The Adventures of Tintin
|The Adventures of Tintin|
|Formats||Original material for the series has been published as a strip in the comics anthology(s) graphic novels.|
|Publication date||1929 – 1976|
The Adventures of Tintin (French: Les Aventures de Tintin; [lez‿avɑ̃tyʁ də tɛ̃tɛ̃]) is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies.
The series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième (The Little Twentieth), a youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle (The Twentieth Century). The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper Le Soir (The Evening) and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé, which produced the canonical versions of ten Tintin albums. The Adventures of Tintin have been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film.
The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century. Its hero is Tintin, a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy (Milou in the original French edition). Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus (French: Professeur Tournesol), as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson (French: Dupont et Dupond) and the opera diva Bianca Castafiore.
The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature ligne claire ("clear line") style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, and science fiction. The stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary.
- 1 History
- 2 Synopsis
- 3 Research
- 4 Influences
- 5 Translation into English
- 6 Reception
- 7 Adaptations and memorabilia
- 8 Legacy
- 9 List of titles
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Le Vingtième Siècle: 1929–1939
Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé, was employed as an illustrator at Le Vingtième Siècle ("The Twentieth Century"), a staunchly Roman Catholic, conservative Belgian newspaper based in Hergé's native Brussels. Run by the Abbé Norbert Wallez, the paper described itself as a "Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information" and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled Le Petit Vingtième ("The Little Twentieth"). Propagating Wallez's socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated L'extraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet ("The Extraordinary Adventures of Flup, Nénesse, Poussette and Cochonnet"), a comic strip authored by a member of the newspaper's sport staff. Dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to write and draw his own cartoon strip.
He already had experience creating comic strips. From July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les Aventures de Totor C.P. des Hannetons ("The Adventures of Totor, Scout Leader of the Cockchafers") for the Scouting newspaper Le Boy Scout Belge ("The Belgian Boy Scout"). Totor was a strong influence on Tintin, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totor's younger brother. Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier stated that graphically, Totor and Tintin were "virtually identical" except for the Scout uniform, also noting many similarities between their respective adventures, particularly in the illustration style, the fast pace of the story, and the use of humour. He was fascinated by new techniques in the medium such as the systematic use of speech bubbles—found in such American comics as George McManus' Bringing up Father, George Herriman's Krazy Kat and Rudolph Dirks's Katzenjammer Kids, copies of which had been sent to him from Mexico by the paper's reporter Léon Degrelle.
Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union, acting as anti-socialist propaganda for children. The result, Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, was serialised in Le Petit Vingtième from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, following which he organised the publication of the story in book form. The story's popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallez's direction, in June he began serialisation of the second story, Tintin in the Congo, designed to encourage colonial sentiment towards the Belgian Congo. Authored in a paternalistic style that depicted the Congolese as childlike idiots, in later decades it was accused of racism, however at the time was un-controversial and popular, and further publicity stunts were held to increase sales.
For the third adventure, Tintin in America, serialised from September 1931 to October 1932, Hergé finally got to deal with a scenario of his own choice, and used the work to push an anti-capitalist, anti-consumerist agenda in keeping with the paper's ultra-conservative ideology. The Adventures of Tintin had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine Cœurs Vaillants ("Brave Hearts") since 1930, and Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too.
Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, Egypt, India, China, and the United Kingdom. He also sent Tintin to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin American republic of San Theodoros, the East European kingdom of Syldavia, or the fascist state Borduria—whose leader, Müsstler, was a combination of Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini.
Le Soir: 1940–1945
In May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium as World War II broke out across Europe. Although Hergé briefly fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, he ultimately decided to return to his occupied homeland. For political reasons, the Nazi authorities closed down Le Vingtième Siècle, leaving Hergé unemployed. In search of employment, he got a job as an illustrator at Belgium's leading newspaper, Le Soir (The Evening), which was allowed to continue publication under German management. On 17 October 1940, he was made editor of the children's supplement, Le Soir Jeunesse, in which he set about producing new Tintin adventures. In this new, more repressive political climate of German-occupied Belgium, Hergé could no longer explore political themes in his Adventures of Tintin lest he be arrested by the Gestapo. As Harry Thompson noted, Tintin's role as a reporter came to an end, to be replaced by his new role as an explorer.
From 1943 on, Hergé with the help of Edgar P. Jacobs started redrawing and colouring the early Tintin adventures, while also collaborating in the production of new stories. The old stories, usually a bit over 100 pages long, were restructured to fit into 62 pages. Jacobs eventually ended the collaboration in 1947 when Hergé refused to share the credit with him. They remained friends regardless of the fact.
Le Journal de Tintin: 1946–1983
At the end of the war, in September 1944, the Allies entered Brussels and Hergé's German employers fled. Le Soir was shut down and The Adventures of Tintin was put on hold. Then in 1946, Hergé accepted an invitation from Belgian comic publisher Raymond Leblanc and his new publishing company Le Lombard to continue The Adventures of Tintin in the new Le journal de Tintin (Tintin magazine). While elated to have his work published again, Hergé quickly learned that if Tintin magazine was his deliverer, it was also his demanding employer. He no longer had the independence he preferred; he was required to produce two coloured pages a week for Leblanc's magazine—a tall order. Despite this, Hergé's dedication to detail continued, his artistic standards escalated, even as his pressures mounted.
Finally, in 1950, Hergé began to poach the better members of the Tintin magazine staff to work in the large house on Avenue Louise that contained the fledgling Studios Hergé. Bob De Moor (who imitated Hergé's style and did half the work), Guy Dessicy (colourist), and Marcel DeHaye (secretary) were the nucleus. To this, Hergé added Jacques Martin (imitated Hergé's style), Roger Leloup (detailed, realistic drawings), Eugène Evany (later chief of the Studios), Michel Demaret (letterer), and Baudouin Van Den Branden (secretary). As Harry Thompson observed, the idea was to turn the process of creating The Adventures of Tintin into a "veritable production line, the artwork passing from person to person, everyone knowing their part, like an artistic orchestra with Hergé conducting." The Studios produced eight new Tintin albums for Tintin magazine, and coloured and reformatted two old Tintin albums. Studios Hergé continued to release additional publications until Hergé's death in 1983. In 1986, a twenty-fourth unfinished album was released, the Studios were disbanded, and its assets were transferred to the Hergé Foundation. Bolstered by recent adaptations, The Adventures of Tintin continue to entertain new generations of Tintin fans today.
