Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
Map of the Sydney–Hobart Yacht Race route.
|No. of competitors||88 (2016)|
|Most recent champion(s)||Giacomo (on handicap)
Perpetual LOYAL (line honours)
|Most titles||Freya ; Love & War (3) (on handicap)
Wild Oats XI (8) (line honours)
|TV partner(s)||Seven Network|
The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania. The race distance is approximately 630 nautical miles (1,170 km). The race is run in co-operation with the Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania, and is widely considered to be one of the most difficult yacht races in the world. The race was initially planned to be a cruise by Peter Luke and some friends who had formed a club for those who enjoyed cruising as opposed to racing, however when a visiting British Royal Navy Officer, Captain John Illingworth, suggested it be made a race, the event was born. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race has grown over the decades, since the inaugural race in 1945, to become one of the top three offshore yacht races in the world, and it now attracts maxi yachts from all around the globe. The 2004 race marked the 60th running of the event.
In 2012 Wild Oats XI set a new record by crossing the line in 1 day, 18 hours, 23 minutes and 12 seconds, beating its own record of 1 day, 18 hours, 40 minutes and 10 seconds, set in 2005. Wild Oats XI is the first boat to claim the treble – race record, line honours and overall winner – twice.
The longest surviving skipper from the inaugural race, Peter Luke, who contributed to the formation of the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia and the establishment of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, died on 23 September 2007 aged 92. His yacht, Wayfarer, still holds the record for the slowest elapsed time. Only two sailors from the original race are still alive – Geoffrey Ruggles from the Wayfarer crew and John Gordon from the Horizon crew.
Bass Strait, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean immediately to its east, are renowned for their high winds and difficult seas. Although the race mostly takes place in the Tasman Sea, the shallowness of Bass Strait and the proximity to the race course means that the fleet is very much under the influence of the Strait as they transit from the mainland to Flinders Island. Even though the race is held in the Australian summer, "southerly buster" storms often make the Sydney–Hobart race cold, bumpy, and very challenging for the crew. It is typical for a considerable number of yachts to retire, often at Eden on the New South Wales south coast, the last sheltered harbour before Flinders Island.
The inaugural race in 1945 had nine starters. John Illingworth's Rani, built in Speers Point, New South Wales was the winner, taking six days, 14 hours and 22 minutes. Race records for the fastest (elapsed) time dropped rapidly. However, it took 21 years for the 1975 record by Kialoa from the USA to be broken by the German yacht Morning Glory in 1996, and then only by a dramatic 29 minutes, as she tacked up the Derwent River against the clock. In 1999 Denmark's Nokia sailed the course in one day, 19 hours, 48 minutes and two seconds, a record which stood until 2005 when Wild Oats XI won line and handicap honours in 1 day 18 hr 40 min 10 sec.
There have been some notable achievements by yachts over the years. Sydney yacht, Morna, won the second, third and fourth races (1946–1948) and then, under new owners Frank and John Livingston from Victoria, took a further four titles as Kurrewa IV in 1954, 1956, 1957 and 1960. Other yachts to win three or more titles are Astor (1961, 1963 and 1964)and Bumblebee IV firstly in 1979 and then again in 1988 and 1990 as Ragamuffin. When Wild Oats XI won back-to-back titles in 2006, it was the first yacht to do so since Astor in the 1960s. Wild Oats XI claimed its third consecutive line honours title in the 2007 race, re-writing history by being only the second yacht after Rani in the inaugural 1945 race to win line and handicap honours and break the race record in the same year (2005) and then only the second yacht after Morna to win three line honours titles in a row. In 2008, Wild Oats XI broke Morna's long-standing record of three titles in a row, by completing a four-in-a-row, the first yacht to achieve that remarkable achievement. For the handicap race the highly respected Halvorsen brothers' Freya won three titles back-to-back (the only yacht in history to do so) between 1963 and 1965. Although not consecutive, Love & War equalled Freya's three titles by winning its third in 2006 to add to its 1974 and 1978 titles.
