Spanish general election, 1982
|Most voted party in each province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.|
The 1982 Spanish general election was held on Thursday, 28 October, to elect the 2nd Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 254 seats in the Senate. This was a snap election, since new elections were not due until March 1983.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party emerged as the largest party, winning 202 of the 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 157 of the 254 seats in the Senate. The previous governing party, the Union of the Democratic Centre, was decimated, falling from 168 seats to 11—one of the worst defeats ever suffered by a western European governing party. It was replaced as the main non-socialist party by the People's Alliance. Since then, the PSOE and the AP, now known as the People's Party, have been the dominant parties in Spanish politics.
- Congress of Deputies
The 350 members of the Congress of Deputies were elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elected 1 member each using plurality voting. Each district was entitled to an initial minimum of 2 seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) were entitled to enter the seat distribution.
For the Senate, each of the 47 peninsular provinces was assigned 4 seats. For insular provinces, such as Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — 1 each. Ceuta and Melilla were assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors could vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors would vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district would be elected for a 4-year term of office.
In addition, the legislative assemblies of the autonomous communities are entitled to appoint at least 1 senator each, as well as 1 senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators. This appointment usually did not take place at the same time that the general election, but when the autonomous communities held their elections.
Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies was prohibited. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals were also ineligible.
Parties and coalitions of different parties which had registered with the Electoral Commission could present lists of candidates.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) presented two different lists of candidates: with the PSOE contesting most of Spain and the PSC only standing in Catalonia. The Communist Party of Spain also presented a different list of candidates in Catalonia, called the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia.
Congress of Deputies results
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||10,127,392||48.11||17.71||202||81|
|People's Alliance-People's Democratic Party (AP-PDP)[a]||5,548,107||26.36||20.10||107||96|
|Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD)||1,425,093||6.77||28.07||11||157|
|Communist Party of Spain (PCE)||846,515||4.02||6.75||4||19|
|Convergence and Union (CiU)||772,726||3.67||0.98||12||4|
|Democratic and Social Centre (CDS)||604,309||2.87||New||2||2|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV)||395,656||1.88||0.23||8||1|
|People's Unity (HB)||210,601||1.00||0.04||2||1|
|Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC)||138,118||0.66||0.03||1||±0|
|New Force (FN)||108,746||0.52||1.59||0||1|
|Workers' Socialist Party (PST)||103,133||0.49||New||0||±0|
|Basque Country Left (EE)||100,326||0.48||±0.00||1||±0|
|Socialist Party of Andalusia-Andalusian Party (PSA-PA)||84,474||0.40||1.41||0||5|
|Party of the Communists of Catalonia (PCC)||47,249||0.22||New||0||±0|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc-Galician Socialist Party (B-PSG)||38,437||0.18||0.16||0||±0|
|Canarian People's Union (UPC)||35,013||0.17||0.16||0||1|
|Left Nationalists (EN)||30,643||0.15||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Solidarity (SE)||28,451||0.14||New||0||±0|
|United Extremadura (EU)||26,148||0.12||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Communist Workers' Party (PCOE)||25,830||0.12||New||0||±0|
|Canarian Convergence (CC)||25,792||0.12||New||0||±0|
|Communist Unification of Spain (UCE)||24,044||0.11||0.16||0||±0|
|Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist) (PCE (m-l))||23,186||0.11||New||0||±0|
|Galician Left (EG)||22,192||0.11||New||0||±0|
|Parties with less than 0.1% of the vote||159,419||0.76||–||0||±0|
|Canarian Assembly-Canarian Coordinator (AC-CC)||18,757||0.09||New||0||±0|
|Valencian People's Unity (UPV)||18,516||0.09||0.01||0||±0|
|Communist Unity Candidacy (CUC)||15,632||0.07||New||0||±0|
|United Left of the Valencian Country (EUPV)||9,302||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Falangist Movement of Spain (EUPV)||8,976||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Agrarian Bloc Electoral Group (AEBA)||8,748||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Socialist Party of Majorca (PSM)||8,633||0.04||0.02||0||±0|
|Socialist Party of Aragon (PSAr)||6,861||0.03||0.08||0||±0|
|Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV)||6,738||0.03||0.06||0||±0|
|Socialist Party (PS)||6,375||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Independent Galicial Electoral Group (AEGI)||5,512||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Communist League (LC)||5,462||0.03||0.01||0||±0|
|Communist Front of Catalonia (FCC)||4,900||0.02||±0.00||0||±0|
|Communist Left Front (FIC)||3,772||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Canarian Nationalist Party (PNC)||3,257||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)||3,234||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Conservatives of Catalonia (CC)||2,596||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Falange of the JONS (FE-JONS)||2,528||0.01||0.16||0||±0|
|Liberal Democrat Asturian Party (PADL)||2,493||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Galician Independents and Migrants (IDG)||2,236||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Ruralist Party (PRE)||1,984||0.01||0.05||0||±0|
|Independent Spanish Falange (FEI)||1,862||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|Nationalist Party of Ceuta (PNCe)||1,785||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Independent Citizen Group (ACI)||1,710||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Catholic Movement (MCE)||1,694||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Revolutionary Communist League (LKI)||1,515||0.01||0.19||0||±0|
|El Bierzo Party (PB)||1,454||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Canarian Social Democratic Association (ASDC)||1,131||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Republican Left (IR)||610||0.00||0.31||0||±0|
|Asturian Falange (FA)||532||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Carlist Party (PC)||224||0.00||0.28||0||±0|
|Spanish Agrarian Party (PAE)||222||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Proverist Party (PPR)||168||0.00||0.03||0||±0|
|Riojan Left Coordinator (CIR)||0||0.00||New||0||±0|
|United Canarian People (PCU)||0||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Majorcan Left (EM)||0||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Asturian Left Bloc (BIA)||0||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Votes cast / turnout||21,469,274||79.97||11.93|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
Results by region
|Union of the Democratic Centre||4||3||7||–112|
|Basque Nationalist Party||7||2||9||–1|
|Catalonia to the Senate||7||2||9||+9|
|Communist Party of Spain||0||1||1||+1|
|Assembly of the Isle of Fuerteventura||1||0||1||+1|
|Source: Nohlen & Stöver|
|2 Dec 1982
|Source: Historia Electoral - Spanish General Election 28 October 1982|
- "Landelino Lavilla fue elegido presidente centrista, con amplios poderes, en medio de una fuerte contestación". El País. 14 July 1982.
- Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1817 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
- Nohlen & Stöver, pp1832-1834
- "General Aspects of the Electoral System".
- "The Spanish Constitution of 1978".
- "Law-Decree governing electoral procedures". Retrieved 2014-12-30.