Tintin and Snowy
Tintin is a young Belgian reporter and adventurer who becomes involved in dangerous cases in which he takes heroic action to save the day. The Adventures may feature Tintin hard at work in his investigative journalism, but seldom is he seen actually turning in a story. He is a boy of neutral attitudes with whom the audience can identify; in this respect, he represents the everyman.
Readers and critics have described Tintin as a well-rounded yet open-ended, intelligent and creative character, noting that his rather neutral personality—sometimes labelled as bland—permits a balanced reflection of the evil, folly, and foolhardiness, which surrounds him. The character never compromises his Boy Scout ideals, which represent Hergé's own, and his status allows the reader to assume his position within the story, rather than merely following the adventures of a strong protagonist. Tintin's iconic representation enhances this aspect, with Scott McCloud noting that it "allows readers to mask themselves in a character and safely enter a sensually stimulating world."
Snowy (Milou in Hergé's original version), a white Wire Fox Terrier dog, is Tintin's loyal, four-legged companion. The bond between Snowy and Tintin is very deep, as they have saved each other from perilous situations many times. Snowy frequently "speaks" to the reader through his thoughts (often displaying a dry sense of humour), which are not heard by the human characters in the story. Snowy has nearly let Tintin down on occasion, particularly when distracted by a bone. Like Captain Haddock, he is fond of Loch Lomond brand Scotch whisky, and his occasional bouts of drinking tend to get him into trouble. When not distracted, Snowy is generally fearless, his only fear being arachnophobia. When Tintin gets tied up by villains (which often happens), Snowy is usually able to free him by biting through the rope.
Captain Archibald Haddock (Capitaine Haddock in Hergé's original version) is a Merchant Marine sea captain and Tintin's best friend. Introduced in The Crab with the Golden Claws, Haddock is initially depicted as a weak and alcoholic character, but later evolves to become genuinely heroic and even a socialite after he finds a treasure from his ancestor, Sir Francis Haddock (Chevalier François de Hadoque in the original version). The Captain's coarse humanity and sarcasm act as a counterpoint to Tintin's often-implausible heroism; he is always quick with a dry comment whenever the boy reporter seems too idealistic. After he and Tintin find Red Rackham's treasure, Captain Haddock lives in the luxurious mansion Marlinspike Hall (Le château de Moulinsart in the original French).
The hot-tempered Haddock uses a range of colourful insults and curses to express his feelings, such as "billions of blue blistering barnacles" or "ten thousand thundering typhoons", "bashi-bazouk", "visigoths", "kleptomaniac", or "sea gherkin", but nothing actually considered a swear word. He is a hard drinker, particularly fond of rum and of Scotch whisky, especially Loch Lomond; his bouts of drunkenness are often used for comic effect, but sometimes get him into serious trouble.
Professor Cuthbert Calculus (Professeur Tryphon Tournesol in Hergé's original version; tournesol is the French word for sunflower) is an absent-minded and partially-deaf physicist and a regular character alongside Tintin, Snowy, and Captain Haddock. He was introduced in Red Rackham's Treasure, and based partially on Auguste Piccard, a Swiss physicist. The leading characters do not initially welcome his presence, but through his generous nature and his scientific ability, he develops a lasting bond with them. Eventually, by the end of Land of Black Gold, he becomes a resident of Marlinspike Hall. Normally mild-mannered and dignified, Calculus occasionally loses his temper and acts in a spectacularly aggressive manner in response to actual or perceived insults, such as when Captain Haddock belittles his work or accuses him of "acting the goat". He is a fervent believer in dowsing, and carries a pendulum for that purpose. Calculus's deafness is a frequent source of humour, as he repeats back what he thinks he has heard, usually in the most unlikely words possible. He does not admit to being near-deaf and insists he is only "a little hard of hearing in one ear."
Hergé's supporting characters have been cited as far more developed than the central character, each imbued with strength of character and depth of personality, which has been compared with that of the characters of Charles Dickens. Hergé used the supporting characters to create a realistic world in which to set his protagonists' adventures. To further the realism and continuity, characters would recur throughout the series. The occupation of Belgium and the restrictions imposed upon Hergé forced him to focus on characterisation to avoid depicting troublesome political situations. As a result, the colourful supporting cast was developed during this period.
Thomson and Thompson (Dupont et Dupond in Hergé's original version) are two incompetent detectives who look like identical twins, their only discernible difference being the shape of their moustaches. First introduced in Cigars of the Pharaoh, they provide much of the comic relief throughout the series, being afflicted with chronic spoonerisms. They are extremely clumsy, thoroughly incompetent, and usually bent on arresting the wrong character. The detectives usually wear bowler hats and carry walking sticks except when sent abroad; during those missions they attempt the national costume of the locality they are visiting, but instead dress in conspicuously stereotypical folkloric attire. The detectives were in part based on Hergé's father Alexis and uncle Léon, identical twins who often took walks together, wearing matching bowler hats while carrying matching walking sticks.
Bianca Castafiore is an opera singer of whom Haddock is terrified. She was first introduced in King Ottokar's Sceptre and seems to appear wherever the protagonists travel, along with her maid Irma and pianist Igor Wagner. She is comically foolish, whimsical, absent-minded, and talkative, and seems unaware that her voice is shrill and appallingly loud. Her speciality is the Jewel Song (Ah! Je ris de me voir si belle en ce miroir / Ah! My beauty past compare, these jewels bright I wear) from Gounod's opera, Faust, which she sings at the least provocation, much to Haddock's dismay. She is often maternal toward Haddock, of whose dislike she remains ignorant. She often confuses words, especially names, with other words that rhyme with them or of which they remind her; "Haddock" is frequently replaced by malapropisms such as "Paddock", "Stopcock", or "Hopscotch", while Nestor, Haddock's butler, is confused with "Chestor" and "Hector". Her own name means "white and chaste flower": a meaning to which Professor Calculus once refers when he breeds a white rose and names it for the singer. She was based upon opera divas in general (according to Hergé's perception), Hergé's Aunt Ninie (who was known for her "shrill" singing of opera), and, in the post-war comics, on Maria Callas.
