160 2×2200
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 6 DF10F 2002 20111029.jpg
DF11 1992–2005 AC - DC 170 3040 Qishuyan 460 DF11-0010 20111017.jpg
DF11G 2003-present AC - DC 170 6080
(2×3040)
Qishuyan
EMD, United States
79 DF11G.jpg
DF11Z 2002 AC - DC 160 6080
(2×3040)
Qishuyan
EMD, United States
4 China Railways DF11Z 0001B.jpg
DF12 1997–2001 AC - DC 100 1990 Ziyang
EMD, United States
? China Railways DF12.jpg
DF21
(narrow gauge)
? AC - DC 60 1500
(Diesel engine output)
Sifang 11
NJ1 1999 AC - DC - AC 80 1320
(Diesel engine output)
EMD-Sifang 3
HXN3
"Harmony"
2008-present AC - DC - AC 120 4700 Dalian
EMD, United States
332 HXN3 0243.JPG
HXN3B
"Harmony"
2012-present AC - DC - AC 100 3500 Dalian ≥160
HXN3K
"Harmony"
2016-present AC - DC - AC 160 Dalian HXN3K 0001@BCR (20160905095056).jpg
HXN5
"Harmony"
2008-present AC - DC - AC 120 4660 Qishuyan
GE, United States
700 HXN50096担当的原油列车停靠牙克石站.JPG
HXN5B
"Harmony"
2012-present AC - DC - AC 100 3530 Qishuyan ≥160 China Railways HXN5B 0150 20160605.jpg
HXN5K
"Harmony"
2016-present AC - DC - AC 160 Qishuyan
Sources[5][6]

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Transmission Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
ND1 1958;1965 DC - DC 80 440 Hungary Ganz
(Hungarian State Railways Class M44)
26 China Railways ND1.jpg
ND2 1972–1987 DC - DC 120 1280 Electroputere, Romania Craiova
(CFR 060DA)
284 China ND2.jpg
ND3 1985 DC - DC 100 1540 Electroputere, Romania Craiova 88 China Railways ND3 0001.jpg
ND4 1973–1975 AC - DC 100 2150 Alstom, France 50 ND4-48 (Datong).jpg
ND5 1984-1986 AC - DC 118 2550 GE, United States
(GE C36-7)
422 ND5-0179+0041.jpg
NJ2 2005–2006 AC - DC - AC 120 3800 GE, United States 78 Qinghai-Tibet railway.jpg

Electric locomotives[edit]

AC-DC transmission[edit]

Shaoshan (SS) (Chinese: 韶山) series[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
SS1
(6Y1)
1958–1988 90 3780 USSR
Zhuzhou
826 SS1202 20111117.jpg
SS2 1969 100 4620 Zhuzhou 1
SS3 1978–1993 100 4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
677 SS3 0265 and 0232 20111117.jpg
SS3(4000) 1992–2006 100 4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
Taiyuan
733 China Railways SS3 6024 20111102.jpg
SS3B
(coupling of double loco)
2002–2009 100 2×4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
333 SS3B 5010 20111117.jpg
SS3C 2008 100 2×4800 Taiyuan 1
SS4 1985–2003 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 158 SS4 0110.jpg
SS4G 1993–2007 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Dalian
Datong
1347 SS4 1015 20110901.jpg
SS4B 1995–2006 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 130 SS4B 0144.jpg
SS4C 1997 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 2 SS4C0001,0002机车.jpg
SS5 1991 140 3200 Zhuzhou 2 SS5 0001 20111007.jpg
SS6 1990–1992 100 4800 Zhuzhou 53 SS6 0002@CRM (20150709135739).JPG
SS6B 1992—? 100 4800 Zhuzhou 148 China Railway SS6B.jpg
SS7 1992–2007 100 4800 Datong 113 SS7-0076.jpg
SS7B 1997 100 4800 Datong 2
SS7C 1998–2006 120 4800 Datong 171 SS7C0142.jpg
SS7D 1999–2002 170 4800 Datong 59 China Railways SS7D 0011.jpg
SS7E 2001–2006 170 4800 Datong
Dalian
146 SS7E 0035 20111017.jpg
SS8 1994–2001 170 3600 Zhuzhou 245 SS8-0077 20100614.jpg
SS9 1998–2002 170 4800 Zhuzhou 43 SS9 0027@BJI (20150527104716).JPG
SS9G 2002–2006 170 4800
Wintertur
ABB
Zhuzhou
171 SS9G 0147 20111029.jpg

