|Vice Presidents||Gergely Gulyás
Ildikó Pelczné Gáll
|Parliamentary leader||Lajos Kósa|
|Founded||March 30, 1988|
|Headquarters||1088 Budapest, VIII. Szentkirályi Street 18.|
|Political position||Centre-right to Right-wing|
|European affiliation||European People's Party|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union,
Centrist Democrat International
|European Parliament group||European People's Party|
114 / 199
11 / 21
245 / 419
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈfidɛs]; in full, Hungarian: Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a major national conservative political party in Hungary. It has dominated Hungarian politics on the national and local level since its landslide victory in the 2010 national elections on a joint list with the Christian Democratic People's Party, securing it a parliamentary supermajority that it retained in 2014 (two parliamentary by-elections have since eliminated the supermajority). Fidesz also retains current majorities in the county legislatures (19 of 19), almost all (20 of 23) urban counties and in the Budapest city council. It has been described as big tent and is a member of the European People's Party (EPP).
The party was founded in 1988, named simply Fidesz (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége, meaning the Alliance of Young Democrats), originally as a youthful libertarian, anti-communist party. Fidesz was founded by young democrats, mainly students, who were persecuted by the communist party and had to meet in small, clandestine groups. The movement became a major force in many areas of modern Hungarian history. The membership had an upper age limit of 35 years (this requirement was abolished at the 1993 congress).
In 1989, Fidesz won the Rafto Prize. The Hungarian youth opposition movement was represented by one of its leaders, Dr Péter Molnár, who became a Member of Parliament in Hungary. In 1992, Fidesz joined the Liberal International.
Fidesz received 8.95% (1990), 7.02% (1994) and 29.48% (1998).
After its disappointing result in the 1994 elections, Fidesz changed its political position from liberal to conservative. In 1995, it added "Hungarian Civic Party" (Magyar Polgári Párt) to its shortened name. The conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership. Péter Molnár left the party, as well as Gábor Fodor and Klára Ungár, who joined the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats.
Fidesz gained power in 1998 under leader and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who governed Hungary in coalition with the smaller Hungarian Democratic Forum and the Independent Smallholders' Party. In 2000, Fidesz joined the European People's Party and had its membership in the Liberal International terminated.
Fidesz narrowly lost the 2002 elections to the Hungarian Socialist Party, by 41.07% to the Socialists' 42.05%. Fidesz had 169 members of the Hungarian National Assembly, out of a total of 386. Following the defeat, the municipal elections in October saw huge Fidesz losses. In the spring of 2003, Fidesz took its current name, "Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union".
It was the most successful party in the 2004 European Parliamentary Elections: it won 47.4% of the vote and 12 of its candidates were elected as Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), including Lívia Járóka, the second Romani MEP.
Some considered the election of Dr. László Sólyom as the new President of Hungary as the most recent success of the party. He was endorsed by Védegylet, an NGO including people from the whole political spectrum. His activity does not entirely overlap with the conservative ideals and he championed for elements of both political wings with a selective, but conscious choice of values.
In 2005, Fidesz and the Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) formed an alliance for the 2006 elections. Despite winning 42.0% of the list votes and 164 representatives out of 386 in National Assembly, they were beaten by the social-democratic and liberal coalition of Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ).
On October 1, 2006, Fidesz won the municipal elections, which counterbalanced the MSZP-led government's power to some extent. Fidesz won 15 of 23 mayoralties in Hungary's largest cities—although its candidate narrowly lost the city of Budapest to a member of the Liberal Party—and majorities in 18 out of 20 regional assemblies.
In the 2009 European Parliament election, Fidesz won a landslide victory, gaining 56.36% of the vote and 14 of Hungary's 22 seats. This predicted a landslide in the 2010 parliamentary elections, where they won the outright majority in the first round on April 11, with the Fidesz-KDNP alliance winning 206 seats, including 119 individual seats. In the final result, they won 263 seats, of which 173 are individual seats. Fidesz held 227 of these seats, giving it an outright majority in the National Assembly by itself.