Other recurring characters include Nestor the butler, Chang the loyal Chinese boy, Rastapopoulos the criminal mastermind, Jolyon Wagg the infuriating (to Haddock) insurance salesman, General Alcazar the South American freedom fighter and President of San Theodoros, Mohammed Ben Kalish Ezab the Arab emir, Abdullah his mischievous son, Dr. Müller the evil German psychiatrist, Oliveira da Figueira the friendly Portuguese salesman, Cutts the butcher whose phone number is repeatedly confused with Haddock's, and Allan the henchman of Rastapopoulos and formerly Haddock's first mate.
The settings within Tintin have also added depth to the strips. Hergé mingles real and fictional lands into his stories, along with a base in Belgium from where Tintin sets off—originally 26 Labrador Road, but later Marlinspike Hall. The role of setting is aptly demonstrated in King Ottokar's Sceptre, in which Hergé creates two fictional countries, Syldavia and Borduria, and invites the reader to tour them in text through the insertion of a travel brochure into the storyline. Other fictional lands include Khemed on the Arabian Peninsula and San Theodoros, São Rico, and Nuevo Rico in South America, as well as the kingdom of Gaipajama in India. Along with these fictitious locations, actual nations were employed such as Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, Congo, Peru, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Nepal, Tibet, and China. Other actual locales used were the Sahara, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Moon.
Hergé's extensive research began with The Blue Lotus; Hergé stated, "It was from that time that I undertook research and really interested myself in the people and countries to which I sent Tintin, out of a sense of responsibility to my readers".
Hergé's use of research and photographic reference allowed him to build a realised universe for Tintin, going so far as to create fictionalised countries, dressing them with specific political cultures. These were heavily informed by the cultures evident in Hergé's lifetime. Pierre Skilling has asserted that Hergé saw monarchy as "the legitimate form of government", noting that democratic "values seem underrepresented in [such] a classic Franco-Belgian strip". Syldavia in particular is described in considerable detail, Hergé creating a history, customs, and a language, which is actually a Slavic-looking transcript of Marols, a working-class Brussels dialect. He set the country in the Balkans, and it is, by his own admission, modelled after Albania. The country finds itself threatened by neighbouring Borduria, with an attempted annexation appearing in King Ottokar's Sceptre. This situation parallels the Italian conquest of Albania, and that of Czechoslovakia and Austria by expansionist Nazi Germany prior to World War II.
Hergé's use of research would include months of preparation for Tintin's voyage to the moon in the two-part storyline spread across Destination Moon and Explorers on the Moon. His research for the storyline was noted in New Scientist: "The considerable research undertaken by Hergé enabled him to come very close to the type of space suit that would be used in future Moon exploration, although his portrayal of the type of rocket that was actually used was a long way off the mark". The moon rocket is based on the German V-2 rockets.
In his youth, Hergé admired Benjamin Rabier and suggested that a number of images within Tintin in the Land of the Soviets reflected this influence, particularly the pictures of animals. René Vincent, the Art Deco designer, also affected early Tintin adventures: "His influence can be detected at the beginning of the Soviets, where my drawings are designed along a decorative line, like an 'S'." Hergé also felt no compunction in admitting that he had stolen the image of round noses from George McManus, feeling they were "so much fun that I used them, without scruples!"
During the extensive research Hergé carried out for The Blue Lotus, he became influenced by Chinese and Japanese illustrative styles and woodcuts. This is especially noticeable in the seascapes, which are reminiscent of works by Hokusai and Hiroshige.
Hergé also declared Mark Twain an influence, although this admiration may have led him astray when depicting Incas as having no knowledge of an upcoming solar eclipse in Prisoners of the Sun, an error T. F. Mills attributed to an attempt to portray "Incas in awe of a latter-day 'Connecticut Yankee'".
Translation into English
Tintin first appeared in English in the weekly British children's comic Eagle in 1951 with the story King Ottokar's Sceptre.[a] It was translated in conjunction with Casterman, Tintin's publishers, and starts by describing Tintin as "a French boy". Snowy was called by his French name "Milou".
The process of translating Tintin into British English was then commissioned in 1958 by Methuen, Hergé's British publishers. It was a joint operation, headed by Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper and Michael Turner, working closely with Hergé to attain an accurate translation as true as possible to the original work. Due in part to the large amount of language-specific word play (such as punning) in the series, especially the jokes which played on Professor Calculus' partial deafness, it was always the intention not to translate literally, instead striving to sculpt a work whose idioms and jokes would be meritorious in their own right. Despite the free hand Hergé afforded the two, they worked closely with the original text, asking for regular assistance to understand Hergé's intentions.
The British translations were also Anglicised to appeal to British customs and values. Milou, for example, was renamed Snowy at the translators' discretion. Captain Haddock's Le château de Moulinsart was renamed Marlinspike Hall.
When it came time to translate The Black Island, which is set in Great Britain, the opportunity was taken to make the scenes more true-to-life; such as ensuring that the British police were unarmed and ensuring scenes of the British countryside were more accurate for discerning British readers. Methuen had decided that the book did not portray Great Britain accurately enough, and had compiled a list of 131 errors of detail, which should be put right, asking Studios Hergé to rework it completely. The resulting album is the dramatically updated and redrawn 1966 version that is the most commonly available today. As of the early 21st century[update], Egmont publishes Tintin books in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.
Unlike in most of Western Europe, the Tintin books have had limited popularity in the United States.
The works were first adapted for the American English market by Golden Books, a branch of the Western Publishing Company in the 1950s. The albums were translated from French into American English with some artwork panels blanked except for the speech balloons. This was done to remove content considered to be inappropriate for children, such as drunkenness and free mixing of races. The albums were not popular and only six were published in mixed order. The edited albums later had their blanked areas redrawn by Hergé to be more acceptable, and they currently appear this way in published editions around the world.
From 1966 to 1979, Children's Digest included monthly instalments of The Adventures of Tintin. These serialisations served to increase Tintin's popularity, introducing him to many thousands of new readers in the United States.[b]
Atlantic Monthly Press, in cooperation with Little, Brown and Company beginning in the 1970s, republished the albums based on the British translations. Alterations were made to vocabulary not well known to an American audience (such as gaol, tyre, saloon, and spanner). As of the early 21st century[update], Little, Brown and Company (owned by the Hachette Book Group USA) continues to publish Tintin books in the United States.