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
6Y2 1958–1961 101 4740 Alstom, France
SNCF Class CC 7100
25 China Railways 6Y2.jpg
6G1 1971 120 5100 Romania
CFR Class 40
2
6G 1973 112 5400 Alstom, France 40
6K 1986–1987 100 5100 Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan
JNR Class EF66JNR Class ED75
85 6K-052 Srbd.jpg
8G 1987–1990 100 2×3200 Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant, USSR
ВЛ80
100 Nevz8g1.jpeg
8K 1987 100 2×3200 50 Hz-Group: Alsthom, Siemens, BBC and others 150 8K 062 20111102.jpg

AC-DC-AC transmission[edit]

Both post 2000 introductions of asynchronous AC motor driven locomotives and high speed trains based on technology transfer arrangements with other countries have been given the common name "Harmony" series. Ministry of Railways deputy chief engineer Zhang Shuguang explained that the name was to represent energy efficiency and good environmental credentials as well as indicating smooth running of complicated systems.[7] Vehicles of the 'Harmony' series have an "H" in their type descriptions.

Model Build year Top speed
(In maximum)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
AC4000 1996 120 4000 Zhuzhou 1 AC4000.jpg
DJ "Jiufang"
(Simplified Chinese:"九方")
2000 200 4800 Zhuzhou 2
DJ1 2000–2001 120 6400 Siemens
Zhuzhou
20 DJ1-0003.jpg
DJ2 "Olympic Stars"
(Simplified Chinese:"奥星")
2001 200 4800 Zhuzhou 3 [8]
Tiansuo or "Sky Shuttle"
(Simplified Chinese:"天梭")
2003 200 4800 Datong 1 [9]
HXD1
(DJ4)
2006–2010 120 9600 (2×4800) Siemens
Zhuzhou
220 HXD10004.jpg
HXD1.1[10] 2006–2012 120 9600 (2×4800) Zhuzhou ≥440 [11]
HXD1.6[10] 2006-2012 120 9600 (2×4800) Ziyang ≥80 [12]
HXD1.7[13] 2006–2012 120 9600 (2×4800) / 14400 (3×4800) Bombardier
Zhuzhou
8/2 HXD1型7004号神八电力机车.jpg[14]
HXD1.7[13] 2006–2012 120 9600 (2x4800) Bombardier
Zhuzhou
190 深度国产化的HXD1型7056号机车.jpg
HXD1B 2009–2011 120 9600 Siemens
Zhuzhou
650 China Railways HXD1B 0404.jpg
HXD1C 2009-present 120 7200 Siemens
Zhuzhou
Ziyang
1207 HXD1C.jpg
HXD1D 2012-present 160 7200 Zhuzhou 511 HXD1D 0503@BJX (20160414163754).jpg
HXD1F 2014 100 9600 (2×4800) Zhuzhou 2 [15]
HXD1G 2015-present 210 11200 Zhuzhou 2 HXD1G 0002@BCR (20160106153224).jpg
HXD2
(DJ4-6000)
2006–2008 120 10000 (2×5000) Alstom
Datong
180 HXD2-0001.jpg
HXD2.1[16] 2012-present 120 10000 (2×5000) Bombardier
Datong
≥280 HXD2-1076.jpg
HXD2.6[16] 2014-present 120 10000 (2×5000) Dalian 40 [17]
HXD2.7[16] 2012-present 120 10000 (2×5000) Bombardier
Datong
50 [18]
HXD2B 2009–2011 120 9600 Alstom
Datong
500 HXD2B-0416.jpg[19]
HXD2C 2010–2011 120 7200 Datong ≥220[20][21][22] HXD2C0218.JPG
HXD2D 2013-present 160 7200 Datong 1 [23]
HXD2F 2014 100 9600 (2×4800) Datong 2 [24]
HXD2G 2015-present 200 12800 (2×6400) Datong 1
HXD3
(SSJ3, DJ3, SL1)
2003–2010 120 7200 Toshiba
Dalian
Datong
Beijing Feb. 7th
1080 China Railways HXD3 0472.jpg
HXD3A 2014 120 9600 (2×4800) Dalian
Bombardier
2 [25]
HXD3B 2009–2011 120 9600 Bombardier
Dalian
500