The 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race was marred by tragedy when, during an exceptionally strong storm (which had similar strength winds to a lower-category hurricane), five boats sank and six people died. Of the 115 boats that started, only 44 made it to Hobart. As a result, the crew eligibility rules were tightened, requiring a higher minimum age and experience. G. Bruce Knecht wrote a book about this race called "The Proving Ground". (ISBN 0-316-49955-2) A coronial enquiry into the race was critical of both the race management at the time and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
In 1999 the race record was broken by Nokia, a water-ballasted VO60 yacht. She sailed the course in 1 day, 19 hours, 48 minutes and 2 seconds. Brindabella reached Hobart just under one hour later (1 day, 20 hours, 46 minutes, 33 seconds) and Wild Thing was a close third (1 day, 21 hours, 13 minutes, 37 seconds). The previous Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race record had been set by Morning Glory (2 days, 14 hours, 7 minutes, 10 seconds) in 1996.
In 2004 only 59 yachts completed the course of the 116 who set out from Sydney. Storms hit the race. The super maxi Skandia capsized after losing her keel. In 2005, Wild Oats XI became the first boat since Rani to win the "treble", taking Line Honours, winning the Corrected Handicap (IRC), and breaking the course record. (1d 18h 40 m 10s, over 1hr off of Nokia's record.)
In 2006, 78 boats started the race, including entrants from the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Italy, New Zealand, every Australian state and the Australian Capital Territory. The race started on schedule at 13:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Saving Time. Wild Oats XI, owned by Bob Oatley and skippered by Mark Richards, crossed the finish line at 21:52 on 28 December 2006 to take line honours with an elapsed time of 2 days, 8 hours, 52 minutes and 33 seconds. Wild Oats XI became the first yacht to win the race in consecutive years since 1964 and only the sixth yacht to achieve this since the race's inception. Love & War, owned by Peter Kurts and skippered by Lindsay May, won the race overall (IRC Handicap) in a corrected time of 3 days, 22 hours 2 minutes and 37 seconds. Love & War became only the second yacht to win the race three times (1974, 1978 and 2006). The yacht Freya won the race in three consecutive years between 1963 and 1965. Gillawa from the Australian Capital Territory, skippered by David Kent, was the sixty-ninth and last boat to complete the 2006 race, making it the third consecutive year that the yacht was last in the fleet.
By the November 2007 race entry deadline, 90 yachts had nominated for entry including four 90-foot maxis, three of them wanting to prevent Wild Oats XI creating history and winning three line honours titles in a row. A little over a week prior to the race, New Zealand maxi Maximus withdrew after cracking its keel. Three-time and 2006 handicap winner, Love & War, was not one of the applications for entry and may have raced her last Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race in 2006. Wild Oats XI went on to create history by winning its third consecutive line honours title and becoming only the second yacht to do so. Rosebud (USA) won the race on corrected time. John Walker became the oldest skipper in the history of the race at age 85 and Phillip's Foote Witchdoctor bettered its own record and set a mark of 27 races as the most by a yacht.
On 3 November 2008 at the close of entries, 113 yachts had nominated for entry with only one other 90-foot maxi (Skandia) to challenge Wild Oats XI and stop it creating history by winning four consecutive line honours titles and becoming the only yacht to do so. Wild Oats XI achieved this and Bob Steel won his second Tattersalls Cup with Quest, the second yacht with the same name to win the handicap title.
The 2009 fleet comprised 99 starters. In the 2008 race, Wild Oats XI had equalled Morna/Kurrewa IV's record of three consecutive line honours victories, which Morna achieved in 1946, 1947 and 1948, and was attempting to pass the record in its own right in 2009.
In the event however, Neville Crichton's New Zealand entry Alpha Romeo II passed Wild Oats XI early on and never relinquished her lead, finishing in an elapsed time of 2 days, 9 hours, 2 minutes and 10 seconds. Wild Oats XI came in second and United Kingdom-based ICAP Leopard came in third.