Lettering and typography
The English-language Adventures of Tintin books were originally published with handwritten lettering created by cartographer Neil Hyslop. 1958's The Crab With the Golden Claw was the first to be published with Hyslop's lettering. Hyslop was given versions of Hergé's artwork with blank panels. Hyslop would write his English script on a clear cellophane-like material, aiming to fit within the original speech bubble. Occasionally the size of the bubbles would need to be adjusted if the translated text would not fit. In the early 2000s, Tintin's English publishers Egmont discontinued publishing books featuring Hyslop's handwritten lettering, instead publishing books with text created with digital fonts. This change was instigated by publisher Casterman and Hergé's estate managers Moulinsart, who decided to replace localised hand-lettering with a single computerised font for all Tintin titles worldwide.
On 1 June 2006, the Dalai Lama bestowed the International Campaign for Tibet's Light of Truth Award upon the Hergé Foundation, along with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu. The award was in recognition of Hergé's book Tintin in Tibet, Hergé's most personal adventure, which the Executive Director of ICT Europe Tsering Jampa noted was "for many ... their introduction to the awe-inspiring landscape and culture of Tibet". In 2001, the Hergé Foundation demanded the recall of the Chinese translation of the work, which had been released with the title Tintin in Chinese Tibet. The work was subsequently published with the correct translation of the title. Accepting on behalf of the Hergé Foundation, Hergé's widow Fanny Rodwell stated, "We never thought that this story of friendship would have a resonance more than 40 years later".
The study of Tintin has become the life work of many literary critics, observers sometimes referring to this study as "Tintinology". A prominent literary critic of Tintin is Philippe Goddin, who published Hergé et Tintin reporters: Du Petit Vingtième au Journal Tintin (1986, later republished in English as Hergé and Tintin Reporters: From "Le Petit Vingtième" to "Tintin" Magazine in 1987) and Hergé et les Bigotudos (1993) amongst other books on the series. In 1983, Benoît Peeters published Le Monde d'Hergé, subsequently published in English as Tintin and the World of Hergé in 1988. Although Goddin and Peeters were native French-speakers, the English reporter Michael Farr also published works on such as Tintin, 60 Years of Adventure (1989), Tintin: The Complete Companion (2001), Tintin & Co. (2007) and The Adventures of Hergé (2007), as had English screenwriter Harry Thompson, the author of Tintin: Hergé and his Creation (1991).
Literary critics, primarily in French-speaking Europe, have also examined The Adventures of Tintin. In 1984, Jean-Marie Apostolidès published his study of the Adventures of Tintin from a more "adult" perspective as Les Métamorphoses de Tintin, published in English as The Metamorphoses of Tintin, or Tintin for Adults in 2010. In reviewing Apostolidès' book, Nathan Perl-Rosenthal of The New Republic thought that it was "not for the faint of heart: it is densely-packed with close textual analysis and laden with psychological jargon." Following Apostolidès's work, French psychoanalyst Serge Tisseron examined the series in his books Tintin et les Secrets de Famille ("Tintin and the Family Secrets"), which was published in 1990, and Tintin et le Secret d'Hergé ("Tintin and Hergé's Secret"), published in 1993.
The first English-language work of literary criticism devoted to the series was Tintin and the Secret of Literature, written by the novelist Tom McCarthy and published in 2006. McCarthy compares Hergé's work with that of Aeschylus, Honoré de Balzac, Joseph Conrad, and Henry James and argues that the series contains the key to understanding literature itself. McCarthy considered the Adventures of Tintin to be "stupendously rich", containing "a mastery of plot and symbol, theme and sub-text" which, influenced by Tisseron's psychoanalytical readings of the work, he believed could be deciphered to reveal a series of recurring themes, ranging from bartering to implicit sexual intercourse that Hergé had featured throughout the series. Reviewing the book in The Telegraph, Toby Clements argued however that McCarthy's work, and literary criticism of Hergé's comic strips in general, cut "perilously close" to simply feeding "the appetite of those willing to cross the line between enthusiast and obsessive" in the Tintinological community.
The earliest stories in The Adventures of Tintin have been criticised for displaying racial stereotypes, animal cruelty, colonialism, violence, and even fascist leanings, including ethnocentric caricatured portrayals of non-Europeans. While the Hergé Foundation has presented such criticism as naïveté and scholars of Hergé such as Harry Thompson have said that "Hergé did what he was told by the Abbé Wallez", Hergé himself felt that his background made it impossible to avoid prejudice, stating, "I was fed the prejudices of the bourgeois society that surrounded me."
Tintin in the Congo has been criticised as presenting the Africans as naïve and primitive. In the original work, Tintin is shown at a blackboard addressing a class of African children. "My dear friends," he says, "I am going to talk to you today about your fatherland: Belgium."[c] Hergé redrew this in 1946 to show a lesson in mathematics. Hergé later admitted the flaws in the original story, excusing it saying, "I portrayed these Africans according to ... this purely paternalistic spirit of the time." Sue Buswell summarised the perceived problems with the book in 1988 as "all to do with rubbery lips and heaps of dead animals",[d] although Thompson noted this quote may have been "taken out of context".
Drawing on André Maurois' Les Silences du colonel Bramble, Hergé presents Tintin as a big-game hunter, accidentally killing fifteen antelope as opposed to the one needed for the evening meal. However, concerns over the number of dead animals led Tintin's Scandinavian publishers to request changes. A page of Tintin killing a rhinoceros by drilling a hole in its back and inserting a stick of dynamite was deemed excessive; Hergé replaced the page with one in which the rhino accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle while he sleeps under a tree. In 2007, the UK's Commission for Racial Equality called for the book to be pulled from shelves after a complaint, stating, "It beggars belief that in this day and age that any shop would think it acceptable to sell and display Tintin in the Congo." In August 2007, a Congolese student filed a complaint in Brussels that the book was an insult to the Congolese people. Public prosecutors investigated, and a criminal case was initiated, although the matter was transferred to a civil court. Belgium's Centre for Equal Opportunities warned against "over-reaction and hyper political correctness".
Hergé altered some of the early albums in subsequent editions, usually at the demand of publishers. For example, at the instigation of his American publishers, many of the African characters in Tintin in America were re-coloured to make their race Caucasian or ambiguous. The Shooting Star originally had an American villain with the Jewish surname of "Blumenstein". This proved controversial, as the character exhibited exaggerated, stereotypically Jewish characteristics. "Blumenstein" was changed to an American with a less ethnically specific name, Mr. Bohlwinkel, in later editions and subsequently to a South American of a fictional country—São Rico. Hergé later discovered that 'Bohlwinkel' was also a Jewish name.
