Hashemites

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House of Hashim
الهاشميون‎‎
Hashemites
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg
Coats of arms of Jordan
Country Hejaz (in present-day Saudi Arabia), Syria, Iraq, Jordan
Parent house Dhawu Awn, a branch of Banu Qatadah, of Banu Hasan, of Banu Hashim, of Quraysh
Titles
Founded 1916 in Hejaz
1920 in Syria
1921 in Iraq and Jordan
Founder Hussein ibn Ali
Final ruler Ali in Hejaz
Faisal I in Syria
Faisal II in Iraq
Current head Jordan: Abdullah II
Iraq: Ra'ad bin Zeid
Deposition 1920 in Syria (Franco-Syrian War)
1925 in Hejaz (Saudi conquest)
1958 in Iraq (14 July Revolution)
Ethnicity Arab
The ceremonial Hashemite banner of the Kingdom of Jordan
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Jordan
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The Hashemites (Arabic: الهاشميون‎‎, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashem), is the ruling royal family of Jordan. The House was also the royal family of Syria (1920), Hejaz (1916–1925), Iraq (1921–1958). The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – also referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

The current dynasty was founded by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, who was appointed as Sharif and Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908, then in 1916 was proclaimed King of the Arab Lands (but only recognized as King of the Hejaz) after initiating the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. His sons Abdullah and Faisal assumed the thrones of Jordan and Iraq in 1921. The dynasty is the oldest ruling dynasty in the Islamic World, and the second-oldest in the world.[1][dubious ]

Members[edit]

HM Queen Noor (King Hussein's widow)

  • TRH Prince Hamzah and Princess Basmah (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • HRH Princess Haya (The King's niece)
    • HRH Princess Zein (The King's niece)
    • HRH Princess Noor (The King's niece)
    • HRH Princess Badiya (The King's niece)
  • TRH Prince Hashim and Princess Fahdah (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • HRH Princess Haalah (The King's niece)
    • HRH Princess Rayet (The King's niece)
    • HRH Princess Fatima (The King's niece)
    • HRH Prince Hussein (The King's nephew)
  • HRH Princess Iman (The King's half-sister)
  • HRH Princess Raiyah (The King's half-sister)
  • HRH Princess Haya (The King's half-sister)
  • TRH Prince Ali and Princess Rym (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • HRH Princess Jalila (The King's niece)
    • HRH Prince Abdullah (The King's nephew)

HRH Princess Muna (The King's mother)

Princess Dina (King Hussein's first wife)

TRH Prince Muhammad and Princess Taghrid (The King's uncle and aunt)

  • TRH Prince Talal and Princess Ghida (The King's cousin and cousin-in-law)
    • HRH Prince Hussein (The King's first cousin once renoved)
    • HRH Prince Muhammad (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • HRH Princess Rajaa (The King's first cousin once removed)

TRH Prince Ghazi and Princess Areej (The King's uncle and aunt)

  • HRH Princess Tasneem (The King's cousin)
  • HRH Prince Abdullah (The King's cousin)
  • HRH Princess Jennah (The King's cousin)
  • HRH Princess Salsabil (The King's cousin)

HRH Princess Firyal (The King's ex-aunt)

TRH Prince Hassan and Princess Sarvath (The King's uncle and aunt)

HRH Princess Basma (The King's aunt)

TRH Prince Ali and Princess Reema (King Hussein's cousin and cousin-in-law)

  • TRH Prince Muhammad and Princess Sima (The King's second cousin and his wife)
  • HRH Prince Hamzah (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Princess Rania (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Princess Karma (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Prince Haidar (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Princess Na'afa (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Princess Rajwa (The King's second cousin)
  • HRH Princess Basma Fatima (The King's second cousin)

TRH Prince Asem and Princess Sana (King Hussein's cousin and cousin-in-law)

History[edit]

The Hashemites claim to trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf (died c. 497 AD), the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although the definition today mainly refers to the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.[2] The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad. The Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad. Muhammad's father had died before he was born, and his mother died while he was a child, so Muhammad was raised by his uncle Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, chief of the Hashemites.[3]

From the 10th century onwards, the sharif (religious leader) of Mecca and its Emir was, by traditional agreement, a Hashemite. Before World War I, Hussein bin Ali of the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan. For some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir of Mecca from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali was appointed to the Emirate of Mecca. He found himself increasingly at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove to secure his family's position as hereditary Emirs.

During and after World War I[edit]

Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule of the Ottomans during the Arab Revolt of 1916.[4] Between 1917 and 1924, after the collapse of Ottoman power, Hussein bin Ali ruled an independent Hejaz, of which he proclaimed himself king, with the tacit support of the British Foreign Office. His supporters are sometimes referred to as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian party". Hussein bin Ali's chief rival in the Arabian Peninsula, the king of the Najd (highlands), Ibn Saud, annexed the Hejaz in 1925 and established his own son, Faysal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as governor. The region was later incorporated into Saudi Arabia.

Hussein bin Ali had five sons:

Family tree[edit]

           
 Hashim ibn Abd Manaf
 
 Abdul-Muttalib
 
         
 Abdullah    Abu Talib
   
 Muhammad  
   
 Fatimah    Ali
         
 
 Hasan
 
 Hasan al-Mu'thannā
 
 Abdullah
 
 Musa al-Djawn
 
 Abdullah
 
 Musa
 
 Muhammad
 
 Abdullah
 
 Muhammad
 
 Abdullah
 
 Ali
 
 Suleiman
 
 Al-Hussein
 
 Issa
 
 Abd al-Karim
 
 Muta'in
 
 Idris
 
 Qatada
 
 Ali
 
 Al-Hassan
 
 Muhammad Abu Numayy
 
 Rumaythah
 
 'Ajlan
 
 Al-Hassan
 
 Barakat I
 
 Muhammad
 
 Barakat II
 
 Abu Numayy II
 
 Al-Hassan
 
 Abdullah
 
 Al-Hussein
 
 Abdullah
 
 Muhsin
 
 Auon, Ra'i al-Hadala
 
 Abdul Mu'een
 
 Muhammad
 
 Ali
 
 Hussein
 
 Abdullah I
 
 Talal
 
 Hussein
 
 Abdullah II
 
 Hussein

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://themuslim500.com/profile/king-abdullah-ii-jordan
  2. ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 48
  3. ^ Time-Life Books, What Life Was Like: In the Land of the Prophet, p. 17
  4. ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 53

External links[edit]