Sailors who have achieved outstanding commitment to the race are represented most of all by John Bennetto (dec), Lou Abrahams and Tony Cable who, after the 2007 race, had each sailed 44 races. Skippers Frank and John Livingston won four line honours titles while Claude Plowman, Peter Warner, S.A "Huey" Long, Jim Kilroy and Bob Bell have each won three. Trygve and Magnus Halvorsen have won four handicap honours titles while a number of skippers have won two handicap titles.
Rolex has been the naming rights sponsor of the race since 2002, and since then the race has been known as the Rolex Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race. It will continue to have the naming rights until 2015. Traditionally, crews of yachts celebrate on New Year's Eve at Constitution Dock in Hobart, with the Custom's House Hotel a favourite venue for Sydney–Hobart yachtsmen.
With the smashing of the Sydney–Hobart Race Record in 1999 by Nokia, and a host of other super-fast boats, that completed the course in less than two days for the first time – the "Holy Grail" of the Sydney–Hobart race, a completion of the course in a time under the 40 hr mark became a possibility. Many of the skippers competing in the Sydney-Hobart race in the 21st century have expressed a desire to be the first to record a time under the once thought of as impossible mark of 40 hrs. In 2016, the race record was set by Perpetual Loyal to one day, 13 hours, 31 minutes and 20 seconds. 
Women first participated in the race in 1946. The first woman to take part was Jane Tate, whose boat Active was the only one to reach Hobart in 1946. Dagmar O'Brien, with boat Connella, also took part in that year but retired from the race before finishing. Thus, the Jane Tate Memorial Trophy is awarded each year to the first female skipper to complete the race. In 1975, the first all-women crew sailed, with boat Barbarian. In 1982 or 1983, Sue Bowly put another all-female crew together, but the sails ripped. They repaired the sails on the Navy's sewing machine at Jervis Bay, and carried on to Hobart, but no longer in competition.
In 2005, 24 women took part, including Adrienne Cahalan, who is famed for her around-the-world sailing, has been nominated several times for World Yachtswoman of the Year and was Australian Yachtswoman of the Year for 2004–05. In 2005 she was part of the crew for the winning Wild Oats.
In 2011, Jessica Watson, known for her solo unassisted sail around the world at age 16, skippered the Sydney Hobart yacht race with a crew of six other young Australians and three Britons all aged 21 or under, making them the youngest ever to compete in the blue water classic.
In total, over a thousand women have taken part in the race.
Much public attention focuses on the race for "line honours" – the first boat across the finishing line, typically the newest and largest Maxi yacht in the fleet. There is also a handicap competition, a race for what is regarded as Australia's foremost offshore sailing prize the Tattersalls Cup.
The exact rules for the handicap trophy have changed over the years. In general, each boat's time is adjusted on the expected speed of the boat based on its size and other characteristics. The International Offshore Rules were superseded by the International Measurement System (IMS), and the IRC. For 1991, 1992 & 1993 races, the winners of the IOR and IMS categories were both declared Overall winners during the transition from IOR to IMS. However, the Tattersalls Cup was awarded only to the Overall IOR winner during this period. Since 1994 there has been only one Overall winner, from 1994 to 2003 being decided using IMS, but from the 2004 onwards the Overall winner of the Tattersalls Cup has been decided using IRC, with IMS dropped altogether as a handicap system. In theory, this should make for an even competition between yachts of all sizes, however in practice often only the newest and most advanced boats (regardless of size) can sail fast relative to their rating. In addition, in a race of the length of the Sydney–Hobart weather conditions after the maxi yachts have finished can often determine whether they will win on handicap – if the winds become more favourable after they finish, they will lose on handicap, if they become less favourable they will win.
The race is conducted under the Racing Rules of Sailing determined and published by the International Sailing Federation. For the 2005 race, the event organisers removed certain restrictions on the boats. As successful sailing is based on a good power-to-weight ratio, larger sails are expected to help break race records.