Adaptations and memorabilia
The Adventures of Tintin has been adapted in a variety of media besides the original comic strip and its collections. Hergé encouraged adaptations and members of his studio working on the animated films. After Hergé's death in 1983, the Hergé Foundation and Moulinsart, the foundation's commercial and copyright wing, became responsible for authorising adaptations and exhibitions.
Television and radio
Two animated television adaptations and one radio adaptation have been made.
Hergé's Adventures of Tintin (Les aventures de Tintin d'après Hergé) (1957) was the first production of Belvision Studios. Ten of Hergé's books were adapted, each serialised into a set of five-minute episodes, with 103 episodes produced.[e] The series was directed by Ray Goossens and written by Belgian comic artist Greg, later editor-in-chief of Tintin magazine, and produced by Raymond Leblanc.[f] Most stories in the series varied widely from the original books, often changing whole plots.
The Adventures of Tintin (Les aventures de Tintin) (1991–92) was the more successful Tintin television series. An adaptation of twenty-one Tintin books,[g] it was directed by Stéphane Bernasconi and was produced by Ellipse (France) and Nelvana (Canada) on behalf of the Hergé Foundation. The series adhered closely to the albums to such an extent that panels from the original were often transposed directly to the screen. The series aired in over fifty countries and was released on DVD. It aired in the US on HBO.
The Adventures of Tintin (1992–93) radio series was produced by BBC Radio 4. The dramas starred Richard Pearce as Tintin and Andrew Sachs as Snowy. Captain Haddock was played by Leo McKern in Series One and Lionel Jeffries in Series Two, Professor Calculus was played by Stephen Moore and Thomson and Thompson were played by Charles Kay.
The Adventures of Tintin were also released as radio dramas on LP and compact cassette recordings in French language versions in Belgium, France and Canada, German language versions in West Germany, Swedish language versions in Sweden, Danish language versions in Denmark and Norwegian language versions in Norway.
Five feature-length Tintin films were made before Hergé's death in 1983.
The Crab with the Golden Claws (Le crabe aux pinces d'or) (1947) was the first successful attempt to adapt one of the comics into a feature film. Written and directed by Claude Misonne and João B Michiels, the film was a stop-motion puppet production created by a small Belgian studio.
Tintin and the Golden Fleece (Tintin et le mystère de la Toison d'Or) (1961), the first live action Tintin film, was adapted not from one of Hergé's Adventures of Tintin but instead from an original script written by André Barret and Rémo Forlani. Directed by Jean-Jacques Vierne and starring Jean-Pierre Talbot as Tintin and Georges Wilson as Haddock, the plot involves Tintin travelling to Istanbul to collect the Golden Fleece, a ship left to Haddock in the will of his friend, Themistocle Paparanic. Whilst in the city however, Tintin and Haddock discover that a group of villains also want possession of the ship, believing that it would lead them to a hidden treasure.
Tintin and the Blue Oranges (Tintin et les oranges bleues) (1964), the second live action Tintin film, was released due to the success of the first. Again based upon an original script, once more by André Barret, it was directed by Philippe Condroyer and starred Talbot as Tintin and Jean Bouise as Haddock. The plot reveals a new invention, the blue orange, that can grow in the desert and solve world famines, devised by Calculus' friend, the Spanish Professor Zalamea. An emir whose interests are threatened by the invention of the blue orange proceeds to kidnap both Zalamea and Calculus, and Tintin and Haddock travel to Spain in order to rescue them.
Tintin and the Temple of the Sun (Tintin et le temple du soleil) (1969), the first traditional animation Tintin film, was adapted from two of Hergé's Adventures of Tintin: The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun. The first full-length, animated film from Raymond Leblanc's Belvision, which had recently completed its television series based upon the Tintin stories; it was directed by Eddie Lateste and featured a musical score by the critically acclaimed composer François Rauber. The adaptation is mostly faithful, although the Seven Crystal Balls portion of the story was heavily condensed.
Tintin and the Lake of Sharks (Tintin et le lac aux requins) (1972), the second traditional animation Tintin film and the last Tintin release for nearly 40 years, it was based on an original script by Greg and directed by Raymond Leblanc. Belvision's second feature takes Tintin to Syldavia to outwit his old foe Rastapopoulos. While the look of the film is richer, the story is less convincing. The movie was subsequently adapted into a comic album made up of stills from the film.
Resurgence in Tintin films
The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn (2011) was Steven Spielberg's motion capture 3D film based on three Hergé albums: The Crab with the Golden Claws (1941), The Secret of the Unicorn (1943), and Red Rackham's Treasure (1944). Peter Jackson's company Weta Digital provided the animation and special effects. The movie's reception was positive; Jackson will direct and Spielberg will produce a second movie of a planned trilogy.
One documentary about Tintin was made during Hergé's lifetime. Years after Hergé's death, a new documentary film about Tintin and Hergé was released, then later a documentary television series was produced.
Tintin and I (Tintin et moi) (2003), a documentary film directed by Anders Høgsbro Østergaard and co-produced by companies from Denmark, Belgium, France, and Switzerland, was based on the taped interview with Hergé by Numa Sadoul from 1971. Although the interview was published as a book, Hergé was allowed to edit the work prior to publishing and much of the interview was excised. Years after Hergé's death, the filmmaker returns to the original tapes and restores Hergé's often personal, insightful thoughts—and in the process brings viewers closer to the world of Tintin and Hergé. It was broadcast in the United States on the PBS network, 11 July 2006.
Sur les traces de Tintin (On the trail of Tintin) (2010) was a five-part documentary television series which recaps several albums of the book series by combining comic panels (motionless or otherwise) with live-action imagery, with commentary provided.
