Royal Society of Thailand

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Royal Society of Thailand
ราชบัณฑิตยสภา
Ratchabandittayasapha
Royal Institute of Thailand Seal.jpg
Agency overview
Formed • 19 April 1926 (as Royal Society of Siam)[1]
• 31 March 1933 (as Royal Institute of Thailand)[2]
• 14 February 2015 (as Royal Society of Thailand)[1]
Preceding agencies
  • • Royal Society of Siam (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา Ratchabandittayasapha)
  • • Royal Institute of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน Ratchabandittayasathan)
Type Government agency
Jurisdiction Nationwide
Headquarters Sanam Suea Pa, Dusit District, Bangkok, Thailand, 10300
Annual budget THB 168,439,000 (2015)[3]
Agency executives
  • • Pakon Adunphan[4], President
  • • Kanokwalee Chuchaiya, Secretary General
Key document
  • Royal Society Act, BE 2558 (2015)
Website Royin.go.th

The Royal Society of Thailand (Thai: ราชบัณฑิตยสภา; rtgsRatchabandittayasapha, pronounced [râːt.t͡ɕʰá.bān.dìt.tà.já.sà.pʰāː]), formerly known as the Royal Society of Siam, is the national academy of Thailand in charge of academic works of the government.

The secretariat of the society is the Office of the Royal Society of Thailand (Thai: สำนักงานราชบัณฑิตยสภา; rtgsSamnak Ngan Ratchabandittayasapha), formerly known as the Royal Institute of Thailand (Thai: ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน; rtgsRatchabandittayasathan). The office is an independent department in the executive branch of Thailand and is not subject to any other agency.

The Royal Society of Siam was established on 19 April 1926 and was dissolved on 31 March 1933.[2] The dissolved society was split into the Royal Institute of Thailand and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. On 14 February 2015, the Royal Institute of Thailand was reorganised. Its administrative council became the Royal Society of Thailand, whilst the institute itself became the office of the society.[1]

According to the present structure, the members of the Royal Society of Thailand are of three types: associate fellows, fellows, and honorary fellows. The associate fellows are experts selected and appointed by the society. The fellows are associate fellows selected by the society and appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister. And the honorary fellows are prominent experts selected by the society and appointed in the same manner as the fellows.[1]

The society is widely known for its official roles in the planning and regulation of the Thai language, as well as its many publications, particularly the Royal Institute Dictionary, the official and prescriptive dictionary of the Thai language, and the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, the official system for romanising Thai words.

History[edit]

On 19 April 1926, the Royal Society of Siam was established by King Prajadhipok.[1] The society was later dissolved on 31 March 1933 and its divisions were incorporated into two new agencies. The academic divisions became the Royal Institute of Thailand. The archaeological divisions became the Fine Arts Department of Thailand.[2]

According to the Act on Royal Institute, Buddhist Era 2476 (1934), which took effect on 24 April 1933, the institute was a legal person sponsored by the government and the prime minister was in charge of the institute. The act gave the institute three main duties: to conduct research in all fields and publish the outcomes for the common good of the nation, to exchange knowledge with foreign academic bodies, and to provide academic opinions to the government and public agencies. Under the act, the institute members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon approval of the cabinet and the House of Representatives.[5]

On 1 April 1942, the Royal Institute Act, Buddhist Era 2485 (1942), entered into force. The act changed the status of the institute from a legal person to a public organisation and authorised the prime minister to directly command the institute. The act also modified the method of selecting the institute members. The members were selected and nominated to the monarch by the prime minister.[6]

On 31 December 1944, the Royal Institute Act (No. 2), Buddhist Era 2487 (1944), came into operation. It again modified the institute status and the member selection method. The institute became an independent department commanded by the prime minister and its members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.[7]

On 12 March 1952, the Administrative Reorganisation Act, BE 2495 (1952), became operative. It changed the commander of the institute from the prime minister to the culture minister.[8] On 1 September 1958, the Administrative Reorganisation Act (No. 6), BE 2501 (1958), became effective. It again changed the commander of the institute from the culture minister to the education minister.[9]