The race has encouraged innovation in yacht design. Between 1945 and 2005, the most successful yacht designer has been the New Zealand designer Bruce Farr, who has designed 15 overall winners.
Winners and fleet sizes
|Year||Line honours||Elapsed time
|Handicap winner||Corrected time
|1949||Waltzing Matilda||5/10:33:10||Trade Winds||3/23:39:43||15||13|
|1951||Margaret Rintoul||4/02:29:01||Struen Marie||2/19:48:26||14||12|
|1954||Kurrewa IV (formerly Morna)||5:06:09:47||Solveig IV||3/17:58:01||17||15|
|1956||Kurrewa IV (formerly Morna)||4:04:31:44||Solo||3/08:33:52||28||26|
|1957||Kurrewa IV (formerly Morna)||3:18:30:39||Anitra V||3/00:55:37||20||18|
|1960||Kurrewa IV (formerly Morna)||4:08:11:15||Siandra||3/07:48:04||32||30|
|1967||Pen Duick III||4/04:10:31||Rainbow II||3/16:39:15||66||59|
|1972||American Eagle||3/04:42:39||American Eagle||3/02:15:59||79||75|
|1974||Ondine III||3/13:51:56||Love & War||3/13:25:02||63||58|
|1977||Kialoa III||3/10:14:09||Kialoa III||3/13:58:10||131||72|
|1978||Apollo||4/02:23:24||Love & War||3/12:13:00||97||87|
|1979||Bumblebee IV||3/01:45:52||Screw Loose||3/03:31:06||147||142|
|1980||New Zealand||2/18:45:41||New Zealand||2/21:13:29||102||93|
|1982||Condor of Bermuda||3/00:59:17||Scallywag||2/19:19:16||118||108|
|1984||New Zealand||3/11:31:21||Indian Pacific||3/07:45:03||151||46|
|1988||Ragamuffin (formerly Bumblebee IV)||3/15:29:27||Illusion||3/18:20:35||119||81|
|1990||Ragamuffin (formerly Bumblebee IV)||2/21:05:33|| Sagacious V (IOR)
Doctor Who (IMS)
|1991||Brindabella||3/11:14:09|| She's Apples (IMS)
|1992||New Zealand Endeavour||2/19:19:18|| Assassin (IMS)
|1993||Ninety Seven||4/00:54:11|| Micropay Cuckoos Nest (IMS)
Solbourne Wild Oats (IOR)
|1994||Tasmania (formerly New Zealand Endeavour)||2/16:48:04||Raptor (IMS)||2/11:41:00||371||309|
|1998||Sayonara||2/19:03:32||AFR Midnight Rambler||2/12:36:23||115||44|
|2000||Nicorette II||2/14:02:09||SAP Ausmaid (formerly Ausmaid)||2/19:13:38||82||58|
|2001||Assa Abloy||2/20:46:43||Bumblebee V||2/19:13:38||75||57|
|2002||Alfa Romeo I||2/04:58:52||Quest||2/19:13:38||57||55|
|2003||Skandia||2/15:14:06||First National Real Estate||3/14:14:17||56||52|
|2004||Nicorette III||2/16:00:44||Aera (IRC)||4/02:52:09||116||59|
|2005||Wild Oats XI||1/18:40:10||Wild Oats XI||3/03:54:32||85||80|
|2006||Wild Oats XI||2/08:52:33||Love & War||3/22:02:37||78||69|
|2007||Wild Oats XI||1/21:24:32||Rosebud||3/09:32:14||82||79|
|2008||Wild Oats XI||1/20:34:14||Quest II||2/17:43:32||100||92|
|2009||Alfa Romeo II||2/09:02:10||Two True||4/07:57:43||100||94|
|2010||Wild Oats XI||2/07:37:20||Secret Men's Business 3.5||4/01:29:40||87||69|
|2012||Wild Oats XI||1/18:23:12||Wild Oats XI||3/10:26:31||76||71|
|2013||Wild Oats XI||2/06:07:27||Victoire||3/18:27:43||94||84|
|2014||Wild Oats XI||2/02:30:00||Wild Rose (formerly Solbourne Wild Oats)||3/07:04:43||117||103|
|2015||Comanche||2/08:58:30||Balance V (formerly Quest II)||4/07:27:13||108||77|
- Time in bold denotes new race record time.
