Timeline of 7th-century Muslim history
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Seventh century (601 - 700)
- 604: 24 July— Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad. She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad's descendants are through her.
- 605: Muhammad helps rebuild the Ka'ba.
- 610: 9 February— The first announced revelation of the Qur'an in the cave at Hira. He is given his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel in the cave. Khadija is the first to believe Islam.
- 613: Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam.
- 614: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia
- 615: Acceptance of Islam by Umar and Hamza
- 616: Second migration to Abyssinia.
- 617: Boycott of the Hashemites and Muhammad by the Quraish.
- 619: April/May— Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija, Year of Sorrow.
- 620: Visit to Taif. "Ascension to the heavens".
- 622: 9 September—20 September, Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar.
- 623: January— Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.
- 624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina. The direction of prayer is converted from Jerusalem to Mecca.
- 625: Battle of Uhud. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.
- 625: Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, son of Ali and Fatimah and 2nd Shia imams.
- 626: Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, son of Ali and Fatimah and 3rd Shia imams.
- 627: Battle of the Trench. Invasion of Banu Qurayza.
- 628: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad sends letters to various heads of states.
- 629: Muhammad pilgrimage to Mecca. Battle of Mu'ta.
- 630: 11 January— Conquest of Mecca. Battle of Hunayn. Battle of Autas. Siege of Ta'if.
- 631: Expedition to Tabouk, Ghassanids.
- 631 or 632, tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam.
- 632: 6 March— Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.
- 632: 8 June— Death of Muhammad. Death of Fatimah, his daughter. Abu Bakr is chosen as caliph after a fight at Banu Saqifa among those who left the funeral of prophet . Battles of Zu Qissa. Battles of Zu Abraq. Battle of Buzakha. Battle of Zafar. Battle of Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Mosailima.
- 633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq.Battle of Chains, Battle of Saniyy, Battle of Walaja, Battle of Ullais, Battle of Hira, Battle of Al-Anbar, Battle of Ayn al-Tamr, Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, Battle of Firaz.
- 634: 22 August— Death of Abu Bakr, the first caliph of Islam. Umar ibn al-Khattab assumes power as the second caliph.
- 634: Battle of Bosra, Battle of Damascus, Battle of Ajnadin. Death of Abu Bakr. Battle of Namaraq, Battle of Saqatia.
- 635: Battle of Bridge, Battle of Buwaib, Conquest of Damascus, Battle of Fahl.
- 636: Battle of Yarmuk, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, Conquest of Madain.
- 637: Conquest of Syria, Conquest of Jerusalem, Battle of Jalula.
- 638: Conquest of Jazirah.
- 639: Conquest of Khuzistan. Advance into Egypt. Plague of Emmaus.
- 640: Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
- 641: Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt.
- 642: Battle of Nihawand; Conquest of Egypt.
- 643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Mazandaran).
- 644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Assassination of Umar. Uthman ibn Affan becomes the caliph.
- 644: 5 November— Assassiation of Umar, second caliph of Islam. buried in the house of Aisha in Medina.
- 646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armenia and Asia Minor.
- 647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cyprus.
- 648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.
- 650: First conflict between Arabs and Turks. Khazars defeated an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar.
- 652: Disaffection against the rule of Uthman.
- 655: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
- 656: 17 June— Assassination of Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam. Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes the fourth caliph.
- 656: 10 December— Battle of the Camel.
- 657: Ali shifts the capital from Medina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin.
- 658: Battle of Nahrawan.
- 659: Conquest of Egypt by Muawiyah I.
- 660: Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Muawiyah. Muawiyah I declares himself as the caliph at Damascus.
- 661: 29 January— Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Caliph, is assassinated by Kharijites. buried in Najaf, Iraq.
- 662: Kharijites' revolts.
- 666: Muawia bin Hudeij raids Sicily. Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn Maslamah and Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan dies.
- 669: Hasan ibn Ali, the second imam of the Shiites is poisoned and killed. Husayn ibn Ali becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib's followers.
- 670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba bin Nafe founds the town of Kairouan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
- 672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
- 674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
- 676: Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth imam of the Shiites is born.
- 677: Occupation of Samarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.
- 680: 28 April— Death of Muawiyah. Yazid I becomes caliph.
- 680: 10 October— Battle of Karbala and Husayn bin Ali is killed along with his companions. Ali ibn Husayn becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib's followers.
- 682: North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Kairouan and withdraw to Burqa.
- 683: 11 November— Death of Yazid I. Muawiya II becomes caliph.
- 684: June— Muawiya II abdicated.
- 684: Abd Allah ibn Zubayr declares himself as the caliph at Mecca. Marwan I becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahit.
- 685: Death of Marwan I. Abd al-Malik becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of 'Ayn al-Warda.
- 686: Al-Mukhtar declares himself as the caliph at Kufa.
- 687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abd Allah ibn Zubayr. Mukhtar killed.
- 691: Battle of Maskin. Kufa falls to Abd al-Malik.
- 692: October— The fall of Mecca. Death of ibn Zubayr. Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph.
- 695: Kharijites' revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
- 700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 1 per cent of the total.
- Life of Muhammad: 560-661 Muhammad helpebuild ...
- Life of Muhammad: 560-661 Muhammad is called to prophethood. He receives his first ...
- Life of Muhammad: 560-661 Battle of Badr, Muslims defeat the Meccans. The direction of prayer ...
- A. I. Akram, The Muslim conquest of Egypt and North Africa. Ferozsons, 1977. Page 201
- The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung. Page 340.
- Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 edited by R. Khanam. Page 543
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2007), Historic Cities of the Islamic World, BRILL, p. 260