On 29 September 1972, Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, leader of the junta called Revolutionary Council, issued the Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 which once again modified the status of the institute. According to the announcement, the institute changed its status from an independent department to a government department which was not subject to any other agency and was commanded by the education minister.[10]

On 13 November 2001, the Royal Institute Act, BE 2544 (2001), entered into operation. Under the act, the institute was a government department which was not subject to any other agency. The act also improved the structure of the institute and increased its missions.[11]

On 14 February 2015, the Royal Society Act, BE 2558 (2015), came into force and reorganised the institute. Under the act, the administrative council of the institute, then known as Council of Fellows (สภาราชบัณฑิต), became the Royal Society, and the institute became the secretariat of the society, known as the Office of the Royal Society. The act granted many new powers to the office, including the powers to manage its own budgets, to provide advanced training in all fields of the society, and to confer certificates upon the trainees. A welfare fund for the society members was also established by the act.[1] The renaming of the institute had been objected by many of its fellows, mainly because of lacking public hearing.[12]

Location[edit]

The former building of the society in the Grand Palace, Bangkok.
Entrance to the former building of the society .
A meeting room of the society in its former building, following a meeting of the Dictionary Revision Committee.

On 21 August 2006, the society relocated to offices at Sanam Suea Pa, near the Royal Plaza in Bangkok. Previously, the institute was located in the Grand Palace, Bangkok.

Administration[edit]

For administrative purposes, the society has four divisions:

Secretariat General
Moral and Political Sciences Division
Science Division
Arts Division

The society's website states that each division has a staff of civil servants and clerical employees who perform both business and academic functions facilitating the works of fellows and associate fellows as well as conducting and promoting various academic activities.

Fellows[edit]

Scholars from the academic community of Thailand can apply for membership in the society. Acceptance is based on an applicant's contributions to his field and his published works. The levels of membership in the institute are:

  1. Honorary fellows (ราชบัณฑิตกิตติมศักดิ์)
  2. Fellows (ราชบัณฑิต)
  3. Associate fellows (ภาคีสมาชิก)

Of these, only the title of associate fellow can be applied for. Fellows are appointed by the monarch as senior experts in the society within their field, chosen from among the existing associate fellows. Honorary fellows are likewise appointed by the monarch and are chosen from among scholars who are not already fellows of the society. These three groups can be collectively referred to as the members of the society.

Academies[edit]

Fellows of the society are divided into three academies. Each academy is subdivided into branches, and each branch comprises several specific fields, in total 137 different academic disciplines.

Academy of Moral and Political Sciences[edit]

Academy of Science[edit]

Academy of Arts[edit]

Seal[edit]

The official seal of the society is a shining sword behind an open book bearing a Pali word, paṇḍito ("scholars"). A crown floats upon the sword and a ribbon bearing the name of the society is below the book.[13]

The sword and the book is based upon a saying, "wisdom is on a par with weapon" (ปัญญาประดุจดังอาวุธ). The light of the sword represents the light of wisdom. The crown represents the monarch.[13]

Works[edit]

Royal Institute Dictionary[edit]

Perhaps the most well-known work of the society is the prescriptive Royal Institute Dictionary (พจนานุกรม ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน, in English often abbreviated RID).

The society has published four fully revised editions of the dictionary, and many intermittent reprintings with minor revisions. Each of the major revisions is associated with a significant year in Thai history, although in the case of the 1999 and 2011 editions, the actual publication date is a later year.