- No first place in 1985. Drake's Prayer was disqualified after winning on handicap, but 1985 NOR did not allow for lower placed finishers to move up following a disqualification.
- In the years 1990–1993 the winner of each of the IMS and IOR classes were declared the join handicap winners. From 1994 to 2003 the IMS handicap rule was used to determine the overall winner, and from 2004 the IRC rule has been used.
- The 1975 Kialoa III was a ketch rig which was modified in 1976 and returned as a sloop to win line honors and overall in 1977.
- Apollo in 1978 and 1985 were different yachts.
- New Zealand in 1980 and 1984 were different yachts.
Records and statistics
- Inaugural Race Winner, 1945: Rani (line and handicap honours as well as the inaugural race record)
- Fastest Race: 1 day 13h 31m 20s (Perpetual LOYAL, NSW) 2016
- Total fleet: 5,509 yachts (81.01 yachts per race)
- Fleet finishing statistics: Of 5,509 yachts who have started the race since 1945, a total of 4,548 (82.56%) have completed and 961 (17.44%) yachts have retired.
- Highest retirement %: 70% of the fleet in 1984. On average after 62 races, 81.7% of the fleet finishes annually.
- Largest Fleet: 371 starters, 1994
- Smallest Fleet: 9 starters, 1945 (first race)
- Smallest Yacht: 27 ft (8.23m) Klinger (NSW) 1978
- Smallest Yacht Line Honours Winner: 35 ft (10.67m) – Nocturne (NSW) 1952 and Rani (UK) 1945.
- Largest Yachts Entered: 100 ft (30.48m) Wild Oats XI (NSW, 2009–2016), Alfa Romeo (NZ, 2009), Scallywag (formerly Investec LOYAL/Ragamuffin 100) (NSW, 2009–2016), ICAP Leopard (UK, 2009), Rapture (USA, 2009), Wild Thing (VIC, 2013), Perpetual LOYAL (NSW, 2013-2016), Rio 100 (USA, 2014), Comanche (USA, 2014-2015) and CQS (NSW, 2016).
- Largest Yacht Line Honours Winner: 30.48 m Wild Oats XI, NSW, Australia, 2009–10, 2012–14
- Most Line Honours Victories: Wild Oats XI, 8 victories
- Most Line Honours Victories by skipper: Frank and John Livingston (Victoria) Australia, 4 victories; Mark Richards (New South Wales) Australia, 4 victories.
- Most Handicap Honours Victories: Freya (NSW) and Love & War (NSW), 3 victories each
- Most Handicap Honours Victories by skipper: Magnus and Trygve Halvorsen (NSW) Australia, 4 victories
- Oldest competitor: Maluka was built in 1932 and raced in 2008 aged 76. The 9.1-metre yacht was restored by Sean Langman
- Most races by skipper: 49 Tony Cable (New South Wales), 44 John Bennetto (Tas – dec), Lou Abrahams (Vic).
- Race treble: Race record, Line & Handicap Honours in the same year:
- 1945, Rani (UK)
- 2005, 2012 Wild Oats XI (NSW).
- Double: Line & Handicap Honours in the same year:
- 1945, Rani (UK);
- 1972, American Eagle (USA);
- 1977, Kialoa III (USA);
- 1980, New Zealand (NZ);
- 1987, Sovereign (NSW);
- 2005, 2012 Wild Oats XI (NSW);
- Back-to-back Line Honours titles:
- Morna (NSW) 1946, 1947 and 1948;
- Margaret Rintoul (NSW) 1950 and 1951;
- Kurrewa IV (Formerly Morna) Vic 1956 and 1957;
- Solo (NSW) 1958 and 1959;
- Astor (NSW) 1963 and 1964; and
- Wild Oats XI (NSW) 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008.