Hergé himself helped to create two stage plays, collaborating with humourist Jacques Van Melkebeke. Tintin in the Indies: The Mystery of the Blue Diamond (1941) covers much of the second half of Cigars of the Pharaoh as Tintin attempts to rescue a stolen blue diamond. The Disappearance of Mr. Boullock (1941–1942) has Tintin, Snowy, and Thomson and Thompson track the mysterious Mr. Boullock around the world and back to Brussels again. The plays were performed at the Théâtre Royal des Galeries in Brussels. The scripts of the plays are unfortunately lost.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two Tintin plays appeared at the Arts Theatre in the West End of London, adapted by Geoffrey Case for the Unicorn Theatre Company. These were Tintin's Great American Adventure, based on the comic Tintin in America (1976–1977) and Tintin and the Black Island, based on The Black Island (1980–81); this second play later toured.[h]
A musical based on The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun premièred on 15 September 2001 at the Stadsschouwburg (City Theatre) in Antwerp, Belgium. It was entitled Kuifje – De Zonnetempel (De Musical) ("Tintin – Temple of the Sun (The Musical)") and was broadcast on Canal Plus, before moving on to Charleroi in 2002 as Tintin – Le Temple du Soleil – Le Spectacle Musical.
The Young Vic theatre company in London ran Hergé's Adventures of Tintin, a musical version of Tintin in Tibet, at the Barbican Arts Centre (2005–2006); the production was directed by Rufus Norris and was adapted by Norris and David Greig. The show was successfully revived at the Playhouse Theatre in the West End of London before touring (2006–2007) to celebrate the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007.
Tintin began appearing in video games when Infogrames Entertainment, SA, a French game company, released the side scroller Tintin on the Moon in 1989. The same company released a platformer video game titled Tintin in Tibet in 1995 for the Super NES and Mega Drive/Genesis. Another platformer from Infogrames titled Prisoners of the Sun was released the following year for the Super NES, PC, and Game Boy Color. As computer graphics technology improved, video game experiences improved. In 2001, Tintin became 3D in a game called Tintin: Destination Adventure, released by Infogrames for the PC and PlayStation. Then in 2011, an action-adventure video game called The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, a tie-in to the 2011 movie, was released by Ubisoft in October 2011.
Memorabilia and merchandise
Images from the series have long been licensed for use on merchandise, the success of Tintin magazine helping to create a market for such items. Tintin's image has been used to sell a wide variety of products, from alarm clocks to underpants. Countless separate items related to the character have been available, with some becoming collectors' items in their own right.
The Hergé Foundation has maintained control of the licenses, through Moulinsart, the commercial wing of the foundation. Speaking in 2002, Peter Horemans, the then director general at Moulinsart, noted this control: "We have to be very protective of the property. We don't take lightly any potential partners and we have to be very selective ... for him to continue to be as popular as he is, great care needs to be taken of his use." However, the Foundation has been criticised by scholars as "trivialising the work of Hergé by concentrating on the more lucrative merchandising" in the wake of a move in the late 1990s to charge them for using relevant images to illustrate their papers on the series.
Tintin memorabilia and merchandise has allowed a chain of stores based solely on the character to become viable. The first shop was launched in 1984 in Covent Garden, London. Tintin shops have also opened in both Bruges and Brussels in Belgium, and in Montpellier, France. In 2014, a Tintin shop opened in Taguig, Philippines, only the second of its kind in Southeast Asia. The British bookstore chain, Ottakar's, founded in 1987, was named after the character of King Ottokar from the Tintin book King Ottokar's Sceptre, and their shops stocked a large amount of Tintin merchandise until their takeover by Waterstone's in 2006.
Stamps and coins
Tintin's image has been used on postage stamps on numerous occasions. The first Tintin postage stamp was an eight-franc stamp issued by Belgian Post for the 50th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's first adventure on 29 September 1979, featuring Tintin and Snowy looking through a magnifying glass at several stamps. In 1999, a nine-stamp block celebrating ten years of the Belgian Comic Strip Center was issued, with the center stamp a photo of Tintin's famous moon rocket that dominates the Comic Strip Center's entry hall. To mark the end of the Belgian Franc and to celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the publication of Tintin in the Congo, two more stamps were issued by Belgian Post on 31 December 2001: Tintin in a pith helmet and a souvenir sheet with a single stamp in the center. The stamps were jointly issued in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2004, Belgian Post celebrated its own seventy-fifth anniversary, as well as the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Explorers on the Moon, and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the moon landings with a souvenir sheet of five stamps based upon the Explorers on the Moon adventure. To celebrate the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007, Belgian Post issued a sheet of 25 stamps depicting the album covers of all 24 Adventures of Tintin (in 24 languages) plus Hergé's portrait in the center. A souvenir sheet of ten stamps called "Tintin on screen", issued 30 August 2011, depicts the Tintin film and television adaptations.[i]
Besides stamps, Tintin has also been commemorated by coin several times. In 1995, the Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) issued a set of twelve gold medallions, available in a limited edition of 5000. A silver medallion was minted in 2004 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Tintin book Explorers on the Moon, again in a limited run, this time of 10,000. It quickly sold out. In 2004, Belgium minted a limited edition commemorative euro coin featuring Tintin and Snowy celebrating the 75th anniversary of Tintin's first adventure in January 2004. Although it has a face value of €10, it is, as with other commemorative euro coins, legal tender only in the country in which it was issued—in this case, Belgium. In 2006–2012 France issued the Comic Strip Heroes commemorative coin series featuring famous Franco-Belgian comics, beginning in 2006 with Tintin. It was a set of six different euro coins honouring Hergé: three 1½-euro silver coins featuring Tintin and the Professor, Tintin and Captain Haddock, and Tintin and Chang; a €10 (gold) featuring Tintin; and a €20 (silver) and a €50 (gold) featuring Tintin and Snowy. In 2007, on Hergé's centenary, Belgium issued its €20 (silver) Hergé/Tintin coin.
Parody and pastiche
During Hergé's lifetime, parodies were produced of the Adventures of Tintin, with one of the earliest appearing in Belgian newspaper La Patrie after the liberation of the country from Nazi German occupation in September 1944. Entitled Tintin au pays de nazis ("Tintin in the Land of the Nazis"), the short and crudely drawn strip lampoons Hergé for working for a Nazi-run newspaper during the occupation.
Following Hergé's death, hundreds more unofficial parodies and pastiches of the Adventures of Tintin were produced, covering a wide variety of different genres. Tom McCarthy divided such works into three specific groupings: pornographic, political, and artistic. In a number of cases, the actual name "Tintin" is replaced by something similar, like Nitnit, Timtim, or Quinquin, within these books.