Royal Thai General System of Transcription[edit]

The society publishes the Royal Thai General System of Transcription[14] or RTGS, the official way of transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Government of Thailand (2015-02-13). "Phra Ratchabanyat Ratchabandittayasapha Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Ha Sip Paet" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสภา พ.ศ. 2558 [Royal Society Act, BE 2558 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 132 (10A): 1–11. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  2. ^ a b c "Prawat Khwam Pen Ma" ประวัติความเป็นมา (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. 2007. Retrieved 2014-02-14. 
  3. ^ Government of Thailand (2014-09-30). "Phra Ratchabanyat Ngop Praman Rai Chai Pracham Pi Ngop Praman Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Ha Sip Paet" พระราชบัญญัติงบประมาณรายจ่ายประจำปีงบประมาณ พ.ศ. 2558 [Annual Expenditure Budgets Act, BE 2558 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 131 (69A): 1–86. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  4. ^ "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง แต่งตั้งนายกราชบัณฑิตยสภาและอุปนายกราชบัณฑิตยสภา ลงวันที่ 8 เมษายน 2558" [Announcement of the Office of the Prime Minister, Re: Appointment of President and Vice Presidents of the Royal Society, dated 8 April 2015] (PDF). Royal Gazette. 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Government of Thailand (1934-04-24). "Phra Ratchabanyat Wa Duai Ratchabandittayasathan Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Chet Sip Hok" พระราชบัญญัติว่าด้วยราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พุทธศักราช 2476 [Act on Royal Institute, Buddhist Era 2476 (1934)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 51: 128–146. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  6. ^ Government of Thailand (1942-04-01). "Phra Ratchabanyat Ratchabandittayasathan Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Paet Sip Ha" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พุทธศักราช 2485 [Royal Institute Act, Buddhist Era 2485 (1942)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 59 (22): 789–798. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  7. ^ Government of Thailand (1944-12-31). "Phra Ratchabanyat Ratchabandittayasathan (Chabab Thi Song) Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Paet Sip Chet" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน (ฉะบับที่ 2) พุทธศักราช 2487 [Royal Institute Act (No. 2), Buddhist Era 2487 (1944)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 61 (79): 1215–1220. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  8. ^ Government of Thailand (1952-03-11). "Phra Ratchabanyat Prap Prung Krasuang Thabuang Krom Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Kao Sip Ha" พระราชบัญญัติปรับปรุงกระทรวง ทบวง กรม พ.ศ. 2495 [Administrative Reorganisation Act, BE 2495 (1952)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 69 (16): 313–327. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  9. ^ Government of Thailand (1958-08-31). "Phra Ratchabanyat Prap Prung Krasuang Thabuang Krom (Chabab Thi Hok) Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Et" พระราชบัญญัติปรับปรุงกระทรวง ทบวง กรม (ฉบับที่ 6) พ.ศ. 2501 [Administrative Reorganisation Act (No. 6), BE 2501 (1958)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 75 (67 (Special)): 1–10. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  10. ^ Government of Thailand (1958-08-31). "Prakat Khong Khana Patiwat Chabap Thi Song Roi Sip Hok Long Wan Thi Yi Sip Kao Kanyayon Song Phan Ha Roi Sip Ha" ประกาศของคณะปฏิวัติ ฉบับที่ 216 ลงวันที่ 29 กันยายน 2515 [Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 dated 29 September 1972] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 89 (145 (Special)): 1–16. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  11. ^ Government of Thailand (2001-11-12). "Phra Ratchabanyat Ratchabandittayasapha Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Si Sip Si" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พ.ศ. 2544 [Royal Institute Act, BE 2544 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 118 (104A): 1–11. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  12. ^ "Yuen sonocho khan plian chue ratchabandittayasathan" ยื่น สนช. ค้านเปลี่ยนชื่อ "ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน" [Objection to renaming of the Royal Institute has been filed with the NLA]. Post Today (in Thai) (Bangkok). 2014-10-28. Retrieved 2015-04-16. 
  13. ^ a b Royal Institute of Thailand (2007). "Khrueang mai ratchakan khong Ratchabandittayasathan" เครื่องหมายราชการของราชบัณฑิตยสถาน [Official symbol of the Royal Institute] (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. Retrieved 2015-02-16. 
  14. ^ Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS)

External links[edit]