After winning 53% of the popular vote, which translated into a supermajority of 68% of parliamentary seats, giving Fidesz sufficient power to revise or replace the constitution, the party embarked on an extraordinary project of passing over 200 laws and drafting and adopting a new constitution—since followed by nearly 2000 amendments.
The new constitution has been widely criticized by the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law, the Council of Europe, the European Parliament and the United States for gathering too much power in the hands of the ruling party, Fidesz, for limiting oversight of the new constitution by the Constitutional Court of Hungary, and for removing democratic checks and balances in various areas, including the ordinary judiciary, supervision of elections and the media. In October 2013 Thorbjørn Jagland, Secretary General of the Council of Europe declared that the criticised laws are acceptable for the Council of Europe.
Fidesz won the nationwide parliamentary election in April 2014 and secured a second supermajority with 133 seats (of 199) in the legislature. This supermajority was lost, however, when Tibor Navracsics was appointed to the European Commission. His Veszprém county seat was taken by an independent candidate in a by-election. Another by-election on 12 April 2015 saw the supermajority lose a second seat, also in Veszprém, to a Jobbik candidate.
|Image||Name||Entered office||Left office||Length of Leadership|
|1||Viktor Orbán||18 April 1993||29 January 2000||6 years, 9 months, 281 days|
|2||László Kövér||29 January 2000||6 May 2001||1 year, 3 months, 7 days|
|3||Zoltán Pokorni||6 May 2001||3 July 2002||1 year, 1 month, 27 days|
|4||János Áder||3 July 2002||17 May 2003||10 months, 14 days|
|5||Viktor Orbán||17 May 2003||Incumbent||13 years, 5 months and 8 days|
Fidesz's position on the political spectrum has changed over time. At its inception as a student movement in the late-1980s, the party supported social and economic liberalism and European integration. As the Hungarian political landscape crystallized following the fall of communism and the first free elections, Fidesz began moving to the right. Although Fidesz was in opposition to the Hungarian Democratic Forum's national-conservative coalition government from 1990 to 1994, by 1998 Fidesz was the most prominent conservative political force in Hungary.
Fidesz is currently considered a national conservative party favoring interventionist policies on economic issues like handling of banks, and a strong conservative stance on social issues and European integration. Like the Hungarian right in general, it has been more skeptical of the neoliberal economic policies than the Hungarian left: according to researchers, the elites of the Hungarian left (MSzP and SZDSZ) have been differentiated from the right by being more supportive of the classical liberal economic policies, while the right (especially extreme right) has advocated more interventionist policies. In contrast, on issues like church and state and family policies, the liberals show alignment along the traditional left-right spectrum.
In December 2005 the Congress of Fidesz established the Fidesz Youth Section as a division within the party gathering all members below the age of 30. The chairman of Fidesz Youth Section was Dániel Loppert until 2011. The current chairman is Áron Veress. The Fidesz Youth Section is member of European Democrat Students (EDS) and observer member in the Democrat Youth Community of Europe (DEMYC).
Results on the lists:
|Election year||National Assembly||Government|
| % of
overall seats won
22 / 386
20 / 386
148 / 386
164 / 386
141 / 386
227 / 386
117 / 199
1 Joint list with Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF)
2 Joint list with Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP)
Single member constituencies voting consistently for Fidesz
The SMCs shown on the image have voted for Fidesz ever since 1998. SMCs with a paler hue of orange elected FKGP candidates in 1998, as part of a pact between the two parties.
In January 2010, László Kövér, head of the party's national board, told reporters the party was aiming at winning a two-thirds majority at the parliamentary elections in April. He noted that Fidesz had a realistic chance to win a landslide. Concerning the radical nationalist Jobbik party's gaining ground Kövér said it was a "lamentably negative" tendency, adding that it was rooted in the "disaster government" of the Socialist Party and its former liberal ally Free Democrats.
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of overall seats won||+/-||Notes|
12 / 24
14 / 22
11 / 21
- Dr Vít Hloušek, Dr Lubomír Kopecek (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing. p. 177.