- Back-to-back Handicap Honours titles:
- Freya (NSW) 1963, 1964 and 1965;
- Westward (Tas) 1947 and 1948.
- Closest Line Honours Race Finish: 7 seconds, 1982; Condor of Bermuda (Bermuda) defeated Apollo (NSW)
- Closest finish for Handicap Honours: 1 minute and 43 seconds also in 1982 when Scallyway (NSW, Australia) defeated Audacity (NSW, Australia)
- Yachts winning Line Honours to be later disqualified: Wild Wave (1953), Nirvana (1983) and Rothmans (1990)
- Yachts to win Handicap Honurs to be later disqualified: Drake's Prayer (1985)
- Most Successful Yacht Designer: Bruce Farr (NZ), 15 overall winners
- First known female sailors: Jane Tate and Dagmar O’Brien (both in 1946). O'Brien's yacht (Connella) retired, thus Tate has the honour of being the first female to complete the event and a trophy is now named in her honour.
- First all-female crewed Yacht: Barbarian, 1975 (skipper: Vicki Wilman)
- Most Races for one Woman: 15 by Adrienne Cahalan (AUS); (navigator for 2000 winner Nicorette)
- Worst Disaster: 1998, 6 sailors died and 5 yachts sunk; 115 yachts started but only 43 finished.
- Sunken Yachts: Clywd (1993), Adjuster (1993), Winston Churchill (1998), VC Offshore Stand Aside (1998), Sword of Orion (1998), Miintinta (1998), Midnight Special (1998), Ray White Koomooloo (2006) and Georgia (2008).
- Yachtsmen to have lost their lives: Mike Bannister (Winston Churchill, 1998), Glyn Charles (Sword of Orion, 1998), Ray Crawford (Billabong, 1988), John Dean (Winston Churchill, 1998), Bruce Guy (Business Post Naiad, 1998), Jim Lawler (Winston Churchill, 1998), Wally Russell (Yahoo II, 1984), John Sarney (Inca, 1973), Phillip Skeggs (Business Post Naiad, 1998), Peter Taylor (BP Flying Colours, 1989) and Hugh (Barry) Vallance (Zilvergeest III, 1975)
Another Australian offshore race is the Melbourne to Hobart Yacht Race run by the Ocean Racing Club of Victoria. Known as the West Coaster, this race arrives in Hobart around the same time as the more famous Sydney–Hobart.
Sponsors, supporters and prizes
It generally costs each of the major contenders for line honors millions of dollars to equip themselves for the race, however there is no prize money. The only award is a Rolex watch from the race sponsor for the fastest and handicap winning yacht captains. Entrants compete for the honor of the title.
- "Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race". About. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Tough legacy of a Sydney classic". BBC News. 29 December 2001. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Wild Oats XI wins Sydney to Hobart and sets new race record". The Daily Telegraph. 28 December 2012.
- From conversation with Geoffrey Ruggles, 9/1/2013
- http://rolexsydneyhobart.com/standings_ext.asp?RaceId=76 Official Race Results – 2006
- 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race – The Tragedy of Deaths at Sea
- 2004 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race – Nicorette Wins Line Honors
- "Cahalan gets top yachtswoman nod". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 October 2004.
- Heinrich, Karen (January 2006). "Taking to the sea". The Australian Women's Weekly. p. 230.
- "Rolex extends naming rights sponsorship of the Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race to 2015".
- Ludeke, M. (2002) The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race: 1945 – 2001. Hobart: Ludeke Publishing.
- Ludeke, M. (2014)(fourth edition) The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race. Hobart: Ludeke Publishing.
- Analysing Sydney to Hobart yacht race winning times – University of Melbourne
- Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race – Official site
- NSW Maritime site – Aquatic Events(PDF)
- Distance from Sydney to Hobart
- Photos from the start of the 2009 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
- "Sydney to Hobart yacht race". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]