|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
Skellefteå in images
|Nickname(s): Schtaan, Guldstaden (Goldtown), Skellhell|
|• City||21.74 km2 (8.39 sq mi)|
|Population (31 December 2010)|
|• Density||1,507/km2 (3,900/sq mi)|
|• Urban||72 025|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+46 0910|
Skellefteå is a city and the seat of Skellefteå Municipality in Västerbotten County, Sweden, with 32,775 inhabitants in 2010. The municipality had approximately 72,000 inhabitants at the end of 2013 .
The city is a historically industrial city with mining being a large industry, especially for gold – hence the nickname "Gold Town". Politically it is a Social Democratic stronghold. The city is a well-known ice hockey town, with the biggest team Skellefteå AIK playing in the Swedish top division, the SHL.
The city was incorporated in 1845 and grew to its current population size mostly in the 1950s and 60s, growing only slowly since.
Historians believe the Skellefteå area has been continuously inhabited since at least circa 1000 AD, inland regions by the Sami people and northern areas by Finnish people who in this part of Fennoscandia were referred to as Kvens in various medieval accounts whereas germanic peoples also started populating the Westrobothnian coast from Umeå northwards around the same time. The Westrobothnian language is native to at least the southern regions and historians see the area north of Skellefteå as a part of the primeval land called Kvenland, which is discussed in several historical accounts.
For instance, in 1157, in his geographical chronicle Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan, the Icelandic Abbot Níkulás Bergsson (Nikolaos) provides descriptions of the lands near Norway in this way:
- "Closest to Denmark is little Sweden (Svíþjóð), there is Öland (Eyland); then is Gotland; then Hälsingland (Helsingaland); then Värmland (Vermaland); then two Kvenlands (Kvenlönd), and they extend to north of Bjarmia (Bjarmalandi)." 
The Skellefteå river area (Helettijoki in Finnish) was up to the end of the Middle Ages a linguistic border territory, north of where was inhabited by those who spoke the Finno-Ugric Finnish and Sami languages, whereas to the south lived the Helsinglanders who spoke Swedish.
The name Skellefteå is recorded to having been spelled as Skelepht in 1327. The origin of the name remains unknown.
From the 14th century on, attempts were made to Christianize Skellefteå. However, – for the most part – the entire large Northern Swedish territory of Norrland was not Christianized until several hundred years after the rest of Sweden, and many northern areas such as Skellefteå remained unexplored well past the Middle Ages.
Not before the very end of the 17th century did the indigenous Sami people of Northern Sweden begin turning into Christianity, much due to the efforts by the Northern Swedish superintendent Mathias Steuchius, who worked hard to accomplish this.
Eventually, the reason for the sudden awakened interest towards Skelleftån and the surrounding areas were the great northern fishing grounds of salmon. The increased demand for fish was sparked by a stricter enforcement of the annual month-long fasting by the Catholic Church, whereby meat was substituted by fish.
The actual city of Skellefteå is one of the youngest cities of Norrland. It was founded in 1845 by the vicar Nils Nordlander.
In the 20th century, Skellefteå evolved to an industrial and mining city and many wooden houses were demolished to give room for brick buildings. The largest private employer in Skellefteå is the mining company Boliden AB, with about 1'200 employees. The mining is primarily done for copper, but with the ore particles of gold, silver and platinum also follow. However, Skellefteå is still referred to as the "Goldtown". During the 1990s, the computer industry flourished, causing subsidiaries of Ericsson and Tieto Enator to become important employers.
If things go according to plan, Skellefteå will be the site of the hind legs of the world's largest moose – Stoorn –, a tourist attraction planned to be built, spanning from Skellefteå into Arvidsjaur in Norrbotten.
- Skellefteå AIK, an ice hockey team in the highest Swedish league, Swedish Hockey League, 1978, 2013 and 2014 Swedish Champions.
- Morön BK, football club playing in Division 2 Norrland
- Skellefteå FF, football club playing in Division 2 Norrland
- Sunnanå SK, women's football (soccer)
- Soo Shim Taekwondo Klubb, Sweden's most successful taekwondo club.
- Anders Andersson, ice hockey player
- Johan Alm, ice hockey player
- Viktor Arvidsson, ice hockey player
- Johan Backlund, ice hockey player
- Lennart Backman, football and bandy national team player in the 1950s and 1960s.
- Niclas Burström, ice hockey player
- Carl Larsson Degerfeldt, sailor on the BANZARE expedition to Antarctica, 1929–31
- Per Olov Enquist, writer
- Jimmie Ericsson, ice hockey player
- Jan Erixon, ice hockey player
- Tim Erixon, ice hockey player
- Toini Gustafsson-Rönnlund, skier
- Peter Haber, actor
- Andreas "Vintersorg" Hedlund, musician
- Jonathan Hedström, ice hockey player
- Thomas Idergard, political commentator
- Adam Larsson, ice hockey player
- Stieg Larsson, writer
- Mats Lindgren, ice hockey player
- Joakim Lindström, ice hockey player
- Hanna Marklund, football player
- Hardy Nilsson, ice hockey player and later coach
- Joakim Nyström, tennis player
- David Rundblad, ice hockey player
- Victoria Silvstedt, supermodel
- Henning Sjöström, lawyer
- Margot Wallström, former first Vice President of the European Commission and current Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict with the UN. Since 2014 Foreign Secretary of Sweden.
- Caroline Lundmark, Swedish skier, currently skiing in the United States
- Moon Safari (band), a symphonic rock band.
- The Wannadies, an alternative rock band formed in 1988.
- Vintersorg, the most metal band in the World.
- Amber Oak, a pop-rock band.
Skellefteå has subarctic climate with mild summers and cold and snowy winters.
|Climate data for Skellefteå, Sweden|
|Average high °C (°F)||−6
|Average low °C (°F)||−14
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Avg. precipitation days||18||14||13||11||11||11||12||14||15||15||17||17||168|
- Some material has been translated and incorporated from sv:Skellefteå
- "Skellhell inte så illa som du tror". March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Kustaa Vilkuna: Kansatieteilijän työpöydältä: Kainuu-Kvenland.
- Kyösti Julku: Kvenland – Kainuunmaa. Oulu, 1986.
- Ohthere's story in Old English Orosius.
- Rafn, C.C. Antiquités Russes II, pages 404–405.
- Christoffersson, Malin (June 19, 2009). "Soo Shim ska bli Sveriges bästa klubb". Norran (in Swedish). Retrieved July 10, 2010.
[...]Soo Shim vuxit till att bli Sveriges mest framgångsrika taekwondoklubb på tävlingsnivå.
- (English) "Institute of Meteorology and Water Management". www.worldclimateguide.co.uk.
Media related to Skellefteå at Wikimedia Commons
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Skellefteå.|
- Skellefteå – Official site
- Tourist in Skellefteå – Tourist information in Swedish, English and German languages