HXD3B0080 20120429.jpg

HXD3C 2010-present 120 7200 Bombardier
Dalian
1300 HXD3C0059 20111017.jpg
HXD3D 2012-present 160 7200 Dalian 521[26] HXD3D 0497@BJX (20160205172645).jpg
HXD3G 2015-present 210 12800 (2×6400) Dalian 1 HXD3G 0001@BCR (20170328162856).jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Duncan Cotterill. "Railography : A Brief History of Standard Gauge Steam in China". www.railography.co.uk. 
  2. ^ Duncan Cotterill. "Railography : Chinese Steam Locomotive Profiles". www.railography.co.uk. 
  3. ^ Chinese diesel locomotives, sections "prefixes" , www.railwaysofchina.com
  4. ^ a b "CLASSES NY6 AND NY7 HENSCHEL DIESEL-HYDRAULICS OF 4,600 AND 5,600 HP FOR FREIGHT SERVICES IN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA - TRB Publications Index". pubsindex.trb.org. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  5. ^ Robin J Gibbons. "Chinese diesel locomotives". www.railwaysofchina.com. 
  6. ^ 东风、东风2、东风3型内燃机车 [DF, DF2, and DF3 diesel locomotives]. www.kepu.net.cn (in Chinese). 铁道馆_中国科普博览, 中国科学院计算机网络信息中心. 
  7. ^ 第六次大提速货车技术提升 速度可达120多公里 , 2007 , www.china.com.cn
  8. ^ "Image: 20080606021606312.jpg, (600 × 331 px)". csrgc.com.cn. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  9. ^ "Image: 9982_tiansuo.gif, (551 × 339 px)". dtloco.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  10. ^ a b zh:和谐1型电力机车
  11. ^ "Image: tn_cn-csr-zhuzhou-hxd1-updated_e8138d75bb.jpg, (362 × 269 px)". railwaygazette.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  12. ^ "Image: 20130111_97a35de2e32db1c76de2p1lBovkSAwE7.jpg, (405 × 605 px)". n2.hk. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  13. ^ a b 神华新型八轴大功率交流电力机车上线试运行. 国务院国资委. 2013-01-17 [2013-01-15].
  14. ^ "Image: 5148da4ejw1dzrwd6epf2j.jpg, (707 × 287 px)". ww2.sinaimg.cn. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  15. ^ "Image: a3913417jw1eixy3edo6rj20nq0hstbj.jpg, (440 × 329 px)". ww4.sinaimg.cn. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  16. ^ a b c zh:和谐2型电力机车
  17. ^ "Image: 161816dznbg519j1jjugju.jpg.thumb.jpg, (338 × 600 px)". file-rail-bbs.railcn.net. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  18. ^ "Image: 635322054385165000.jpg, (1000 × 747 px)". chinacnr.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  19. ^ "Image: 20118181313656542109_9.jpg, (3636 × 2028 px)". dt.chinacnr.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  20. ^ zh:HXD2C型电力机车
  21. ^ 大同7200千瓦电力机车项目. 江苏常牵庞巴迪牵引系统有限公司. [2012-09-15].
  22. ^ 中国北车大连所公司HXD2C电力机车NECT牵引及网络控制系统通过技术评审. 中国北车大连所公司.2011-03-23 [2012-09-15].
  23. ^ "Image: 1516199twfxkwwoukwy15z.jpg, (1024 × 684 px)". file-fans-bbs.railcn.net. 2013-09-14. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
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  26. ^ zh:和谐3D型电力机车

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