McCarthy's first group, pornographic parodies, includes 1976's Tintin en Suisse ("Tintin in Switzerland") and Jan Bucquoy's 1992 work La Vie Sexuelle de Tintin ("Tintin's Sex Life"), featuring Tintin and the other characters engaged in sexual acts. Another such example was Tintin in Thailand, in which Tintin, Haddock, and Calculus travel to the East Asian country for a sex holiday. The book began circulating in December 1999, but in 2001, Belgian police arrested those responsible and confiscated 650 copies for copyright violation.
Other parodies have been produced for political reasons: for instance, Tintin in Iraq lampoons the world politics of the early 21st century, with Hergé's character General Alcazar representing President of the United States George W. Bush. Written by the pseudonymous Jack Daniels, Breaking Free (1989) is a revolutionary socialist comic set in Britain during the 1980s, with Tintin and his uncle (modelled after Captain Haddock) being working class Englishmen who turn to socialism in order to oppose the capitalist policies of the Conservative Party government of Margaret Thatcher. When first published in Britain, it caused an outrage in the mainstream press, with one paper issuing the headline that "Commie nutters turn Tintin into picket yob!"
Other comic creators have chosen to create artistic stories that are more like fan fiction than parody. The Swiss artist Exem created the irreverent comic adventures of Zinzin, what The Guardian calls "the most beautifully produced of the pastiches." Similarly, Canadian cartoonist Yves Rodier has produced a number of Tintin works, none of which have been authorised by the Hergé Foundation, including a 1986 "completion" of the unfinished Tintin and Alph-art, which he drew in Hergé's ligne claire style.
The response to these parodies has been mixed in the Tintinological community. Many despise them, seeing them as an affront to Hergé's work. Nick Rodwell of the Hergé Foundation took this view, declaring that "None of these copyists count as true fans of Hergé. If they were, they would respect his wishes that no one but him draw Tintin's adventures." Where possible, the foundation has taken legal action against those known to be producing such items. Others have taken a different attitude, considering such parodies and pastiches to be tributes to Hergé, and collecting them has become a "niche specialty".
After Hergé's death in 1983, his art began to be honoured at exhibitions around the world, keeping Tintin awareness at a high level. The first major Tintin exhibition in London was Tintin: 60 years of Adventure, held in 1989 at the Town Hall in Chelsea. This early exhibition displayed many of Hergé's original sketches and inks, as well as some original gouaches. In 2001, an exhibition entitled Mille Sabords! ("Billions of Blistering Barnacles!") was shown at the National Navy Museum (Musée national de la Marine) in Paris. In 2002, the Bunkamura Museum of Art in Tokyo staged an exhibition of original Hergé drawings as well as of the submarine and rocket ship invented in the strips by Professor Calculus. The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London, hosted the exhibition The Adventures of Tintin at Sea in 2004, focusing on Tintin's sea exploits, and in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's first adventure. 2004 also saw an exhibition in Halles Saint Géry in Brussels titled Tintin et la ville ("Tintin and the City") showcasing all cities in the world Tintin had travelled.
The Belgian Comic Strip Center in the Brussels business district added exhibits dedicated to Hergé in 2004. The Brussels' Comic Book Route in the center of Brussels added its first Tintin mural in July 2005.
The centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007 was commemorated at the largest museum for modern art in Europe, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, with Hergé, an art exhibition honouring his work. The exhibition, which ran from 20 December 2006 until 19 February 2007, featured some 300 of Hergé's boards and original drawings, including all 124 original plates of The Blue Lotus. Laurent le Bon, organiser of the exhibit said, "It was important for the Centre to show the work of Hergé next to that of Matisse or Picasso." Michael Farr said, "Hergé has long been seen as a father figure in the comics world. If he's now recognised as a modern artist, that's very important."
2009 saw the opening of the Hergé Museum (Musée Hergé), designed in contemporary style, in the town of Louvain-la-Neuve, south of Brussels. Visitors follow a sequence of eight permanent exhibit rooms covering the entire range of Hergé's work, showcasing the world of Tintin and his other creations. In addition, the new museum has already seen many temporary exhibits, including Into Tibet With Tintin.
Hergé is recognised as one of the leading cartoonists of the twentieth century. Most notably, Hergé's ligne claire style has been influential to creators of other Franco-Belgian comics. Contributors to Tintin magazine have employed ligne claire, and later artists Jacques Tardi, Yves Chaland, Jason Little, Phil Elliott, Martin Handford, Geof Darrow, Eric Heuvel, Garen Ewing, Joost Swarte, and others have produced works using it.
In the wider art world, both Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein have claimed Hergé as one of their most important influences. Lichtenstein made paintings based on fragments from Tintin comics, whilst Warhol used ligne claire and even made a series of paintings with Hergé as the subject. Warhol, who admired Tintin's "great political and satirical dimensions", said, "Hergé has influenced my work in the same way as Walt Disney. For me, Hergé was more than a comic strip artist".
Hergé has been lauded as "creating in art a powerful graphic record of the 20th century's tortured history" through his work on Tintin, whilst Maurice Horn's World Encyclopedia of Comics declares him to have "spear-headed the post-World War II renaissance of European comic art". French philosopher Michel Serres noted that the twenty-three completed Tintin albums constituted a "chef-d'oeuvre" ("masterpiece") to which "the work of no French novelist is comparable in importance or greatness".
List of titles
Following are the twenty-four canonical Tintin comic albums as named in English. Publication dates are of the original French-language versions.
