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Souverainism (from the French word "souverainisme", i.e. the ideology of sovereignty) or sovereigntism, is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political independence of a nation or a region. It opposes federalism and can be associated with certain independentist movements.
In Europe, such political movements aim at a Europe of the nations, so that every country could see its independence and differences respected.
Supporters of the doctrine regard themselves as Euro-realists, opposed to the Euro-federalists, and call for a confederal Europe. Souverainism is thus opposed to federalism, and it typically involves nationalism, particularly in France where the parties lean on it.
Philippe de Villiers, writing in Le Figaro on 16 February 2006 regarding the Bolkestein directive, described souverainism as "the sole reasonable economic policy" and defined it as protecting against the outsider and setting the citizens free.
The souverainiste doctrine is particularly influential in France, where numerous political movements adhere to it:
- Action Française (monarchist, far-right reactionary)
- Arise the Republic (Gaullist and republican)
- Mouvement pour la France (conservative)
- Mouvement Républicain et Citoyen (left-wing)
- National Front (right-wing nationalist)
- Nouvelle Action Royaliste (monarchist)
- Rassemblement démocrate (centrist and monarchist)
- Rassemblement pour la France (Gaullist and republican])
- Popular Republican Union (2007) (Gaullist and republican)
Parties with tendencies that could be described also as Souverainists can be also found in Greece:
- SYRIZA Left-wing, civic nationalism, socialism
- ANEL Right-wing, ethnic nationalism, conservative
- KKE Leninism, Marxism, Stalinism
In the Canadian province of Quebec, souverainisme or sovereigntism refers to the Quebec sovereignty movement, which argues for Quebec to separate from Canada and become its own nation. Many leaders in the movement, notably René Lévesque, have preferred the terms sovereignty and sovereigntist over other common names such as separatist or independentist, although this terminology may be objected to by opponents.
- Parti Québécois (nationalist and social democratic)
- Bloc Québécois (nationalist and social democratic, represents Quebec separatism in Canada's federal parliament)
- Option nationale (nationalist and progressive)
- Québec solidaire (social democratic)
- Autonomism (political doctrine)
- Tax competition between countries
- Taxation and Equity
- Unfair competition
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