- Bakke, Elisabeth (2010), "Central and East European party systems since 1989", Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989, Cambridge University Press, p. 79, retrieved 17 November 2011
- "Territoriality and Eurosceptic Parties in V4 Countries" (PDF). Ispo.fss.muni.cz. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Euroszkepticizmus Magyarországon" (PDF). Policysolutions.hu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- Hans-Jürgen Bieling (2015). "Uneven development and 'European crisis constitutionalism', or the reasons for and conditions of a 'passive revolution in trouble'". In Johannes Jäger; Elisabeth Springler. Asymmetric Crisis in Europe and Possible Futures: Critical Political Economy and Post-Keynesian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-65298-4.
- Center-right Fidesz party sweeps to victory in Hungary, CNN, 26 April 2010, retrieved 1 December 2011
- Fidesz wins Hungary election with strong mandate, Reuters, 11 April 2010, retrieved 1 December 2011
- "Center-right Fidesz wins big in Hungary elections", Guardian, 12 April 2010, retrieved 1 December 2011
- "Socialists in Hungary Are Ousted in Elections", New York Times, 25 April 2010, retrieved 1 December 2011
- "Hungary's centre-right claims victory in polls", Financial Times, 11 April 2010, retrieved 1 December 2011
- "Fidesz: The story so far", The Economist, 18 December 2010, retrieved 18 November 2011
- Right-wing Fidesz win election by landslide, Radio France Internationale, 12 April 2010, retrieved 18 November 2011
- Seres, Balint (12 April 2010), "Right-wing Fidesz party wins by landslide in Hungary elections", news.com.au, retrieved 18 November 2011
- Hloušek, Vít; Kopeček, Lubomír (2010), Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, Ashgate, p. 115
- Fidesz had common regional and nationwide lists and had common candidates with KDNP in the 2010 and 2014 elections
- "Hungary's Ruling Party Loses Two-Thirds Majority after By-Election". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Dull, Szabolcs. "Győzött a Jobbik a tapolcai választáson". Index.hu. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- "From challenging authority to full control". The Budapest Times. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Editorial note, John O'Sullivan". Hungarian Review. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
-  Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- (Hungarian) Sólyom politikaformáló erő akar lenni, Kern Tamás, Index.hu, August 22, 2005
- "VoksCentrum - a választások univerzuma". Vokscentrum.hu. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
- "Opposition makes substantial gains in Hungarian elections". Taipei Times. 2015-08-29. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Országos Választási Iroda - 2010 Országgyűlési Választások" (in Hungarian). Valasztas.hu. 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
-  Archived December 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Working Document 1" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Working Document 2" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Working Document 3" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Working Document 4" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Documents by opinions and studies". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) : OPINION" (PDF). Lapa.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Texts adopted - Tuesday, 5 July 2011 - Revised Hungarian constitution - P7_TA(2011)0315". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Remarks & Statements | Budapest, Hungary - Embassy of the United States". Hungary.usembassy.gov. 2011-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
-  Archived March 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ferenc Kumin — Council of Europe's Jagland: 'Hungarians Have Gone...". Ferenckumin.tumblr.com. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Europe.view: Stars and soggy bottoms - The Economist". The Economist. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Hegedűs Zsuzsa: Orbán igazi szociáldemokrata". Fent és lent - gátlástalan patriotizmus. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
-  Archived May 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Bodan Todosijević The Hungarian Voter: Left–Right Dimension as a Clue to Policy Preferences in International Political Science Review (2004), Vol 25, No. 4, p. 421
- MTI. "Opposition Fidesz aims at two-thirds majority". Politics.hu. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fidesz.|
- Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union Official website
- Fidesz page on the website of the European People's Party
- Speech delivered by Mr Viktor Orban at the 17th Congress of Fidesz upon his election as president of Fidesz - Hungarian Civic Union, 17 May 2003 (from Google's cache)
- The History of FIDESZ (from Google's cache)
- Hungary's PM calls confidence vote