|Album Number||Title||Serialisation||Album (B&W)||Album (colour)||Notes|
|1||Tintin in the Land of the Soviets||1929–1930||1930||Hergé prevented this book's republication until 1973. It has never been redrawn in a colour edition.|
|2||Tintin in the Congo||1930–1931||1931||1946||Re-published in colour and in a fixed 62-page format. Book 10 was the first to be originally published in colour.|
|3||Tintin in America||1931–1932||1932||1945|
|4||Cigars of the Pharaoh||1932–1934||1934||1955|
|5||The Blue Lotus||1934–1935||1936||1946|
|6||The Broken Ear||1935–1937||1937||1943|
|7||The Black Island||1937–1938||1938||1943, 1966|
|8||King Ottokar's Sceptre||1938–1939||1939||1947|
|9||The Crab with the Golden Claws||1940–1941||1941||1943|
|10||The Shooting Star||1941–1942||1942|
|11||The Secret of the Unicorn||1942–1943||1943||Books 11 to 15 set a middle period for Hergé marked by war and changing collaborators.|
|12||Red Rackham's Treasure||1943||1944|
|13||The Seven Crystal Balls||1943–1946||1948|
|14||Prisoners of the Sun||1946–1948||1949|
|15||Land of Black Gold||1948–1950||1950, 1971|
|16||Destination Moon||1950–1952||1953||Books 16 to 23 (and revised editions of books 4, 7 & 15) are creations of Studios Hergé.|
|17||Explorers on the Moon||1952–1953||1954|
|18||The Calculus Affair||1954–1956||1956|
|19||The Red Sea Sharks||1956–1958||1958|
|20||Tintin in Tibet||1958–1959||1960|
|21||The Castafiore Emerald||1961–1962||1963|
|22||Flight 714 to Sydney||1966–1967||1968|
|23||Tintin and the Picaros||1975–1976||1976|
|24||Tintin and Alph-Art||1986||2004||Hergé's unfinished book, published posthumously.|
The following are double albums with a continuing story arc.
- Cigars of the Pharaoh & The Blue Lotus
- The Secret of the Unicorn & Red Rackham's Treasure
- The Seven Crystal Balls & Prisoners of the Sun
- Destination Moon & Explorers on the Moon
Apart from the series, a comic album supervised by, but not written by, Hergé was released based on the film Tintin et le lac aux requins.
Hergé attempted and then abandoned one album:
- Le Thermozéro (1958)
- Tintin first appeared in Eagle Vol 2:17 (3 August), which ran in weekly parts in the lower half of the centerfold, beneath the cutaway drawings, until Vol 3:4 (2 May 1952).
- At that time, Children's Digest had a circulation of around 700,000 copies monthly.
- "Mes chers amis, je vais vous parler aujourd'hui de votre patrie: La Belgique."
- "Dead animals" refers to the fashion for big-game hunting at the time of the work's original publication.
- Two series were created. Series 1: Two books, twelve episodes, were adapted in black and white as a test of the studio's abilities; these were actually faithful to the original albums. Series 2: Eight books, 91 episodes, were adapted in colour; these were often unfaithful to the original albums. The animation quality of the series was very limited.
- Belvision had just been launched by Raymond Leblanc, who had created Tintin magazine a decade earlier.
- The series ran for three seasons, 13 episodes each season; the 21 stories usually presented in two-part segments.
- Geoffrey Case (adapted), Tony Wredden (directed): Tintin's Great American Adventure, Arts Theatre, London, 18 December 1976 to 20 February 1977, Unicorn Theatre Company. Tintin and the Black Island, Arts Theatre, London, 1980–81, Unicorn Theatre Company.
- "Tintin on screen" depicts both Tintin television programs and four of the five Tintin film adaptations (Lake of Sharks was omitted).
- "Au fond, vous savez, mon seul rival international c'est Tintin! Nous sommes les petits qui ne se laissent pas avoir par les grands." Spoken by Charles de Gaulle, according to his Minister for Cultural Affairs André Malraux. De Gaulle had just banned all NATO aircraft bases from France; "the great ones" referred to USA and USSR. De Gaulle then added, "On ne s'en apperçoit pas, à cause de ma taille." ("Only nobody notices the likeness because of my size.")
- Pollard 2007; Bostock & Brennan 2007; The Age 24 May 2006; Junkers 2007.
- Farr 2007a, p. 4.
- Thompson 1991, p. 207–208.
- Screech 2005, p. 27; Miller 2007, p. 18; Clements 2006; Wagner 2006; Lichfield 2006; Macintyre 2006; Gravett 2008.
- Thompson 2003; Gravett 2005; Mills 1983.
- Assouline 2009, p. 19.
- Thompson 1991, p. 24; Peeters 2012, pp. 20–29.
- Thompson 1991, pp. 24–25; Peeters 2012, pp. 31–32.
- Assouline 2009, p. 38.
- Goddin 2008, p. 44.
- Farr 2001, p. 12.
- Farr 2001, p. 12; Thompson 1991, p. 25; Assouline 2009.
- Thompson 1991, p. 29.
- Lofficier & Lofficier 2002, p. 19.
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- Peeters 2012, pp. 39–41.
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- Assouline 2009, pp. 30–32.
- Assouline 2009, p. 35.
- Thompson 1991, p. 82.
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- Thompson 1991, pp. 98–99.
- Thompson 1991, p. 147.
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- Hachette Book Group 2013.
- Chris Owens (10 July 2004). "Interview with Michael Turner and Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper". Tintinologist. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
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- Beckford 2007; BBC News 12 July 2007.
- Samuel 2011; BBC News 13 February 2012.
- Mills 1996.
- Thompson 1991, p. 289; Tintin.com Moulinsart 2010.
- Lofficier & Lofficier 2002, pp. 143–144.
- Lofficier & Lofficier 2002, p. 148.
- Baltimore Sun 16 November 1991.
- Lofficier & Lofficier 2002, p. 143.
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- Owens 25 February 2004; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006.
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- Tintin.com 16 March 2002.
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- Soumous 2004; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006.
- The Independent 15 October 2011; Kenneally 1991.
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- The Economist 28 May 2009; Contimporist 3 June 2009; Tintin.com Musée Hergé 2009.
- Tintin.com Musée Hergé 2009.
- Musée Hergé May 2012.
- The Economist 28 May 2009; Contimporist 3 June 2009.
- Radio Télévision Suisse 28 June 2010.
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- Thompson 1991, p. 280.
- BBC News10 January 1999.
- Horn 1983.
- Adair 1993.
- Charles-de-Gaulle.org 1958; The New York Times 5 March 1983; Lofficier & Lofficier 2002, p. 9.
- "TINTIN / A Brussels Airlines aircraft in Tintin colours".
- Butter, Susannah (24 March 2016), "Brussels attacks: how Tintin became a symbol of solidarity on Twitter", London Evening Standard
- Apostolidès, Jean-Marie (2010) . The Metamorphoses of Tintin, or Tintin for Adults. Jocelyn Hoy (translator). Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-6031-7.
- Assouline, Pierre (2009) . Hergé, the Man Who Created Tintin. Charles Ruas (translator). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539759-8.
- Farr, Michael (2001). Tintin: The Complete Companion. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-5522-0.
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